Skip to main content

Full text of "Transactions of the Massachusetts Horticultural Society"

See other formats




TRANSACTIONS 






8 



THE YEAR 18(50. 



I) 



at, 




i 



I 



Passacjwseifs |p0t1tcttltaral Storittj 



7 



-iv 



& 



# 



1> 



I) 






se 



BOSTON: 

PRINTED BY HENRY W. DUTTON & SON, 

90 and 92 Washington Street. 

1 8 ti 1 . 



V 



7** 



TRANSACTIONS 




<zs& 



msu\\mtts ^mtimlkxKl Storittg 



FOR 



THE YEAR 1860. 




BOS T N : 
PRINTED BY HENRY W. DUTTON & SON, 

!)0 AND 92 WASHiyOTQN StKEKT. 

18 61. 



CONTENTS. 



REPORT OF THE COMMITTEE ON ORNAMENTAL GAR- 
DENING, ----------- l 

Woodlawn Cemetery, 1 

Orchard-House of Mr. G. G. Hubbard, ------ l 

Mount Auburn Cemetery, 2 

Mr. William Bacon's Pear Orchard, 3 

Mr. Martin Trautman's Garden and Greenhouses, - 4 

Mr. Azell Bowditch's Garden, -------- 4 

Mr. William Wales' Greenhouses, - - 4 

Garden and Greenhouses of Messrs. Barnes and Washburn, - - 4 

The Nursery and Garden of Hon. Samuel Walker, - 5 

Greenhouse of James Nugent, 5 

Greenhouse of Mr. James McTear, ------- 5 

Premiums and Gratuities awarded for Gardens, &c, - 6 

REPORT OF THE COMMITTEE ON FLOWERS, 7 

Introduced Plants, - 18 

A few Hints on Orchids, 21 

Premiums and Gratuities awarded for Flowers, ----- 33 

REPORT OF THE COMMITTEE ON FRUITS, - - - 45 

Strawberries, t 46 

Cherries — Raspberries — Currants, 47 

Gooseberries — Blackberries — Plums — Peaches — Grapes, - - - 48 

Apples — Pears, - - 49 

Premiums and Gratuities awarded for Fruits, 54 

REPORT OF THE COMMITTEE ON VEGETABLES, 60 

Premiums and Gratuities awarded for Vegetables, 62 

Report of the Committee on the Library, - 66 

Report of the Finance Committee, --74 

Analysis of Cahoon's Rhubarb Wine, - - - - - - - 76 

Zoological Report, 79 

President Breck's Address, 81 

Life Members of the Society, - - - 87 

Annual Members, - 90 



BEPOKTS. 



REPORT OF THE COM. ON ORNAMENTAL GARDENING, 

For the Year 1860. 

BY JAMES F. C. HYDE, SECRETARY. 

The Committee on Ornamental Gardening, in the discharge of their 
duties, have visited a greater number of places during the season than the 
Committee of previous years. In every case, they were kindly received 
and generously entertained. Though the duties have been greater this 
year, and as a natural consequence required a greater amount of time, yet 
we feel that the time has been well spent, and we sincerely hope it will not 
be without its advantages to the Society. 

WOODLAWN CEMETERY. 

On the twenty-first day of June, we visited this charming spot — conse- 
crated to the sacred purpose of a rural cemetery. H. W. Fuller, Esq., 
Treasurer, who has been very active, and, it may be said, the originator of 
the whole thing, was with us, and explained the condition of the grounds 
when they were first purchased, and gave an account of the many improve- 
ments that have taken place, with many other facts that were quite interest- 
ing to us all. Everything in and around the spot is kept in a very neat and 
tasteful manner. We noticed many plants of that beautiful and too much 
neglected shrub, Kalmia latifolia, the most perfect we had ever seen. 
Plants of the rhododendron, and a great variety of shrubs and trees, all 
presenting a very thrifty appearance. We were fully satisfied that this was 
one of the most desirable spots that could be found about Boston for such 
a purpose. The gateway, designed by that excellent artist, Hammatt Bil- 
lings, gives one a very favorable impression as he approaches the grounds ; 
and after he has entered, beautiful evergreens and other trees will attract 
his attention. The originators of this project have great reason to con- 
gratulate themselves on the success of their enterprise, and, we doubt not, 
they will find themselves amply repaid for all the pains they have taken. 
We would have given a more extended and minute account of this de- 
lightful place, if the material had been furnished as desired. 

ORCHARD-HOUSE OF MR. G. G. HUBBARD. 

The next visit, which was made on the twenty- eighth day of June, was 
to the orchard-house of Mr. Hubbard, at Cambridge. This is the only 
1 



A MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

house of the kind in Massachusetts. It is a very neat structure, of the 
following dimensions : length, one hundred and fifteen feet ; width, seven- 
teen feet ; height of back wall, eleven feet ; height of front wall, six and 
one half feet ; front sash, two by four feet, movable ; back sash, three by 
four feet. There is a walk three and one half feet wide, which runs round 
the inside by the wall, and the bed in the centre is filled with beach gravel, 
and on this are placed the tubs containing trees — one hundred and fifty in 
all. At the time the Committee were there, the cherries were ripe ; but 
the other fruits, such as pears, grapes, peaches, nectarines, &c, were green, 
but in a state of forwardness, and presenting a very promising and satis- 
factory appearance. The chairman of the Committee visited the place at 
a later period, and saw the peaches when fully ripe. He was very much 
pleased, both with the appearance and flavor of that fruit. The question 
was asked by our Committee, How much earlier the fruit would ripen in 
the house ? — a question which could not be fully answered at that time, but 
the subsequent experience of Mr. Hubbard has satisfied him that on the 
early pears there is a gain of about ten days, and about a month on later 
pears. All the fruit ripened earlier than the same kind out doors. The 
peaches and apricots were very beautiful, and of fine flavor. The necta- 
rines were poor, and badly cracked. The later peaches were of better 
flavor than those first ripe. 

The experience of Mr. Hubbard, and observations of the Committee, 
seem to justify them in saying, that the orchard house seems to be best 
suited to the growing of fine peaches, and for the fruit thus grown high 
prices may be obtained. Mr. Hubbard deserves great credit for what he 
has done in this department of horticulture, and the Society, no doubt, feel 
a great interest in the success of the enterprise. Time alone will enable 
the Society and the public to form a correct opinion in regard to the profit- 
ableness of this kind of culture. 

The Committee cannot close their notice of this place, without doing 
justice to Mr. Walsh, who has had the entire charge of the orchard-house. 
He has done all that it was possible for a man to do, and has raised very 
fine fruit, and exhibited it at the rooms of the Society. He certainly 
deserves, and should receive, the thanks of every friend of horticulture. 

MOUNT AUBURN CEMETERY. 

The next visit made by your Committee was to this well-known and 
beautiful resting-place of the dead. The day was cool for the season, and 
very favorable for the purposes of your Committee. Though the Society 
have a large pecuniary interest in this cemetery, it is the first time the 
Garden Committee have visited it officially. 

Some hour or two was spent in riding and walking about the grounds, 
with the trustees and invited guests, [n the chapel we found the statues 
of John Adams, John Hancock, John Winthrop, and Judge Story — beau- 
tiful and valuable additions to the attractions of this noble temple. Seldom 
are we permitted to behold works of art more beautiful than these — the 
productions of a Crawford, a Greenough, and a Rogers. These alone well 



GARDEN COMMITTEE'S REPORT. 3 

repay the visitor for his trouble in coming to this place. The reservoir, 
which is of great capacity, was examined. It has been constructed the 
past season on Mount Auburn, near the observatory or tower, and is de- 
signed to hold the water pumped up by stationary engines, for the purpose 
of supplying fountains that are to be erected next season. Arrangements 
are being made to put in a number of catacomb tombs another season. 
Several tombs of the most approved style have been erected the past sea- 
son, under the direction of the excellent and efficient superintendent, Mr. 
Mann. 

Whatever may be said of the attractions and advantages of other ceme- 
teries around Boston, we think it is safe to say that there is not probably 
in the world a cemetery that is in all respects equal to Mount Auburn. It 
has a peculiar charm in the gently undulating surface, hill and dale, its 
beautiful trees and shrubs, its well-kept roads and paths. And when the 
sad and weary mourner withdraws himself from the busy scenes of the 
adjacent city to visit the grave of some near and dear friend, who, having 
bravely fought the battle of life, has found a resting-place beneath the 
solemn shades of Mount Auburn, what thoughts are suggested by the 
scene around him! Though the busy hum of labor just reaches his ear, 
yet here all is peace and rest. 

" Sweet Auburn ! mid thy soothing shades 
And verdurous lanes, how dear to walk j 
Of other scenes, and parted years, 
And friends, to hold familiar talk." 

Your Committee expressed themselves delighted with the fine appearance 
of the grounds, and everything connected therewith. All that is done 
seems to be well done. The place is one of great attractions, and is visited 
and admired by thousands every season, not only from different parts of our 
own land, but by strangers. The cemetery where reposes the dust of our 
dearest friends is no longer a place to be feared and avoided, but an at- 
tractive spot. Let this feeling be encouraged and strengthened, that we 
may lose all the superstitious feelings we may have in regard to burying 
grounds and cemeteries. 

Your Committee, after being kindly entertained at the house of the super- 
intendent, left for their several homes, we trust wiser and better men for 
their visit to Mount Auburn. 

MR. WILLIAM BACON'S PEAR ORCHARD. 

On the ninth day of August, the Committee visited the well-known pear 
orchard of Mr. Bacon, at Roxbury. We found him in his garden, where 
he is always to be found when the weather will permit, such is his love for 
his trees, which seem to be his only pets. Mr. Bacon's orchard is situated 
on what was once low, marsh land, which has been filled up and prepared 
for the trees. A great quantity of spent tan has been used, to render the 
soil light and friable. There is an enclosure, of about two acres, on which 
stands a great number of trees. All seem to be very thrifty and healthy, 



4 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

producing large crops of fine fruit. There is not, perhaps, a more success- 
ful pear grower in this vicinity, or one who takes greater interest in the 
cause, than our aged and respected friend. 

MR. MARTIN TRAUTMAN'S GARDEN AND GREENHOUSES. 

After leaving Mr. Bacon's place, your Committee visited the garden of 
Mr. Trautman, and, though we were not fortunate enough to find the owner 
at home, yet we spent some time in an examination of the fine dahlias, 
hollyhocks, ana" other flowers which were growing in great luxuriance. 
The petunia has received considerable attention here, and many fine double 
sorts have been produced. Mr. Trautman is a successful grower. 

MR. AZELL BOWDITCH'S GARDEN. 

The next place visited was that of Mr. Azell Bowditch, which, though 
newer than most other places your Committee have visited, yet presented 
a fine appearance. The grounds are well laid out, and seem to be profit- 
ably managed. We saw here fine specimens of the American weeping 
willow, a tree admired by many. Mr. Bowditch has two fine greenhouses. 
Many excellent specimen ornamental trees were here seen. 

MR. WILLIAM WALES' GREENHOUSES. 

A short drive brought us to the greenhouse of one of the most successful 
growers in this neighborhood. At this place azaleas have received special 
attention — he having taken many premiums at the exhibitions of the So- 
ciety. Here the new weeping Norway spruce may be seen, and a beautiful 
object it is. When it is ofFered for sale, as we understand it soon will be, 
it will be eagerly sought after to plant on lawns. This is truly one of the 
best weepers we have ever seen. We saw here a fine crop of grapes, which 
were grown in a cheaply constructed house. We left with the impression 
that what was done at this establishment was with a wise reference to 
economy. 

GARDEN AND GREENHOUSES OF MESSRS. BARNES AND 

WASHBURN. 

The grounds of these well-known and successful florists are situated in 
Dorchester. When the Committee were there, the display of new dahlias 
and phloxes were particularly fine, and worthy of mention. This enter- 
prising firm have taken the lead in these two species, while they have not 
been a whit behind the most wide awake of their competitors in other 
respects. New varieties are imported every year, sometimes at great ex- 
pense, to satisfy the increasing demand for new things in the floral king- 
dom. Though the day was somewhat unfavorable, — there having been a 
very heavy rain the day previous, — yet your Committee were well pleased 
with their visit, both to the garden and the greenhouses, though in the latter 
there were not those attractions that may be found at other seasons of the 
year. 



GARDEN COMMITTEE'S REPORT. 



THE NURSERY AND GARDEN OF THE CHAIRMAN OF OUR 
COMMITTEE, HON. SAMUEL WALKER. 

The day being far spent, the Committee accepted a very kind invitation 
from their Chairman to stop and take dinner with him. It is necessary only 
to say, that nothing was wanting on his part to make our visit a pleasant 
one. After having done full justice to the entertainment, the Committee 
visited several nurseries of Mr. Walker, situated in Roxbury and Dor- 
chester. These grounds are mostly covered with pear trees, grown for 
sale- There were many thousand trees, and as good ones, taken together, 
as we were ever permitted to see — well formed, vigorous, and of the best 
sorts. This collection, so far as we know, is unsurpassed in this State. 

The soil of Roxbury seems particularly well adapted, not only to growing 
pears, but to growing pear trees. Land was shown us from which several 
crops of trees had been taken, and those now growing on the same land are 
in a very thriving condition. Mr. McDermott, now a partner of Mr. Walker, 
has had the management of the nurseries in a great measure, and much 
credit is due to him for the skill displayed in producing such fine trees. 

After an hour or two so pleasantly spent, a part of the Committee visited 
the 

GREENHOUSE OF JAMES NUGENT, 

at Jamaica Plains. Mr. Nugent is a constant contributor at the rooms of 
the Society, and in addition to fine bouquets and cut flowers, shows the 
largest and best blackberries that are seen. What he does he does well, 
and we hope and believe he is amply rewarded. His place, though not 
extensive, is well Avorth a visit ; and it gives the Committee great pleasure 
to say that their stay, though of necessity limited, was nevertheless very 
pleasant and profitable. 

The last place visited that day was the 

GREENHOUSE OF MR. JAMES McTEAR. 

This is a new place, and for that reason, perhaps, it could not be expected 
that so good a show would be made. Mr. McTear is a very successful 
grower, especially of heaths — a tribe of plants that are difficult to grow to 
perfection. 

Respectfully submitted for the Committee, 

JAMES F. C. HYDE, Secretary. 



The Committee award the following premiums and gratuities :- 



$20 00 


10 00 


15 00 


20 00 


10 00 



O MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

PREMIUMS AND GRATUITIES AWARDED BY THE GARDEN 

COMMITTEE. 

To Mount Auburn Cemetery, for the good taste, neatness, and skill 

in every department, the first prize of 
To Woodlawn Cemetery, second prize of ... 

To Gardner G.. Hubbard, Esq., for orchard -house, a gratuity of . 
To Messrs. Walker & Co., for best cultivated and neatly kept 

garden and nursery, a gratuity of 
To Mr. A. C. Bowditch, for garden and greenhouses, a gratuity of 
To M. Trautman, for flower garden and greenhouses, a gratuity 

of 10 00 

To Mr. William Wales, for neatly kept grounds and greenhouses, 

a gratuity of . . . . . . 10 00 

To Messrs. Barnes & Washburn, for neatly kept flower garden 

and greenhouses, a gratuity of . . . . 10 00 

To Mr. James Nugent, for greenhouse and garden, a gratuity of 10 00 
To Mr. William Bacon, for a neatly kept and Avell cultivated fruit 

garden, a gratuity of . . . . 10 00 

To Mr. James McTear, for greenhouse, a gratuity of . 10 00 

#135 00 



FLOWER COMMITTEE'S REPORT. 



REPORT OF THE COMMITTEE ON FLOWERS, 

For the Year 1860. 
BY EDWAED S. BAND, JB., CHAIBMAN". 

The past season has been remarkably favorable for the production of 
flowers, and never have the exhibitions of the Society been of so high a 
character, or so well maintained. 

In reviewing the progress we have made, there is much to lead us to 
high hopes for the future, and to incite us to more earnest effort. In size 
our weekly exhibitions have often only been limited by the capacity of our 
hall ; and in the quality and rarity of the displays, no year has been superior 
to that just past. The first exhibitions of the season were very small, and 
during the months previous to the first of May, we had little worthy of 
special notice. After the sale of our old hall, and before we removed to 
our new and very commodious quarters, we had no place where flowers 
could be displayed to advantage, consequently the shows of winter blooming 
plants were smaller than on previous years. The number of contributors 
during the past season has increased ; while some have fallen off, new ex- 
hibitors have come forward, so that the places left vacant are more than filled. 

The first exhibition was on Saturday, February 18th. 

William Wales, Dorchester: Fine azaleas, in profuse bloom and good 
specimens. 

Gustave Evers, Brighton: A fine show of cut flowers, and some good 
camellias ; also a new tender rose, unnamed. 

Saturday, March 3d. Antane Apple, Cambridge: A fine new azalea — 
General Baumgarcher — and a good specimen of Erica caffra alba. 

Gustave Evers: A plant of variegated leaved daisy; quite a novelty, and 
very pretty. 

Saturday, May 5th. William C. Strong, Brighton : A seedling pelargo- 
nium, very pretty, of bushy habit, and good bloomer. 

The annual spring exhibition began on Tuesday, May 22d, and continued 
till Saturday, the 26th instant. Never have we had a finer display of choice 
greenhouse plants, and never have the plants been more tastefully arranged. 
The new variegated plants were conspicuous, and very numerous in all of 
the prize collections. Though many of our largest cultivators did not con- 
tribute to the exhibition, the hall was well filled, and all the displays were 
creditable. 

By far the finest display of rare plants, and the greatest variety, was in 
the collection of William T. Merrifield, of Worcester. This collection 
consisted almost entirely of variegated leaved plants and lycopodiums. We 
especially noticed Begonias rex, Madam Wagner, Zanthina, Zanthina 
Reichenhaimii, splendida argentea, Plectranthus concolor pictus, Croton 
tricolor and variegatum, Dieflenbachia maculata, Caladium bicolor, pic- 
turatum, atropurpurea, poecile, pictum, and Chantinii, Maranta alba 



8 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

lineata, Dracena ferrea and terminalis, Hoya variegata, a variegated leaved 
Dioscorea, and many other new plants. Among ferns and lycopods, 
Adiantum capillus veneris, Davillea bullata, Gymnogramma chrysophylla 
and sulphurea, Selaginella coesia, coesia arborea, circinalis, densa, Wil- 
denovii, lepidophylla, denticulata. There were no fine specimen plants in 
this collection 3 all were small, but in vigoi of growth and freshness of foli- 
age, as well as in form and culture, they were not equalled by any collec- 
tion displayed. 

The show made by Messrs. Evers and Comley was excellent, and very 
creditable. They excelled chiefly in ferns and begonias, both of which 
classes of plants were well grown and in good health. 

A description of some of the rare plants exhibited may not be amiss. 

In Mr. Merrifield's collection we notice, as before said, — 

Caladium Chantini. — A lovely plant, belonging to the Arum family, and 
remarkable for the beauty of its leaves. The foliage is of the most vivid 
green, beautifully blotched with red and white. No words can well describe 
this beautiful plant. As yet it is rare in Europe, and is in the possession 
of but few in this country. The shape of the leaves somewhat resembles 
that of the common calla lily, though more rounding. It is a stove plant, 
requiring a high temperature to develop the markings of the foliage. 

Caladium marmoratum. — In growth like the above. Foliage dark green, 
marbled with white. A strong-growing and desirable variety. Like the 
last, a stove plant. 

Caladium bicolor picturatum. — A very handsome variety. Foliage dark 
green, spotted with white ; habit of plant very graceful. 

Caladium atro purpureum. — A strong-growing variety, with dark green 
leaves and stalk, and leaf veins dark purple, making it a very showy plant 
in a collection. 

The flowers of all the plants above mentioned are comparatively in- 
significant, the plant being cultivated for the beauty of its foliage. As a 
general rule, we find the flowers of variegated leaved plants are inferior. 

Hoya variegata. — All our readers know the common, but not less beautiful 
wax plant; here we have a variety with variegated leaves, "which is a 
charming addition. 

Gymnogramma chrysophylla, or golden fern ; a beautiful species — the 
young fronds being covered with golden powder. There is also G. Peru- 
viana, of which the fronds are covered with silver powder; whence its 
name, Silver fern, which has, we believe, never been exhibited. 

Lycopodium densum. — A lovely little plant, which a hasty observer would 
fail to notice. Its little fronds are most delicate and beautiful. 

Dieffmbachia pida. — A tall-growing plant, with reedy foliage, richly 
marked with white. Its native locality is the hot reeking swamps of the 
Amazon, so the more water and heat we supply the better we succeed in 
its culture. 

Maranta lineata alba. — A species of the plant producing the arrow root 
of commerce. Leaves long and stiff, beautifully veined with lines of pure 



FLOWER COMMITTEE'S REPORT. 9 

white. There is a variety called Rubra lineata, which was lost from our 
collection a few years since. 

Echites picta. — A climber, with long, narrow leaves, veined with white. 

Arum bicolor. — A beautiful species, having arrow-shaped leaves, the 
centre of which is deeply colored with dark red. It is a strikingly beautiful 
plant, of easy culture. 

We must, with regret, turn from this collection, in which, though it 
contained more than fifty plants, we failed to discover any not worthy of 
extended notice. 

Of pelargoniums, or " geraniums," as they are improperly called, by far 
the finest plants were exhibited by William C. Strong, of Brighton ; though 
for perfection of bloom those shown by Messrs. Hovey excelled. Mr. Strong 
received the first prize, both for the show and fancy varieties. A beautiful 
little seedling, of the "fragrant fancy" class, named Nelly Bly, was also 
shown by Mr. Strong. It is a little gem ; color, white, beautifully marked 
with dark, and of neat growth and foliage. 

It would be a wrong to leave Mr. Strong's collection without mentioning 
his gloxinias, which were in superb bloom. This summer flowering bulb 
is of the easiest culture in a greenhouse, and no one having the means of 
growing it should be without it. A plant two years old will give more 
bloom during the summer than any plant one can procure ; and the colors 
are so various as of themselves to form a bouquet. We give the names 
of those exhibited by Mr. Strong, all of which are superior: Sir Hugo, 
Erecta rex, Heliodorus, Beatrice d'Este, Guido Reni. 

We next come to the fine collection of Messrs. Evers and Comley, which 
contained some of the finest plants exhibited. 

Begonia zanthina gandavensis. — A very pretty variety, with dark nerved 
leaves. 

Begonia rex. — A fine specimen of this fine foliaged variety. 

Begonia Queen of England. — A lovely variety. Leaves large, dark 
green, with broad silver band. This plant should have the full sunlight to 
be seen in perfection. 

Begonia zanthina Reichenhaimii. — A variety with leaves of silver purple 
on the upper side, dark reddish purple below ; by far the best of the 
varieties of zanthina. 

Begonia Madam Wagner. — A pretty and very free-growing variety, with 
leaves dark red on the under side and silvery above. 

Begonia grandis. — A very large-growing variety, with dark green and 
silvery leaves, covered with long red hairs. A showy plant. 

We have mentioned a few of the fine begonias exhibited. The plant is 
one of the easiest culture, and some of the varieties should be in every 
greenhouse. Those with variegated foliage generally require more heat 
than the other varieties, but all are grown with great ease, and, with plenty 
of pot room, bloom freely. 

Grevillea robusta. — A handsome plant, with delicate foliage. 

Tillansia splendens. — A curious plant, resembling the crown of a pine- 



10 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

apple ; the leaves striped with black purple and green. It is impatient of 
water, like all of its family, and is often killed by too much moisture. 

Dracena gracilis. — A pretty variety of the dragon tree, with narrow 
drooping leaves, dark green, slightly edged with pink. 

Thyrsacanihus rutilans. — A fine specimen, hanging with its showy crim- 
son flowers. 

Maranta regalis. — A diminutive plant of this fine new variety. A year 
hence we hope to see it in fine condition. 

A splendid collection of ferns, the culture of which has lately become so 
popular in England, came from the same exhibitors. The collection con- 
tained about forty varieties, very few of which had ever been shown at our 
exhibitions, and attracted much attention by their grace and beauty of foli- 
age, their peculiar fructification and elegance of growth. 

In the collection of Marshall P. Wilder, we notice a well-grown plant 
of Cissus discolor, which attracted general attention ; a pretty plant of 
Rhyncospermum jasminoides, well covered with its fragrant white blossoms; 
a small plant of Pleroma elegans, always noticeable for its neat glossy 
foliage and large purple flowers ; and many more common plants, in fine 
bloom. 

The only orchids, or air plants, in the room, with one exception, were 
shown by Edward S. Rand. 

Maxillaria Harrisoni. — Flower large, white and purple, and delightfully 
fragrant in the morning. 

Lycaste aromatica. — A large plant, in profuse bloom — the flowers dif- 
fusing a delightful odor like cinnamon all around. 

William H. Spooner, Jr., exhibited six large verbenas, well grown, but 
not in profuse bloom. 

A fine plant of the variegated -leaved Farfugium grande was shown by 
James McTear. It was one of the first times we had seen the plant in 
bloom. The flower resembles a small sunflower, and is not a recommenda- 
tion to the plant, which should be more generally cultivated, as it is of the 
easiest culture, and will grow in the cold house or in a parlor. It is said 
to be one of the few plants which can withstand the smoke, etc., of London. 
It is now quite common, and can be procured of any gardener. 

We noticed in the collection of Martin Trautman a fine plant of the 
pretty and graceful fern — Adiantum cuneatum ; a small plant of Mussandra 
frondosa, conspicuous from its snow-white floral leaves ; and a collection 
of the double petunias, in raising which he has been so successful. 

A choice lot of plants came from the varied stores of the Cambridge 
Botanic Garden, among which we may specially mention an Australian 
Swainsonia, bearing clusters of purple and pink pea-shaped flowers; a well 
grown plant of Begonia rex; the curious flowered Passiflora diffbrmis ; a 
seedling geranium, rose-scented, having a very fine cut leaf, named Gera- 
nium dissectum ; and a beautiful lot of cut flowers, including passion 
flowers and magnolias in variety. 

A collection of some fifty fine plants came from the greenhouses of 
Messrs. Hovey ; we specially noticed a fine specimen Azalea Gledstanesii. 



FLOWER COMMITTEE'S REPORT. 11 

Oncidium jlexuosum. — The best specimen of this orchid we have ever 
seen. It was in profuse bloom, covered with its pretty flowers, resembling 
butterflies. 

JEschynanthus Boschyanus. — A fine plant, the shoots hanging with the 
crimson flowers protruded from the black sepals. 

Statice Holfordii. — The first time this pretty plant has been exhibited. It 
is well worthy of general introduction. 

Dieffenbachia maculata.-— Sometimes called D. picta. A beautiful plant, 
of which we have spoken above, which should be in every hothouse. 

Aralia reticulata. — A very pretty plant, with graceful drooping long 
leaves. 

Lilium Brownii. — A well-grown plant of this rare and pretty lily. 

Rhopala corcovadensis. — A beautiful plant, it is said of most elegant foli- 
age, which has never been shown at our exhibitions. There is an inferior 
variety often sent out under this name, but we have no doubt of the genu- 
ineness of the plant exhibited. 

It would be wearisome did we attempt to give only a mention of the cut 
flowers exhibited. We cannot, however, neglect the large contribution 
of Joseph Breck, which was not entered for premium, and the choice show 
of Mrs. Benjamin Bruce, of Brookline. We can only mention, Andromeda 
polifolia, Trillium erectum and grandiflorum, and a variety of native plants, 
with many hardy species from the garden. 

A frame of pressed flowers, shown by A. C. Bowditch, attracted much 
attention by its neatness and the perfect preservation of the colors. 

A pretty little floral design came from J. Egerton. 

Evers & Comley made a fine show of native plants, and exhibited a new 
double corollaed fuschia — Sir Colin Campbell. 

D. W. Lincoln, of Worcester, some fine blooms of Nymphsea ccerulea. 

Mrs. John E. Thayer, fine cut specimens of pelargoniums. 

On Saturday, June 9th, a very fine display of named Iris was made by 
William H. Spooner, Jr., and some fine magnolias were shown by John A. 
Kenrick. 

Saturday, June 16th. Another fine display of Iris from William H. 
Spooner, Jr., and a plant of the new Dianthus Heddewigii from Messrs. 
Hovey, now first exhibited. It is most valuable as a variety, and from the 
size and number of its flowers must prove attractive, both for the green- 
house and the border, but we confess it is not a favorite of ours. 

June 23d. A fine specimen of Begonia Madam Wagner, from Edward 
S. Rand. 

Dianthus Heddewigii, from Martin Trautman. 

A splendid collection of cut flowers, arranged with great taste, from 
Messrs. Hovey. 

The annual rose show of the Society opened on the twenty-fifth of June, 
and continued two days. From the fineness of the weather, which had 
been most favorable for the development of the flowers, we had expected a 
remarkably fine display. In this we were disappointed, for the show was 



12 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

only good. There were many fine roses, but the display was by no means 
so large, nor were the flowers as fine, as we had good reason to expect. 

The largest and finest display was made by Eliphalet Stone, of Dedham. 
This collection did not compete for the prize, as the flowers were unnamed. 

A fine display, from Charles Copeland, arrived too late for competition. 

We add a list of the principal exhibitors, with the varieties : — 

From Warren Heustis, Belmont : Roses, Giant de Battelles, Mrs. Eliot, 
La Reine, Caroline Lancezeney, Triomph de l'Exposition, Four Seasons, 
Barronne Prevost, Perfection, Cardinal Patrizzi, Robert, Caroline de Sansal, 
General Jacquemont, Paul Recoult, Mad's Tradeaux, Rivers, Therese, 
Appert, Place, Rival, Volta, Duchess d'Orleans, Jules Margottin, Alice 
Le Roy. Also, Bourbons, Louise Odier, Reveil l'Arbey, Paxton, George 
Peabody, Casarnie Souchet — a very fine display. 

From G. G. Hubbard, Cambridge : 20 varieties of June roses. Also, col- 
lection of roses. 

From Evers & Comley, Brighton : 2 large bouquets, 25 Perpetual roses, 
among which were La Reine, Baronne Prevost, General Jacquemont, Mrs. 
Eliot, Caroline de Sansal, Rivers, Mad. Plantier, Eugene Sue, Due de 
Cambridge (new), Anne de Dusback (new), Prince Albert, Sydonie, Mad. 
Trudeaux, Duchess of Sutherland, and others — a very fine collection. Also, 
cut flowers in variety. 

From James McTear, Roxbury : Fuchsia, Rose of Castile, 10 Hardy Per- 
petual roses, 4 bouquets. 

From Francis Parkman, Jamaica Plain : Hybrid Perpetual roses, Caro- 
line de Sansal, Pseony, General Jacquemont, Baronne Prevost, Memi, Eu- 
gene Sue, Giant of Battles, Mad. Laffay, Standard of Marengo, Duchess 
of Sutherland, Mrs. Elliot, Napoleon, Comtesse de Belleval, Auguste Mie. 
Also, Mad. Andry, Le Grecceaux, Robin Hood, Marquise de Bocella, 
Pseony, Mrs. Elliot, Lady Alice Peel, Comtesse du Shalet. Also, Moss, 
Celinda, Blush, Jeanne de Montfort, Luxembourg, Mongadore, Cristata — 
very fine. 

From M. P. Wilder, Dorchester: Collection of Moss, Perpetual, and June 
roses ; I fine specimen Stephanotus floribundus. 

From James Nugent, Jamaica Plain : Tender roses, Saffrano,. Souvenir, 
Undulata, Yellow Tea, Clara Sylvane, Camellia Tea, Odorata, White Tea, 
and others. 

From John A. Kenrick, Newton: Roses, paeonies, honeysuckle, tulip 
tree, kalmia, azaleas, weigela, wisteria, &c. Magnolia macrophylla. 

From Miss E. M. Harris, Jamaica Plain : Wreath of roses. 

From Hovey & Co., Cambridge : Hardy Perpetual roses, Madam Der- 
rage, Pius IX, Mathurin Regnier, La Reine, General Jacquemont, Souvenir 
de Leveson Gower, Baronne Prevost, Leon de Combat, Jules Margottin, 
Madam Vedd, Dr. Marx, Sydonie, Dennis Popen, Prince Albert, Giant of 
Battles, Cornet, Duchess of Sutherland, Souvenir de la Reine Angleterre, 
Souvenir de la Exposition, General Delarge — a fine collection. 

From Charles Copeland, Wyoming: 183 varieties Perpetual roses; 50 



FLOWER COMMITTEE'S REPORT. 13 

varieties Jane roses ; 28 varieties Moss roses ; 15 varieties Hybrid Per- 
petual Moss. 

From A. Apple, Cambridge: 25 varieties Perpetual roses; 15 varieties 
Perpetual roses ; 30 varieties June roses ; collection of roses. 

The only pot-plants shown were a very fine specimen of Stephanotus 
floribundus, from Marshall P. Wilder ; the new and very beautiful varie- 
gated fern Pteris argyrea and a Rondaletia speciosa, from Hovey & Co.; 
and a small but very beautiful specimen of the rare variegated-leaved plant, 
Pavetta Bourbonica, from Edward S. Rand. Also, a new fuchsia Rose of 
Castile, by James McTear. 

July 14th. A good collection of pot-plants from Evers & Comley, and 
Hovey & Co. 

July 21st. A seedling carnation, by J. F. C. Hyde, of great substance, 
good form, and marking; by far the best seedling raised in this country 
which has come under our observation. 

August 11th. The finest and largest balsams we have seen, shown by 
F. Thieler. 

August 18th. A fine display of Quisqualis sinensis, from Hovey & Co.; 
Gesneria splendissima, from Martin Trautman, remarkable for fine foliage ; 
Gesneria Geroltiana, from Evers & Comley, a pretty variety ; a fine dis- 
play of named Phlox and Gladiolus, from Hovey & Co., Wm. H. Spooner, 
Jr., and Barnes & Washburn. 

August 25th. Fine roses, from Eliphalet Stone ; fine gladiolus, from 
Joseph Breck and Wm. H. Spooner, Jr. 

September 8th. A small plant of Peristeria alata, Espirito sancto, or 
Dove plant of Panama, from Wm. Wheelwright of Newburyport. This is 
the first time this pretty orchid has been shown at our exhibitions ; though 
by no means uncommon it is rarely flowered ; a fine display of dwarf 
asters, from Joseph Breck ; fine dahlias, from Hovey & Co.; and gladiolus, 
from Wm. H. Spooner, Jr. 

The Annual Exhibition was this year held in the Music Hall, and was a 
decided success. The floral show was far superior to that of past years, in 
botli quantity and quality of the flowers and plants. We were no longer 
frightened and horrified at those monstrosities called floral designs, nor was 
the Hall decorated with amaranthine and immortelle crosses, pinned up by 
a huge rosette in the shape of a large yellow dahlia or marigold. 

Instead, we had quite a number of neat pretty little baskets, showing into 
what dainty contrasts flowers could be arranged, and what pretty effects 
could be produced by skilful fingers. 

Pot plants were finer than ever before, and conspicuous among them 
were numbers of the new variegated plants, now so popular, and many new 
■and rare ferns and lycopods. 

A rich display was made by Messrs. Hovey & Co., who exhibited, for the 
first time, Pteris tricolor, a new variegated fern, very beautiful. 

Evers & Comley made a most beautiful display of choice plants, in- 
cluding many rare ferns, and large specimen plants. 



14 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

Martin Trautman sent a very varied display of fine plants ; none, how- 
ever, of large size. 

Wrn. T. Merrifield, of Worcester, sent the same plants shown by him at 
the Spring Exhibition, and other rare plants. 

In Hovey & Co.'s collection was a fine plant of the Pampas Grass, (Gy- 
nerium argenteum.) 

Specimen plants were fine ; and, as never before, none were grown on 
the long-legged beanpole plan, but all were well bushed, pretty well grown 
plants. We especially notice Cyanophyllum magnificum and Assamicum, 
from Hovey & Co. ; Stephanotus floribundus and Marantia fasciata, from 
Evers & Comley ; Begonia rex, Erica Wilmoriana and Maranta zebrina, 
from G. G. Hubbard. 

Bouquets were very poor, and some had to be removed from the table by 
the Committee. It is time some remedy was devised for the practice of 
admitting masses of flowers tied into a bunch and called a bouquet, to ex- 
hibition, and allowing the owner an admission ticket as a premium for his 
or her want of taste. 

A special prize of five dollars, for the best parlor bouquet, and five dollars 
for the best hand bouquet was offered by a friend of the Society, which 
prizes were awarded at the Annual Exhibition, and the bouquets competing 
were marked by tasteful arrangement, and were all well made and hand- 
some. 

Of Orchids we had no display worthy of notice. 

Of cut flowers the show was fine ; Messrs. Breck, Hovey, Stone, Barnes 
& Washburn, and Copeland were the chief contributors. 

Leaf flowers and fruit of the curious Trichosanthes colubrina were shown 
by Edward S. Rand, Jr., and finer specimens of the fruit, with a large dis- 
play of native plants, came from the Cambridge Botanic Garden. 

A fine display of Passiflora quadrangularis was made by Martin Traut- 
man. 

In the collection of Evers & Comley the plants worthy of special notice 
were Dracena gracilis, very pretty ; Grevillea robusta, a plant of neat and 
fino habit; Callicoma serratifolia, foliage resembling that of the chestnut 
tree, delicate growth ; Tillansia splendens, good ; Marantia eximia, fine ; 
Jasminum hirsutum, very fragrant and pretty ; Latania Bourbonica, a very 
small plant ; Begonia grandis, a fine specimen. 

James Nugent: a fine plant of Hydrangea, variegated-leaved, very well 
grown. 

Hovey & Co. : Pteris tricolor, very fine and rare, now first exhibited ; 
Pteris argyrea, previously described ; Maranta pulchella, very pretty ; 
Maranta fasciata, larger than the preceding, and a very handsome varie- 
gated plant; Caladium Chantinii, very fine ; Yucca aloefolia picta, a pretty 
plant; Pandanus javanicus variegatus, very remarkable for its variegated 
leaves; a fine lot of begonias; Gynerium argenteum (Pampas grass); Pan- 
icum sulcatum, a fine grass. 

Martin Trautman : Rondaletia anomala, a new variety, now first exhibit- 
ed, — with us it has done well as a bedding plant ; Croton tricolor, always 



FLOWER COMMITTEE'S REPORT. 15 

pretty ; Doodia caudata, fine fern ; Adiantum formosum, a fine specimen ; 
Caladium pictum, fine. 

William T. Merrifield : Arundo donax varium, very pretty; Dioscorea 
zebrina; Aphelandra Roi Leopold, fine; Croton pictum and variegatum, 
always fine ; Marantas bicolor, eximia, Warscewicsii, Liniata alba and 
rosea, all good ; Aspedistra elatior foliis variegata ; Echites picta, always 
pretty; Farfugium grande ; Begonia argentea splendens, and many others; 
Bilbergia acaulis zebrina, curious ; Arum bicolor ; and a fine display of 
ferns and lycopods. 

Two pretty variegated native plants — Goodyria pubescens and Chemo- 
phila variegata — were shown by Dennis Murray. Also, a huge specimen 
of the very rare fungus, Sparassis crispa. We learn from good authority 
that this is the first specimen ever discovered in this vicinity. 

A very severe frost, on the night of September 28th, put a sudden stop 
to all floral exhibitions. Nothing has, since then, been shown at the hall 
worthy of notice, if we except a very fine and rare orchid, exhibited Octo- 
ber 27th, by Edward S. Rand — a good specimen of Ccelogyne Wallechiana, 
in profuse bloom. This rare plant has, we believe, never been bloomed or 
exhibited in this vicinity. 

During the past season many of the plants offered for premium have 
possessed points of superior merit ; but others have fallen far below the 
standard, and in many cases, as will be seen by reference to the prize lists, 
the prizes have been withheld. This course, though exceedingly unpopular 
with exhibitors, — many of whom imagine themselves entitled to a premium 
because they are the only ones competing, though their flowers may be 
very inferior, — should be persistently followed by the Flower Committee, as 
thus only can the standard of excellence be maintained, and poor and in- 
ferior plants and flowers be excluded from our exhibitions. 

The schedule of prizes offered this past year has proved popular, mainly 
because it appropriated more money, and distributed it more widely. It 
has proved advantageous, because, by offering fixed prizes for each weekly 
exhibition, the hall has always presented an appearance creditable alike to 
the Society and the exhibitors. 

We now pass to the review of the season. 

Camellias have not been exhibited worthy of the prizes, which were 
accordingly withheld. Why is it, that when all our greenhouses are filled 
with the finest varieties, we never can have a decent exhibition of camel- 
lias ? If there was no ambition to excel, surely the prize is sufficient pecu- 
niary inducement. 

Ericas : Not a plant has been shown worthy of notice, if we except one 
from G. G. Hubbard at the annual exhibition. It is a disgrace to our florists 
that these beautiful plants are so neglected. 

Epacris : Some fine kinds were shown by Gustave Evers, but not in 
sufficient numbers to merit the prizes. We know of fine collections of this 
beautiful tribe of plants near Boston. 

Greenhouse azaleas : As on previous years, the best came from William 
Wales ; still, this year's show was far inferior to those of former years, and 



16 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

the second prize only was awarded. This plant is receiving more attention 
from our gardeners, as it richly deserves. 

Parlor bouquets have, during the season, been entirely neglected ; none 
have been exhibited except at the annual exhibition. Hand bouquets have 
been but little better ; few have been shown, and those mostly by James 
Nugent, James McTear, and Martin Trautman, whose bouquets are always 
good. 

Show pelargoniums : Exhibited only by Messrs. Hovey and William C. 
Strong. Those of the former excelled in profusion of bloom ; those of the 
latter in beauty of growth, habit, and form. 

To fancy pelargoniums the same remarks apply. 

Fuchsias have been wholly neglected. Some new varieties, chiefly those 
with double corolla, have been shown. It is doubtful whether this is an 
improvement, and whether we shall ever have a fuchsia which for real 
beauty will excel the old Globosa. 

Calceolarias and cinerarias have not been shown. The same may be 
said of greenhouse verbenas, of which we have seen no new imported 
seedlings which are worthy of mention. The sudden fancy for ferns and 
variegated begonias seems to have taken attention from these formerly 
popular show plants. Half a dozen plants of verbenas were shown at the 
opening exhibition by William H, Spooner, Jr. — well grown, but unfortu- 
nately not in bloom, requiring some ten days' sun to make them show 
plants. 

Greenhouse plants, as may be gathered from our extended notices, have 
never been better. Great variety and fine specimens have been the fea- 
tures of our exhibitions. 

Orchids have been seldom exhibited. We have fine collections in the 
vicinity of Boston, but amateurs are unwilling to expose choice and tender 
plants in our changing climate, and to the uncertain care of an exhibition 
hall. These plants should be seen in the hothouse. 

Cut flowers have been unusually fine. Never has our hall appeared so 
well, never has the quantity been so great, the varieties so numerous, or so 
many rare plants been shown. It would be claiming too much to say we 
have had no poor exhibitions, but we certainly have had none which would 
not be far superior to the best of former years. 

Great credit is due to Joseph Breck for his large and varied exhibitions, 
for which, though they have often held the first rank, he has constantly 
refused to accept either premium or gratuity. 

Dennis Murray has made large displays of native plants, and has shown 
specimens of everything the woods or fields afford. Like King Solomon 
of old, he professes an acquaintance with every plant, "from the cedar tree 
which is in Lebanon, even to the hyssop which groweth out of the wall;" 
and we should judge the greater portion of his friends have been on exhi- 
bition in the bottles of the Society during the past season. Some were 
very rough-looking customers, others very modest and pretty, and all have 
a botanical interest. He has also shown his friends as pressed specimens, 



FLOWER COMMITTEE'S REPORT. 17 

on bits of stone, wood, and bark, and in a variety of costumes, too numerous 
to mention. 

The largest contributors of cut flowers have been Hovey & Co., Antane 
Apple, James McTear, James Nugent, Eliphalet Stone, William C. Strong, 
William H. Spooner, Jr.. Franklin Winship, Martin Trautman, and, late in 
the season, Barnes & Washburn. 

Hyacinths have only been shown in displays of cut flowers. 
Pansies : Nothing new, or any marked improvement. 
Specimen plants have never been finer. 

Tulips : The same old story. Does any one now grow a show tulip ? 
Hardy azaleas : How is it we never get a good display of this beautiful 
shrub ? 

Shrubby pseonies : First prize to Marshall P. Wilder, who, having the 
largest plants and the greatest variety, always makes the best display. 

Herbaceous pseonies are improving. Some of the new varieties are addi- 
tions, and others are quite as good as the older kinds. 

Pinks: Not one shown for premium. Shall a lack of exhibitors lead us 
to withdraw the prize ? 

Rhododendrons : Only shown in collections of cut flowers. 
Of roses we have spoken in describing the rose show. Tender roses 
have been shown in great variety, and there are some new kinds which 
promise well. Gloire de Dijon holds its own as one of the best, — a mag- 
nificent flower and a free bloomer. 

Summer phloxes : The blooms were destroyed previous to the exhibition 
by a severe rain storm, and none were shown worthy of the premium. 

Carnations and picotees, though not as fine as last year, were very good. 
The exhibitors were Hovey & Co., Jonathan French, and James Nugent. 

Hollyhocks were very fine. The best were shown by Evers & Comley, 
Hovey & Co., and William H. Spooner, Jr. 

Gloxinias have been neglected, though fine plants of choice varieties 
have been shown by William C. Strong ; and cut flowers of many beautiful 
kinds by Antane Apple. 

Autumn phloxes were shown in variety by Joseph Breck, Hovey & Co , 
Antane Apple, and Barnes & Washburn. The quality remains as in pre- 
vious years. 

Petunias: A fine display by Hovey & Co. and by Martin Trautman. 
The double seedlings of the latter are equal to any of the imported varie- 
ties, and well worthy of general cultivation. 

Gladiolus, gandavensis and floribundus varieties. The past season has 
witnessed great improvement in this beautiful flower. How little was it 
thought, when the now-seldom-seen Gladiolus natalensis or psittacinus was 
introduced with such a flourish of trumpets and as something wonderful, 
that such perfect flowers, specimens of beauty, could be originated ? 
Choice collections have been displayed by William H. Spooner, Jr., Barnes 
& Washburn, Hovey & Co., Joseph Breck, and Antane Apple. 

German asters : Very good, though not as fine as the previous year. In 
some places, the hot, dry weather parched up the flowers. Some pretty 
new varieties have been shown by Joseph Breck. 
2 



18 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

Verbenas have not done remarkably well. The show, however, was 
fair, the trusses good, and blooms large. The only seedling of merit we 
have seen is a blue or rather purple variety, raised by J. F. C. Hyde. While 
it wants many of the marks of a perfect flower, it has much to recommend 
it. The color is new, the habit good, and it is the most fragrant verbena 
we are acquainted with. It is well worthy of a further trial. 

Dahlias have been less exhibited than formerly, and seem to be slowly 
going out of popular favor. As we predicted two years ago, their place 
will be filled by hollyhocks and gladiolus, of both of which the new varie- 
ties are magnificent, while the dahlia remains almost in statu quo. The 
flowers exhibited were all good — those of Hovey & Co. excelling in form 
and color, those of Barnes & Washburn in size. The prize was awarded 
to the latter under a mistake, and the error discovered when too late to 
alter the award. Size is the last thing to be considered in judging a show 
flower; both form and color take precedence. Some very good blooms 
were exhibited by James Nugent. 

Achimenes have not been exhibited. This flower is of too delicate a 
nature to bear transportation to the exhibition room ; its proper place is in 
the greenhouse, where alone it can be seen to perfection. 

The success of efforts of the last year should only stimulate us to more 
earnest zeal for the future ; and we trust that while another year may in- 
troduce to us many novelties in the floral, it will not, like the past, be 
marked by a neglect of old and well proved favorites. 

The Committee take pleasure in laying before the Society the following 
articles on floriculture : — 

Introduced Plants, by Charles J. Sprague. 

A few Notes on Orchids, compiled by the Chairman. 



INTRODUCED PLANTS. 



BY CHARLES J. SPRAGUE. 



While busily occupied in the energetic and absorbing attempts which 
we make to increase the size and splendor of our garden and greenhouse 
exotics, or to double the weight and girth of our vegetables, we are apt to 
ignore, or at least neglect, points of botanical interest, which, though more 
specially connected with the theory of the science, are still worthy the 
attention of all interested in the pursuit. Among these is the occurrence 
of foreign plants in our fields and by our roadsides. At first sight this 
does not seem to possess any particular interest, and yet the establishment 
of the period of introduction of any plant into a country distant from its 
native habitat is of no little importance to Botanical Geography. The sub- 
ject has elicited the attention and careful study of some of the first minds 
employed in the study of botanical science. It has now become a matter 



INTRODUCED PLANTS. 



19 



of speculation as to the primal origin of several of the cultivated plants ; 
while it is difficult, in many instances, to decide whether certain plants are 
native in special districts or have been introduced at some remote period. 
Some species follow man wherever he goes, like the plantain, and others 
are carried by him as food, and have established thetnselves as firmly as 
the native plants of the regions into which they have been introduced. 
To establish the certainty of this introduction and fix its date therefore, are 
points of interest, the more important as the period becomes more remote. 

There are few places which afford such an abundance and variety of 
naturalized foreign plants as the vicinity of Boston. The number of plants 
recorded in Dr. Gray's Manual of the Northern States, as being acclimated 
in that region, is 260 out of 2351, or just one ninth of the whole. Of this 
number more than one third are to be found more or less commonly around 
Boston. The causes of this are the immigration of people of many nations 
who have brought with them, in their apparel or luggage, the seeds of the 
commoner plants of their own country, which would be likely to adhere to 
them ; seeds mingled with the grass seed imported here ; and others 
attached to the many articles of merchandise coming constantly into the 
country. 

Some of these have spread themselves so widely as to have become in- 
tolerable pests to the agriculturist, who does not know, perhaps, that the 
enemy he seeks to destroy is a foreign one. It is a singular fact, that 
nearly all the weeds which have become the special curse of New England 
farmers are introduced plants. Buttercups, the plaything of children, and 
the overspreading plague of some grass regions, are from Europe. Some 
localities in Maine are absolutely golden in the season of their flowering. 
The Barberry, which has so thoroughly established itself in this vicinity, is 
European, and has not elsewhere taken such a hold. Celandine, which 
fills our waste places with its delicate green leaves at the very beginning 
of spring, and displays its pretty yellow blossoms later, with which children 
anoint their warty fingers to rid them of their excrescences, is European. 
The Water Cress, common in our markets in spring, the Hedge Mustard 
which sends up its gaunt spikes of fruit so commonly by the roadsides, the 
Shepherd's Purse, covering waste places everywhere with its early green, 
the Wild Radish, which has become a very troublesome field weed, are all 
European. Among the common and more or less troublesome usurpers of 
the soil are St. John's Wort, Bladder Campion, Mouse-Ear Chickweed, 
Purslane, Common Mallow, or cheeses as the children call them, nearly all 
the Clovers, May Weed, and White Weed. This last is a thorough plague in 
grass lands. Its strong roots kill out the grass and are difficult to extirpate. 
Its origin here is differently explained. Some say it was introduced as a 
pretty flower: others that it was brought over, like many others, with grass 
seed or in luggage. In Europe it is a pet of the poets, and, under the 
romantic names of Ox Eye Daisy and Marguerite, it has been celebrated 
in verse. Here it is universally execrated as an intolerable pest. The 
Canada Thistle is not by any means a Canadian visitor. It comes from 
Europe, and its legion of seeds have spread it broadcast over the land. 



20 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

The Burdock, equally common and the sport of children, comes from the 
same source. Succory or Cicory has established itself thoroughly around 
Boston. This is the same plant cultivated abroad for the " Chicory," which 
is used to adulterate coffee ; the root being used after roasting and grind- 
ing. Here it is only known for its beautiful starry blue flowers. The 
False Dandelion has completely established itself in our grass lands, and 
sends up its branching flower-stem in autumn, covering our parterres with 
its yellow blossoms. Many unquestionably think it a late blossoming of 
the true Dandelion, which is quite a different plant. Other worthless 
visitors are* the Low Thistles, Mullein, Toad Flax, Blue Verbena, White 
Verbena, Motherwort, Bindweed, JYightshade, Thorn Apple, all of the Pig- 
weeds, all of the Amaranths, Smart Weed, Bitter and Curled Dock, and 
Field Sorrel, and JVettle. 

It will be noticed that in the above enumeration are comprised most of 
the troublesome weeds which infest our grounds. It is somewhat singular 
that the agriculturist should have to thank other regions of the globe for 
the most valuable as well as the most vexatious plants which grow under 
his eye. Some of the plants enumerated have become so completely nat- 
uralized as to make it difficult, without sufficient data, to affirm their foreign 
origin. 

There are some curious points in regard to this naturalization. Many of 
the commonest of European weeds have never taken possession here, while 
others have multiplied prodigiously. Of the many European violets, only 
one, the Viola tricolor, has d established itself, and that sparingly. As we 
have numerous species of violets ourselves this seems the more strange. 
Out of 132 species of Carex or Sedge, only one is foreign, and that only in 
one small locality. As Sedges must inevitably be cut with grass in the 
season of haying, it is singular that the foreign species should not have 
been brought here with grass seed. The laws which govern the growth of 
plants in different localities are obscure in their workings. We find in- 
dividual species establishing themselves everywhere, while other closely 
allied species refuse to be transplanted. Some garden plants defy the 
care and attention of the florist, while others overrun the garden wall and 
take full possession of the neighboring farmer's field, destroying his harvests 
as they move. 

This article might be much more extended. The object has been to 
show that topics of interest are to be found directly about us, even in the 
occurrence of road-side weeds. The far-seeing and comprehensive mind 
finds everywhere about it some link in the great chain which binds together 
in. one perfect whole the entire creation. The ignoble weed and the hot- 
house pet have alike their points of interest ; and neither beauty nor use- 
ulness to man can be the only qualification for study or attention in the 
eye of the true botanist. 



A FEW HINTS ON ORCHIDS. 21 

A FEW HINTS ON ORCHIDS. 

COMPILED BY THE CHAIRMAN. 

The plants included under the general name of Orchids are distributed 
very generally over the temperate and torrid zones. They divide them- 
selves into two classes, the terrestrial and epiphytal, or, more plainly speak- 
ing, those growing upon the ground and from it deriving their nourishment, 
and those growing upon trees or places removed from the earth and de- 
riving their chief nourishment from the air, or the moisture therein contained. 
This last characteristic is to be taken as the true type of the class, as many 
truly epiphytal orchids, in their native haunts, grow upon rocks near water- 
falls, deriving their means of existence from the constant moisture, and, 
though upon the earth, having no intimate relations with it. 

In the temperate zones we rarely find any except the terrestrial orchids ; 
in the torrid, all the epiphytal varieties grow in great luxuriance and num- 
bers, and the terrestrial, though in some cases nearly related to those of 
more temperate regions, assume more beautiful foliages, and produce more 
gorgeous flowers. 

In a brief article, like the present, to condense a manual for orchid cult- 
cure is of course impossible. Our experience is too limited to give more 
than a few general hints. It is only our intention to open the subject now 
beginning to attract some attention in this country, and to present, in a 
few words, such useful directions as our reading has supplied. 

And, in the first place, to grow orchids successfully a house must be 
devoted to them ; they cannot be grown with other plants. It is enough to 
make one's heart ache to see, as we can in most greenhouses, a few half- 
starved specimens of Oncidiums and Stanhopaeas, Cypripediums and Bletias, 
(they being the most hardy of the tribe) struggling for a miserable existence, 
with all the elements of their life, heat, air, moisture and rest wanting, and 
occasionally sending out a stunted, weak flower spike, as if to show what 
they might be, and that they were made for better things. 

Now before constructing our house we must look a little at the tempera- 
ture, moistur ?, seasons of growth and rest of the plants in their native 
countries. These conditions will vary greatly, according to the countries 
from whence the plants were originally obtained. It is impossible to make 
one temperature suit all the species ; but by care, many, coming from 
regions remote from each other, may be grown in one house. 

To grow them in the greatest perfection there should be three houses, 
the stove, the intermediate house, and the cold or resting house. The 
degrees of heat and moisture necessary for these houses will be given as 
we proceed. 

But few can indulge in the luxury of three greenhouses for one kind of 
plants ; and to these we say, do not, therefore, neglect the plants, for they 
can be grown with but little expense and trouble if you have one house, 
the stove, and are willing to devote a portion of your greenhouse as a cold- 
house for your orchids. 



22 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

But to return. The plants must have a treatment similar to that they 
experience in their native countries. Now, all the orchidaceae are from 
hot tropical countries, that is, the varieties with magnificent flowers, which 
we would wish to grow. 

The greater part grow on trees, some on the trunks, some on the 
branches, some in the forks of the trunk and branches, some near the top 
of the tree, in full light, others in most shady spots. Again, the mode of 
growth is different, some are on the branches, and send out drooping spikes 
of flowers ; others produce erect flowering shoots ; and a small class only 
grow under the branches, being never found on the upper or sunny surface. 
Others, again, are confined to particular varieties of trees, or grow only in 
certain localities. 

Among terrestrial orchids the differences of growth are no less marked. 
Now all the habits of a plant must be studied would we cultivate it with 
success. But one will in despair exclaim at the impossibility of adapting 
his culture to every case, and truly it is almost impossible. 

But we can approximate, and by giving the plants every possible requisi- 
tion, even if we cannot bloom them in the magnificence of their native 
haunts, we can obtain flowers which for beauty and splendor far surpass 
any productions of our temperate clime. A point to remember, also, is, that 
in tropical countries, the days and nights being equal, the distribution of 
light and darkness is more even; also, that the light is more intense. 
There is also a dry and a wet season ; during the former the plants are 
parched, during the latter saturated with moisture. 

It must also be borne in mind that the plants grow at very different alti- 
tudes, and therefore at different temperatures. Some are natives of hot 
reeking swamps, others of shady moist woods ; some of rocky hills, some 
of elevated localities, so high that frosts occur. Travellers assure us that 
hoar-frost is often found on the leaves of some of the South American va- 
rieties growing in mountainous regions, such as Lycastes and Cattleyas. 

Your house must, in the first place, to afford as much light as possible, be 
of glass, and span-roofed. Let it be low in the angles, so all the plants 
may be near the glass. Let the house run north and south, the aspect will 
then be east and west. This is to be preferred for several reasons : first, 
the heat and light of the sun are more equalized ; in the cold mornings of 
early spring the sun sooner gives light and heat on the east side, and will 
be at noon in such a position that the beams will be slanting to the angle 
of the roof, while in the afternoon his power to give light and heat will be 
considerably prolonged. Thus each plant will have its due share of light 
and heat. The plants should be shaded from the direct rays of the sun ; 
if we have a lean-to house, for a greater part of the day, shades must be 
used which keep the plants in comparative darkness ; in a span-roofed house, 
while one side is shaded, the other is in full light. 

Where one has only a lean-to house much benefit will be derived from 
a coat of paint over the glass (indeed it is a necessary precaution, as the 
leaves and flowers must be protected from the burning rays of the sun,) 
and thus the direct beams of light are tempered and softened. We have 



A FEW HINTS ON ORCHIDS. 23 

found in our experience that where painting was necessary a light cream 
or straw color was productive of the most agreeable effect, and also more 
conducive to the health of the plants. 

Opinions differ as to the advisability of having glass on the sides of the 
house. It is not necessary, for the house being so low, light enough will 
be admitted overhead. It, however, gives a house a neater appearance, 
and may be adopted or not, at the fancy of the grower. 

There should be lights in the top of the house to give air, and also in 
the lower part, so a circulation may be maintained when necessary. 

It is, however, advisable to allow the air from lower lights to pass over 
heated pipes or flues, in order it may become tempered in cold weather, as 
most orchids are very impatient of cold currents of air, which not unfre- 
quently prove fatal. 

It is impossible to give full directions for arranging the interior of the 
house, as each will have his own ideas, and will endeavor to please his 
own eye ; a few hints may not, however, be unacceptable. 

In the first place, there should be a broad walk through the centre of the 
house, or, if the width and height of the house will admit, two walks, one 
at each side. 

The shelves of the stage (if a stage is used) should be shallow troughs, 
about two inches deep ; these should be made of some durable wood, or, if 
possible, of stone or slate, and made water-tight. These should be filled 
with gravel, upon which the pots should be placed. These shelves will 
retain the moisture, which, in summer, is indispensable to the health of the 
plants. A good substitute for stone would be hydraulic cement, which 
might be used with small pebbles, upon boards, and would be perfectly 
water-tight, very durable, and not expensive. 

Shelves may be put up in any part of the house, in order to bring young 
and small plants near to the glass; yet the plants should always be kept 
some inches from the glass, as they might otherwise be chilled by cold 
winds, or by the ice, which in our climate will form very thickly on the 
inner-side of the glass of an orchid-house in our cold winter nights. 

Heating may be by a variety of modes ; the best is by hot water, or 
steam pipes, in tanks of water, as thus the necessary moisture can at any 
time be afforded to the house; and, during the season of rest, when a moist 
heat is no longer required, by emptying the tanks, the house obtains a dry 
heat from the steam pipes. This method is much used in England, but we 
do not know of its adoption in this country. A common brick flue may be 
used with good success, though steam or hot water are much better. In 
using any of these, however, it will be essential to the health of the plants 
to maintain a constant moisture in the house, by evaporation of water 
placed in the flue or pipes, in large shallow vessels or pans, which should 
be made of zinc, as less expensive than other metals, and less liable to 
oxidization. The water in these pans should be frequently changed, in 
order the moisture may always be pure and sweet. 

The habits of many orchids require them to be grown on blocks of wood 
or in baskets, which must be suspended from the roof of the house that the 



24 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

plants may enjoy the full light. To do this, nails or hooks may be driven 
into the rafters, or strong rods be carried along the rafters, to which hooks 
shaped like the letter S may be suspended. This mode is preferable to the 
former, as it has a neater appearance and is more convenient. 

All the rods, nails, hooks, &c, used in the house should be of copper 
wire, of the various sizes, as required ; brass may be used, but is not so 
easily obtained. Nothing of iron should be used : if unpainted, the mois- 
ture causes rust immediately, and the rusty water runs from the nails and 
discolors the paint, and in a very short time the nails rust out and we learn 
the fact to our cost in the fall of some valuable plant ; if the iron is paint- 
ed it is more durable, but the paint soon peels and falls off. We have 
found brass hooked screws to answer most admirably. 

Now, having described the house and its appurtenances, let us turn to 
an all-important subject — the treatment of the plants ; and this we have 
space but to treat imperfectly. We can only give a few general hints, and 
leave the grower to his own experience, — after all, the best teacher in this 
as in other things. 

But first, how is a beginner to obtain these plants, many of them very 
rare and natives of remote regions ? And we must be forgiven if we here 
do a little advertising. The two best collections which have come under 
our notice in this vicinity (we speak now only of sale collections) are those 
of Mr. Cadness, of Flushing, Long Island, and of Isaac Buchanan, of 
Astoria. In both of these collections we saw, during the last summer, 
plants of many fine and rare orchids at moderate prices. But what is 
really a moderate price for an orchid may seem very large to one who has 
been accustomed to grow only greenhouse plants. Orchid growing is a 
luxury, and we advise' none to begin who have not means at their com- 
mand. At those collections a nice assortment of the Mexican and South 
American orchids may be obtained ; but if a grower would indulge in the 
East Indian epiphytes, he must send to England for plants. A good way 
to procure a stock of the Mexican orchids is through some friend in the 
country ; they will generally arrive in good condition, but for one worth 
growing the importer will find at least a dozen perfectly worthless. 

Orchids just imported from their native country are too often killed by 
kindness. The treatment is very simple. First examine them closely, 
clean them, cutting away any dead pseudo bulbs (the swollen fleshy stems 
of orchids are thus denominated) with a sharp knife, also carefully removing 
any decayed stems or leaves. Apply powdered chalk to the fresh cut 
places, which will at once dry up the sap and prevent any decay. The 
plants must then be treated according to their different natures. Stan- 
hopaeas, Gongoras, and other plants of kindred nature, should be placed in 
shallow baskets and hung up in the coolest part of the orchid-house. 
Syringe the plants occasionally with water the temperature of the house. 
Use no moss, peat, or any substance whatever round the plants. When 
the plants show signs of growth it is time to change our treatment ; then 
place the plant in a shallow basket, with peat and moss ; give it more heat, 
and water and treat it as a well-established plant. Lelias, Cattleyas, Epi- 



A FEW HINTS ON ORCHIDS. 25 

dendrums, and Barkerias do better placed on a bare block as soon as re- 
ceived; hang them up against the wall of the house, if possible over a 
tank of water; syringe frequently, and they will soon show signs of growth. 
Terrestrial orchids should be potted when received, but be kept cool, and 
supplied very moderately with water till they begin to grow ; then more 
heat and more water. 

The best wood to grow orchids upon is said, by the English gardeners, to 
be the acacia (Robinia pseudo acacia), with us called locust ; the next the oak. 
We have used rough-barked elm with success. The wood should be well 
dried and deprived of its bark, which, according to English growers, only 
serves as a harbor for snails, wood lice, and cockroaches, which are the worst 
foes to the orchid-grower's success. In our experience we have had no trouble 
from any of these pests, though we cannot long hope to be without our 
share of these troublesome insects. Pieces of cork, in our experience, are 
very suitable for orchids, and can be readily obtained in any of our large 
cities. Baskets may also be made of strips of cork, and are very durable. 
In England, hazel and maple rods are considered the best for baskets, and 
the rule is given that all resinous woods should be avoided. We have, 
however, used baskets made of the ends of spruce poles, cut off from a 
pole fence and well dried, and as yet can see no ill effects ; on the contrary, 
the plants seem to thrive better than in pots, as, through the open slats of 
the basket, a free circulation of air is obtained, and no water can saturate 
the roots. Very pretty wooden stands may also be made of the ends of 
spruce poles, in which plants thrive better than in pots. We have now 
thriving finely in stands of this kind a large plant of Aerides odoratum and 
a large Cymbidium. Large plants of epiphytal orchids, especially the large- 
growing Cattleyas, will grow better in pots than on blocks. 

In potting, always give perfect drainage. A good rule is to fill the pot 
two thirds full of crocks, and to invert a small pot over the hole in the 
bottom of the larger, then fill round it with crocks. Then fill in with turfy 
peat, bits of crocks and charcoal. Elevate the plant on the compost, about 
an inch or more above the rim of the pot, sloping the compost gently down 
to the rim. Secure the plant in position by pegs or sticks, and they will 
soon be able to sustain themselves. 

A few words about watering. This should always be done with water 
the temperature of the house. To obtain this it is necessary to have a 
cistern in the house, which should be supplied with water from the roof, as 
rain water is most suitable for the plants. In lieu of a cistern, large tubs 
of water should be placed in various pirts of the house, which are also very 
useful by supplying moisture to the air by evaporation. Another use is, 
plants growing in baskets require to be dipped, as the water, as supplied 
by the syringe, does not sufficiently saturate the ball of compost. During 
the season of growth this should be frequently done, and the plants allowed 
to become very wet, but never during the season of rest. 

The method of using the syringe. We have seen some gardeners play 
away upon the plants as if they were holding the hose-pipe of an engine 
and extinguishing a fire. This, if not positively detrimental, is of no ser- 



26 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

vice to the plants ; the syringing should be so managed that the water shall 
fall in a fine shower, or even mist, over the plant. 

We neglected to say, when speaking of baskets, that for Stanhopaeas, 
and plants of like nature, we prefer shallow baskets made of copper or gal- 
vanized iron wire. These plants protrude their flower buds from the very 
base of the pseudo bulbs, and push them downward through the peat and 
sphagnum to the bottom of the basket, through^which they hang and ex- 
pand their gorgeous flowers. These flower spikes almost invariably perish 
if these plants are grown in pots, unless great care is taken to watch for 
the buds, and to train them over the sides of the pots. In slat or rod 
baskets they too frequently are stopped by the bottom slats and decay. We 
therefore have found that in wire baskets the buds never perish in this way, 
nor do they require constant watching. We have also used a basket made 
of earthen ware for some plants. These may be made very ornamental, 
and of a variety of shapes. The chief objection to them is their weight, 
which, in those suitable for large plants, would be very great; for small 
plants they are very pretty. They are suspended by wires fastened to holes 
in the rim. 

Having thus briefly described the methods of growing orchids, and the 
proper house for them, we come to the consideration of the suitable soil. 

A fibrous peat is most suitable. Let it not contain earth enough to retain 
the water, but be porous and not retentive of water. If you cannot find a 
peat answering this description, take that most nearly approaching it, and 
beat and sift it till the earthy matter is separated ; if still too close, mix in 
chopped sphagnum or bog mo^s, bits of crocks or charcoal, so the water 
will drain off freely. 

The operation of potting has already been described ; that of basketing 
differs somewhat. Prepare the peat, &c, the same as in potting; cover 
the bottom of the basket with a thin layer of white moss, to prevent the 
peat dropping through, then fill in with peat. Be careful not to injure the 
roots of the plant; clean the leaves and bulbs; prune ofF all dead parts; 
place the plant in the middle of the basket, and fill in with the compost ; 
then give a good top-syringing to settle the soil, and hang the basket in its 
place. Always use shallow baskets ; the roots of orchids run on the sur- 
face, and seldom penetrate to any depth. 

The proper orchids for baskets are all the Stanhopssas, Acroperas, Aci- 
netas, Coryanthes, Gongoras, some Dendrobiums, and some other less com- 
mon species. Those requiring pot culture are all the Anectochilus, all the 
Bletias, Coelogynes, Brassias, Calanthes, some Cattleyas and Cymbidiums, 
all Cypripediums and Cyrtopodiums, some Dendrobiums and Epidendrums, 
Lycastes, Maxillarias, Miltonias, Odontoglossums, Oncidiums, Peristerias, 
Phaius, Sobralias, and Zygopetalums, with many other less common species. 
Many of the above may be grown on blocks of wood. 

We give a short list of those which do well on blocks or cork : ^Erides, 
Barkerias, Cattleyas, Dendrobiums, Epidendrums, Lelias, Miltonias, Onci- 
diums, Renanthera, Sophronites, Scuticaria, Phalaenopsis, Vandas, and 
many others. 



A FEW HINTS ON ORCHIDS. 



27 



The method of growing plants on blocks is very simple. It is only to 
fasten the plant firmly on the top, side or under part of the branch, accord- 
ing to its nature, suspending it by a copper nail driven into the end, to 
which should be fastened a loop of copper wire ; or, drive a nail in each 
end, make two loops, and suspend the plant by a wire connected with each. 
Let the block be so suspended that the water will readily run off. A branch 
of cork is said to be the best for growing plants of Phalaenopsis and 
Renanthera. 

Orchids require a season of rest. In their native countries there is a 
period when they can receive no water — the dry season. At this time the 
bulbs become perfected, and the plants are fitted for the production of 
flowers ; therefore, to ensure a fine display of flowers, perfect rest must be 
given for a season. At this time water must be almost entirely withheld, 
only enough being given to prevent the pseudo bulbs from shrivelling, and 
the heat must be reduced lest the plants be started into growth. 

If the same heat is always maintained, and constant moisture afforded, 
the plants will continue growing, or will produce weak second growths and 
fail to flower, or else produce weak and few blossoms. 

A most ready way of securing this rest is to remove the East Indian 
orchids to the cooler or Mexican house, during their resting season, that is, 
after they have perfected their growth, and again to remove the Mexican 
orchids to the greenhouse during their resting season. 

As soon as they show signs of growth, or when it may be desirable, 
remove them again to their respective houses, where they will soon show 
signs of growth and flower. 

There are some East Indian orchids, such as Phalaenopsis, iErides, &c, 
which grow perpetually ; these should always be kept in the hottest house, 
but the heat should be reduced so they may not be forced into too active 
growth ; for these plants often kill themselves by too much flowering. 

Now as to the heat of the house ; of course it must vary with the different 
houses, and at different seasons of the year. We cannot do better than to 
give the degrees of heat required, according to a table given by an English 
writer, which we copy entire. 







FAHRENHEIT. 




Indian House, 


Day with sun. 


Day without 
sun. 


Night. 


Morning. 


or stovp 










Spring, 


75 


70 


60 


55 


Summer, - 


85 or 90 


70 


65 


60 


Autumn, - 


70 


65 


60 


55 


Winter, - 


65 


60 


55 


50 


Mexican House, 










or cool house. 










Spring, - 


70 


65 


60 


55 


Summer, - 


75 


65 


60 


55 


Autumn, - 


60 


55 


50 


50 


Winter, - 


55 


50 


50 


45 



28 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

We must again reiterate, the air of the orchid-house should be kept 
moist ; a warm, moist atmosphere is what all orchids require during the 
season of growth. This is effected by frequent syringings, sprinkling the 
floors with water, and by large evaporating pans, as before described. In 
a large establishment it would be a good plan to have a small boiler, pur- 
posely to generate steam for the atmosphere of the house. This could be 
very easily arranged, and we believe the experiment has been tried in 
England with perfect success. 

In winter, or during the season of rest, water must be almost entirely 
withheld, but" gentle syringing will, except in very dull, cloudy days, be 
beneficial to plants which continue to grow, or have no pseudo bulbs. 
Some on logs may become too dry ; water should be sparingly given. One 
pot orchid, Huntleyas, is also benefited by winter syringing. Water 
should begin to be withheld about the first of Septeuiber, or perhaps earlier, 
and be almost entirely discontinued by the last of October. 

The leaves of orchidaceous plants should be kept clean. When this is 
not effected by the syringing they may be washed with a soft bit of sponge, 
taking great care not to bruise the leaf. 

The insects which infest orchids are scale, mealy bug and red spider, 
and the remedy for each is that adopted for their destruction in the green- 
house. To destroy cockroaches and wood lice, which devour the tender 
shoots of flower buds and roots, the old trap of a potato or turnip, hollowed 
out, is the simplest and best; the pests will be found under the trap, and 
can easily be destroyed. Cockroaches have often to be hunted at night 
with a lantern. They not unfrequently arrive from England, with newly- 
imported plants. 

Prevention is better than cure, and to so arrange the shelves, as previously 
described, will keep these insects from the plants, for they do not like to 
wet their feet. Pot the plants, also, so they may have no lodgment among 
the drainage, that is, by inverting a pot, as before directed. 

We now propose to give a few hints on orchids which require peculiar 
culture. 

Sobralia macrantha. This magnificent plant has large flowers, some- 
what resembling a Cattleya ; they sometimes measure six inches across. 
The color is richest purple crimson. The leaves are long and reedy, and 
the blossoms are produced from the top of the stems, one at a time. The 
single flowers last only a few days, but five flowers are often produced in 
succession, on each stem of strong plants. This plant is a native of Gua- 
temala, and will thrive in a cool stove. Pot the plant in a compost of three 
parts turfy loam, one part peat, one part leaf mould, with a little silver sand, 
all well mixed together. 

Sobralias have strong asparagus-like roots, and require large pots. In 
its native country this plant grows in marshy ground, on little raised 
hillocks. During the rainy season they have abundance of moisture ; the 
plants then grow and flower. In the dry season the plants have rest. 
We must regulate our treatment in the same way to grow it with success. 
From March to August give abundance of water. From August to Decern- 



A FEW HINTS ON ORCHIDS. 29 

ber water more sparingly. From December to March give none at all. 
This fine plant is by no means rare. We have seen it in collections in this 
country, but do not know of its being yet on sale. Fine flowering plants 
may be imported from England, at the moderate price of six to eight 
dollars. 

Dendrobium speciosum. A fine species, with large creamy-white flow- 
ers, having the lip beautifully spotted with crimson. The great mistake in 
growing this plant is keeping it too hot. It is a native of New Holland, 
where the air is much drier and cooler than in the tropical regions, where 
orchids are usually found. It should be grown in a cool house, where the 
temperature is between the greenhouse and the stove, that is, varying from 
45° to 55° in winter, and from 55° to 65° in summer. Like all Dendrobiums 
it must have a season of rest to bloom well. Small plants may be obtained 
for two or three dollars ; larger plants always command a high price. 

Coelogyne cristata. A most lovely plant. Pot in a mixture of rough 
fibrous peat and half-decayed leaves and sand. Drain them well, and place 
them in the coolest part of the East Indian house. They generally bloom 
about February, and should be potted just when they begin to grow. 

C. Wallichiana, C. precox and C. maculata form a distinct group, some- 
times called Pleiones. They form curious greenish spotted bulbs. Pot 
them in loamy peat, leaf mould and sand, and grow them on a shelf, near 
the glass. The flowers appear before the leaves, and are very beautiful. 
The young shoots succeed the flowers out of the same sheath. As a general 
rule, get the leaves as large and healthy as possible, to secure fine flowers. 
This class does not require large pots. 

We had a very pretty little plant of C. Wallichiana on exhibition at the 
Society's Hall this autumn. 

Plants of Coelogyne cristata command about ten dollars each; of C. Wal- 
lichiana, two to five dollars. C. Gardneriana is a fine species we have not 
yet seen. There are many fine species, all of which are well worth grow- 
ing. 

Barkerias should all be grown on blocks, without moss, in a temperature 
not exceeding 65°, and in winter the thermometer may be allowed to fall to 
40°. Give plenty of air ; syringe frequently while growing — but only 
once a month when at rest. There are many varieties. 

B. elegans. The first introduced and finest was lost to cultivation, but 
can now, we believe, be obtained in England. 

Barkeria spectabilis. A beautiful variety. Flower three inches across ; 
color bright lilac, labellum white, with lilac edges and point. Plants may 
be obtained for about six dollars. 

Barkeria Skinneri has disappointed us. From the description we had 
expected a beautiful plant; the flowers with us were small, of a pretty 
rosy pink color. We trust to do better when our plant is larger. In bloom 
about the end of summer. Plants may be obtained for about five dollars. 

Ancectochilus setaceus. A lovely orchid, with variegated leaves, a na- 
tive of Ceylon. The flowers have little beauty. The ground color of the 
leaves is a dark velvety green, tinged with a metallic lustre, inlaid with 



30 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

streaks of golden network. They must be seen, to be appreciated, for no 
description can do them justice. A variety called pictus has a broad 
golden stripe down the centre of the leaf. 

A. Lobii, Lowii, and Xyanthrophyllum, are three magnificent species in 
our collection, of which we defer a description. These plants are most 
difficult to cultivate. They should always be grown in the shade, in the 
East Indian house, under bell-glasses. Drain the pots well, prepare a little 
sandy peat, vegetable mould, fine chopped sphagnum and silver sand ; 
elevate the plant a little above the rim of the pot, and press the compost 
well around it. Then plunge the pot, containing the plant, into another, 
several sizes larger ; elevate it a little above the rim of the larger pot, and 
fill all in firmly around with sphagnum. Place a clean bell glass just 
inside the rim of the larger pot. The glass must be frequently wiped lest 
too much moisture collect on it. The plants require to be kept damp, but 
care must be taken to prevent too much moisture. It is often sufficient to 
only wet the moss in the larger pot. Do not allow the plants to flower, but 
pinch off the bud as soon as it appears. Plants of the more common varie- 
ties, (of which there are several we have not described, with silver-veined 
leaves,) and of A. setaceous may be obtained at about five dollars each. 
The rarer varieties, such as Lowii, Lobbii, and Xyanthrophyllum, cost from 
ten to fifteen dollars each. The plants are all small growers, seldom attain- 
ing a height above two inches. 

Cypripediums should be in every collection; they are easily cultivated 
in pots, in a compost of turfy loam, fibrous peat, and leaf mould, with a little 
sand. Drain the pots well, as they are impatient of too much moisture. 
March is the best time to pot them. 

C. insignis. A fine variety. Sepals and petals, yellowish-green, shaded 
to red, and spotted with brown, the centre petal has the end tipped with pure 
white ; the lip is orange, tinged with rich brown. This variety is now 
quite common, and flowering plants may be obtained for about a dollar. 
The flowers remain for weeks in perfection. 

C. venustum. Flowers yellowish-green, tinged with red ; leaves mottled. 
Not uncommon. Price about two dollars. These two varieties will do 
well in the warm end of a greenhouse. 

C. barbatum. Sepals and petals brownish purple ; lips white, with red- 
dish stripes ; leaves mottled. 

C. purpuratum. Like the former, but a deeper purple. A very handsome 
variety. 

C. Javanicum and C. hirsutissimum are very fine varieties. All these 
last mentioned are rare, and must be imported from England. Price from 
five to fifteen dollars each. 

It now only remains for us to give a list of a few easily-grown orchids, 
which may be obtained at a moderate price, and which require no peculiar 
treatment, but which, by following the directions we have given, may be 
grown and flowered in perfection. Those marked with a star may be 
obtained in this country. 

*Acineta Barkerii. From Mexico ; yellow flowers ; basket culture. 
Price five dollars. 



A FEW HINTS ON ORCHIDS. 31 

*Barkerias Skinneri and spectabilis. Block culture. See directions for 
cultivation, ante. Price, about five dollars. 

# Acropera Loddigesii. Flowers brownish-orange, curious — a free-grow- 
er and bloomer. Basket culture. Price two dollars. 

*Cattleya crispa. Petals pure white ; lip rich purple. A free flowerer. 
Pot culture. Price five dollars for small plants. 

# Cattleya mossise. Rose petals ; tip, yellowish stripes, on a rose ground. 
Pot or block culture. Price, five dollars. There are many varieties. 

Calanthe veratrifolia. Pure white flowers, lasting a long time in bloom. 
Pot culture. A terrestrial plant ; requiring rest in winter, with but slight 
waterings. Price, in England, five dollars. 

*Cattleya Forbesii. A pretty variety, easily grown, and a free flowerer. 
Pot culture. Price, two dollars. 

^Erides odoratum. A beautiful East Indian orchid. Flowers rose and 
■white, delightfully and powerfully fragrant. Basket or branch culture. 
Price of strong plants, ten dollars. 

Coelogyne cristata. ? Po( . culture# gee d i rect i ons g i ven above. 

Coelogyne Wallichiana. > 

Coryanthes macrantha. Very curious. Basket culture. Price, five 
dollars. 

*Dendrobium nobile. Petals, flesh-colored, tipped with rose; lip, yel- 
lowish, with purple spot. A beautiful species. Pot or block culture. 
Price, three dollars. 

Dendrobium chrysanthemum. Golden yellow. Basket culture. Price, 
five dollars. 

Dendrobium moniliforme. A pretty species, with rosy lake and white 
flowers. Pot culture. Price, five dollars. 

*Epidendrum aromaticum. A pretty species. Block culture. Two 
dollars. 

Epidendrum macrochilum roseum. Rose color and dark, very fine. Block 
culture. Price, ten dollars. 

# Gongora atro purpurea. Flowers, purplish brown ; of curious shape. 
Basket culture. Price, two dollars. 

# Lelia autumnalis. A beautiful flower, lasting a long time in perfec- 
tion ; petals rosy purple ; labellum white, rose tipped. Block culture. We 
have flowered it the past year in a basket. Price, about five dollars. 

Lycaste Skinneri. A fine orchid. Pure white, variously marked with 
crimson and carmine. There are many varieties. Pot culture. Price, ten 
dollars. 

*Lycaste aromatica. Flowers, yellow orange ; delightfully fragrant ; 
perfume resembling cinnamon. Pot culture. Price, three dollars. 

*Odontoglossum grande. A magnificent plant ; flower five to seven 
inches across ; sepals and petals, yellowish ground, barred with purplish 
brown ; lip white, blotched with dark pink. Lasts a long time in perfec- 
tion. Pot, basket, or block culture. Price, eight dollars. 

*Oncidium papilo. Color, rich brown, barred with yellow. Pot or block 
culture. Strong plants, five dollars. 



32 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL, SOCIETY. 

# Oncidium flexuosum. Free flowering ; color yellow. Pot, or block 
culture. Price, two dollars. 

*Oncidium sphacellatum, O. altissimum, O. luridium and ampliatum are 
all fine species. Pot or block culture. Price, about three dollars each. 

Sobralia macrantha. See ante. 

*StanhopEeas insignis, eburnea, saccata, grandiflora, tigrina, and many 
others, all free-flowering, requiring culture in shallow baskets. Price, from 
two to five dollars, according to size and varieties. 

# Tricophilea tortelis. A pretty little orchid. Color, whitish brown, with 
curiously-twisted petals; lip, pink and white. Pot, or block culture. 
Price, two dollars. 

Zygopelatum Mackayii. A fine plant. Color, purple and brown, or 
chocolate ; very fragant. Pot culture. Price, five dollars. 

Zygopelatum maxillare. More delicate than the last. Lip, a rich blue. 
Pot culture. Price, ten dollars. 

Dendrobium calceolare. Sepals and petals orange ; lip, chocolate, edged 
with yellow. Pot culture ; very desirable. Price, five dollars. 

Scuticaria Steelii. A handsome plant, with long rush-like leaves. Grow 
on side of a piece of cork. Flowers, cream-color, spotted with crimson. 
Price, ten dollars. 

We have thus fulfilled our promise, and given a few hints on orchids. 
In this we lay no claim to originality, but have merely put into small 
compass the necessary directions. The article must necessarily be im- 
perfect and faulty, but if it lead any to attempt the culture of this rare, 
beautiful and curious class of plants, its object will be fully attained. 



PREMIUMS ON FLOWERS. 



33 



PREMIUMS AND GRATUITIES AWARDED FOR FLOWERS. 



The Committee would award the following prizes : — 

Camellias. — For the best twelve named varieties of cut flowers 
with foliage, (not awarded,) a prize of 
For the next best, not awarded, 
For the next best, do. 
Heaths. — For the best named varieties, not less than six, in pots 
not awarded, 
For the next best, not awarded, 
For the next best, do. 
Epacris. — For the best named varieties, not less than four, in 
pots, not awarded, .... 
For the next best, not awarded, 
For the next best, do. . 
Greenhouse Azaleas. — For the best six named varieties, in 
pots, not awarded, , 

For the next best, to William Wales, 
For the next best, not awarded, 
Parlor Bouquets. — For the best pair, not awarded, 

For the next best, not awarded, 
Hand Bouquets, — For the best pair, to Martin Trautman; 

For the next best, not awarded, 
Pelargoniums. — For the best six named varieties, grown in pots 
(not fancies,) to William C. Strong, a premium of 
For the next best, not awarded, 
For the next best, do. . 
For the best six named fancy varieties, in pots, to William C 
Strong, a premium of 
For the next best, to Hovey & Co., . 
For the next best, not awarded, 
Fuchsias. — For the best six named varieties, in pots, not awarded 
For the next best, not awarded, 
For the next best, do. . 
Calceolarias. — For the best six varieties, not awarded, 
For the next best, not awarded, 
For the next best, do. . 
Verbenas. — For the best six, in not less than 8-inch pots, not 
awarded, , 

For the next best, not awarded, 
For the next best, do. . 
For the best single specimen, in pot or pan, not awarded 
Cinerarias. — For the best six named varieties, do. 
For the next best, not awarded, 
For the next best, do. . 
3 



$6 00 

5 00 

3 00 

6 00 

4 00 

2 00 

4 00 

3 00 

1 00 

10 00 
6 00 

4 00 

3 00 

2 00 
2 00 

1 00 

5 00 

4 00 

2 00 

5 00 
4 00 

2 00 

6 00 

4 00 

3 00 
3 00 

2 00 

1 00 

5 00 

3 00 

2 00 
2 00 

4 00 
2 00 
1 00 



34 



MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 



Greenhouse Plants. — For the best display of not less than 
twenty, regard to be had to new and rare varieties, and 
well-grown specimens, of named plants, to Hovey & Co., 
For the next best, to Evers & Comley, 
For the next best, not awarded, 
For the next best, do. 
Cut Flowers. — For the best display, to James Nugent, 
For the next best, to James McTear, 
For the next best, to Evers & Comley, 
For the next best, to Mrs. Benjamin Bruce, . 
For the next best, not awarded, 
Hyacinths. — For the best display, not less than ten named va- 
rieties, not awarded, .... 
For the next best, not awarded, . 
Pot Plants — regard being had to new and rare varieties — 
For the best specimen plant, of a kind for which no special 
prize is offered, to Evers & Comley, 
For the next best, to Marshall P. Wilder, 
For the next best, to Hovey & Co., . 
For the next best, to James McTear, 
Tulips. — For the best twenty distinct named varieties, (not 
awarded,) a prize of .... 
For the next best, not awarded, 
For the next best, do. . 
Pansies. — For the best twelve distinct varieties, in pots, to Martin 
Trautman, a prize of . . 
For the next best, not awarded, 
For the next best, do. . 
Parlor Bouquets. — For the best pair, not awarded, 

For the next best, not awarded, 
Hand Bouquets. — For the best pair, to Martin Trautman, 
For the next best, not awarded, 

Saturday, June 2d. 

Pot Plants. — For the best display, not less than six, not awarded, 

For the next best, not awarded, 

For the next best, do. 
Specimen Plant. — For the best, not awarded, 

For the next best, not awarded, 
Cut Flowers. — For the best display, filling not less than 150 
bottles, to James Nugent, .... 

For the next best, not awarded. 

For the next best, do. . 
Hardy Azaleas. — For the best display of named varieties, not 
awarded, ...... 

For the next best, not awarded, 

For the next best, do. . 



$15 00 
12 00 
10 00 
8 00 
6 00 
5 00 
4 00 

3 00 
2 00 

4 00 
2 00 



10 00 
8 00 
6 00 
4 00 

4 00 
2 00 
1 00 



00 
00 
00 
00 
00 
00 
00 



5 00 
4 00 
3 00 
3 00 
2 00 



00 
00 
00 

00 
00 
00 



PREMIUMS ON FLOWERS. 



35 



Shrubby Pjeonies. — For the best six named varieties, to Mar- 
shall P. Wilder, 

For the next best, not awarded, .... 

For the next best, do. .... 

Saturday, June 9th. 
Pot Plants. — For the best display, not less than six, not awarded, 

For the next best, not awarded, .... 

For the next best, do. . 
Specimen Plant. — For the best, not awarded, . 

For the next best, not awarded, .... 

Cut Flowers. — For the best display, filling not less than 150 

bottles, to Antane Apple, ..... 

For the next best, to James Nugent, 

For the next best, to Martin Trautman, 

Saturday, June 16th. 
Herbaceous Peonies. — For the best ten named varieties, to 
Marshall P. Wilder, 

For the next best, to Antane Apple, 

For the next best, not awarded, 
Pinks. — For the best six distinct named varieties, not awarded, 

For the next best, not awarded, 

For the next best, do. 
Pot Plants. — For the best display, not less than six, not awarded 

For the next best, not awarded, 

For the next best, do. 
Specimen Plant. — For the best, not awarded. 

For the next best, not awarded, 
Cut Flowers. — For the best display, filling not less than 150 
bottles, to Antane Apple, . 

For the next best, to James Nugent, 

For the next best, to Martin Trautman, 

Saturday, June 23rf. 

Pot Plants. — For the best display, not less than six, not awarded, 

For the next best, not awarded, 

For the next best, do. . 
Specimen Plant. — For the best, to Edward S. Rand, 

For the next best, not awarded, 
Cut Flowers. — For the best display, filling not less than 150 
bottles, to James Nugent, . 

For the next best, to Antane Apple, . 

For the next best, to Martin Trautman, 
Hardy Rhododendrons. — For the best display of the season, of 
named varieties, not awarded, 



For the next best, 



do. 



#5 00 


4 00 


3 00 


5 00 


4 00 


3 00 


3 00 


2 00 


4 00 


3 00 


1 00 



5 00 
4 00 

3 00 

4 00 

3 00 

2 00 

5 00 

4 00 

3 00 

3 00 

2 00 

4 00 

3 00 
1 00 



5 00 
4 00 
3 00 

3 00 

2 00 

4 00 

3 00 
1 00 



00 
CO 



36 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

ROSE SHOW. 

Class I. • 
Hardy June Roses. — For the best thirty distinct named varie- 
ties, to Hovey & Co., ..... 
For the next best, to Antane Apple, .... 
For the next best, to Marshall P. Wilder, 

Class II. 
For the best twenty distinct named varieties, not awarded, 
For the next best, to G. G. Hubbard, 
For the next best, not awarded, .... 

Class III. 

For the best twelve distinct named varieties, to James Nugent, 
For the next best, to Hovey & Co., .... 
For the next best, not awarded, . . . , 

Class IV. 
Hardy Climbing Roses. — For the best display, not less than 
four named varieties, not awarded, 
For the next best, not less than four, notawarded, 
For the next best, not less than four, do. 

Class V. 
Hardy Perpetual Roses. — For the best twenty-five named 
varieties, to Antane Apple, .... 

For the next best, to Hovey & Co., .... 
For the next best, to Warren Heustis, 

For the next best, not awarded, .... 

Class VI. 
For the best fifteen named varieties, to Francis Parkman, 
For the next best, to Antane Apple, . . 

For the next best, to Evers & Comley, 

Class VII. 

For the best ten named varieties, to James McTear, a prize of 
For the next best, to Evers & Comley, 
For the next best, to Francis Parkman, 

Class VIII. 
Moss Roses. — For the best display of named varieties, to Hovey 

Q& V/O., ....... 

For the next best, not awarded, 

Class IX. 
Bourbon Roses. — For the best display of named varieties, not 
less than six, not awarded, .... 

For the next best, do. .... 

Class X. 
Large Bouquets or Roses. — For the best two, to Evers & 
Comley, ....... 

For the next best, not awarded, .... 



$6 00 


4 00 


3 00 


5 00 


3 00 


2 00 


4 00 


2 00 


1 00 


3 00 


2 00 


1 00 


6 00 


4 00 


3 00 


2 00 


4 00 


3 00 


2 00 


3 00 


2 00 


1 00 


4 00 


2 00 


3 00 


2 00 


4 00 


3 00 



PREMIUMS ON FLOWERS. 



37 



Class XL 
Tender Roses. — For the best display of named varieties, not 
less than ten, to James Nugent, .... 
For the next best, not awarded, .... 

For the next best, do. . 

Saturday, June 30th. 
Pot Plants. — For the best display, not less than six, not awarded, 

For the next best, not awarded, .... 

For the next best, do. .... 
Specimen Plant. — For the best, not awarded, 

For the next best, not awarded, .... 

Cut Flowers. — For the best display, filling not less than 150 

bottles, to Antane Apple, ..... 

For the next best, to James Nugent, 

For the next best, to Evers & Comley, 

Saturday, July 7th. 
Pot Plants. — For the best display, not less than six, to Evers & 
Comley, ....... 

For the next best, not awarded, .... 

For the next best, do. . 
Specimen Plant. — For the best, not awarded, . 

For the next best, not awarded, .... 

Cut Flowers. — For the best display, filling not less than 150 
bottles, to Antane Apple, ..... 

For the next best, to G. G. Hubbard, 
For the next best, to James Nugent, 

Saturday, July 14th. 
Pot Plants. — For the best display, not less than six, to Evers & 
Comley, ..... 
For the next best, to Hovey & Co., . 
For the next best, not awarded, 
Specimen Plant. — For the best, to Evers & Comley, 

For the next best, to Hovey & Co., . 
Cut Flowers. — For the best display, filling not less than 150 
bottles, to Hovey & Co., 
For the next best, to James McTear, 
For the next best, to James Nugent, . 

Saturday, July 21st. 
Pot Plants. — For the best display, not less than six, to Hovey 
& Co., ..... 

For the next best, not awarded, 
For the next best, do. . 
Specimen Plant. — For the best, to Evers & Comley, 
For the next best, to Jonathan French, 



$4 00 


3 00 


2 00 


5 00 


4 00 


3 00 


3 00 


2 00 


4 00 


3 00 


1 00 


5 00 


4 00 


3 00 


3 00 


2 00 


4 00 


3 00 


1 00 



5 00 


4 00 


3 00 


3 00 


2 00 


J 

4 00 


3 00 


1 00 



5 00 
4 00 
3 00 
3 00 
2 00 



38 



MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 



. $4 00 


3 00 


1 00 


' 5 00 


4 00 


3 00 


, 4 00 


3 00 


2 00 


3 00 


2 00 


1 00 


3 00 


2 00 


1 00 


6 00 


4 00 



Cut Flowers. — For the best display, filling not less than 150 
bottles, to Hovey & Co., .... 

For the next best, to Antane Apple, . 

For the next best, to Jonathan French, 
Summer Phloxes. — For the best ten distinct named varieties 
not awarded, ..... 

For the next best, not awarded, 

For the next best, do. . 
Carnations: — For the best ten named varieties, to Hovey & Co 

For the next best, to Jonathan French, 

For the next best, not awarded, 
Picotees. — For the best ten named varieties, to Hovey & Co., 

For the next best, to Jonathan French, 

For the next best, to James Nugent, . 
Hollyhocks. — For the best twelve named varieties, to Hovey & 
Co., ...... 

For the next best, not awarded, 

For the next best, do. . 
Gloxinias. — For the best six pots, not awarded, . 

For the next best, not awarded, 
For the best new seedling, Society's silver medal, not awarded. 

Saturday, July 28th. 

Pot Plants. — For the best display, not less than six, not awarded, 5 
For the next best, to Evers & Comley, . . .4 

For the next best, not awarded, .... 3 

Specimen Plant. — For the best, to James McTear, . . 3 

For the next best, to Evers & Comley, . . .2 

Cut Flowers. — For the best display, filling not less than 150 

bottles, to Barnes & Washburn, . . . .4 

For the next best, to Hovey & Co., .... 3 
For the next best, to F. Winship, .... 1 

Saturday, August 4th. 
Cut Flowers. — For the best display, filling not less than 150 

bottles, to Hovey & Co., . . . . 4 00 

For the next best, to Barnes & Washburn, . . 3 00 

For the next best, to Evers & Comley, . . 1 00 

Saturday, August Llth. 
Cut Flowers. — For the best display, filling not less than 150 

bottles, to Hovey & Co., . . . . 4 00 

For the next best, to Barnes & Washburn, . . 3 00 

For the next best, to Antane Apple, . . . 1 00 

Saturday, August 18th. 
Cut Flowers. — For the best display, filling not less than 150 

bottles, to Hovey & Co., . . . . 4 00 



00 
00 
00 
00 
00 

00 
00 
00 



PREMIUMS ON FLOWERS. 



39 



For the next best, to Barnes & Washburn, . 

For the next best, to Franklin Winship, 
Phloxes. — For the best ten distinct named varieties, to Hovey 
& Co., ..... 

For the next best, to Antane Apple, . 

For the next best, to Barnes & Washburn, . 
Petunias. — For the best collection, to Hovey & Co., 

For the next best, to Martin Trautman, 

For the next best, not awarded, 
Gladiolus, Gandavensis and Floribundus varieties. — For the 
best ten varieties, in spikes, to Hovey & Co.. 

For the next best, to William H. Spooner, Jr., 

For the next best, to Barnes & Washburn, . 

Saturday, August 25th. 

Cut Flowers. — For the best display, filling not less than 150 

bottles, to Eliphalet Stone, ..... 

For the next best, to Antane Apple, .... 

For the next best, to James Nugent, .... 

Saturday. September 1st. 

Cut Flowers. — For the best display, filling not less than 150 
bottles, to Barnes & Washburn, 
For the next best, to Antane Apple, . 
For the next best, to Martin Trautman, 
German Asters. — For the best thirty flowers, not less than ten 
varieties, to Evers & Comley, 
For the next best, to Thomas Walsh, 
For the next best, to Barnes & Washburn, . 
For the next best, to Hovey & Co., . 
Verbenas. — For the best named collection, of twenty-four varie- 
ties, a single truss of each, to Antane Apple, a prize of 
For the next best, to William H. Spooner, Jr., 
For the next best, to James McTear, 
For the best new seedling, with foliage, the Society's silver 
medal, not awarded. 

Saturday, September 8th. 
Cut Flowers. — For the best display, filling not less than 150 
bottles, to Hovey & Co., ..... 
For the next best, to Barnes & Washburn, . 
For the next best, to Franklin Winship, 
Dahlias. — Specimen Bloom — For the best named flower, to Hovey 
& Co., ....... 

Class I. 
For the best eighteen named dissimilar blooms, to Barnes & 
Washburn, ....... 

For the next best, to Hovey & Co., .... 



$3 00 

1 00 

5 00 

4 00 
3 00 

3 00 

2 00 
1 00 

5 00 

4 00 

3 00 



4 00 
3 00 
1 00 



00 
00 
00 

00 
00 



3 00 

2 00 

4 00 

3 00 
2 00 



4 00 
3 00 
1 00 



2 00 



00 
00 



40 



MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 



Class II. 
For the best twelve dissimilar named blossoms, to Martin 

Trautman, a prize of . . . . $4 00 

Class III. 
For the best six named dissimilar blooms, to James Nugent, . 2 00 
For the next best, to Barnes & Washburn, . . 1 00 



PRIZES AWARDED AT THE ANNUAL EXHIBITION. 



10 00 



10 00 



Bouquets. — For the best pair, suitable for the Bradlee Vases, a 
prize of the Bradlee plate, to Evers & Comley, valued at 
For the best pair, suitable for the Jones Vases, to Hovey & Co., 
a prize of . 
Parlor Bouquets. — For the best pair, to James Nugent, a 
prize of 
For the next best, to Marshall P. Wilder, 
For the next best, to Martin Trautman, 
For the next best, not awarded, 
For the next best, do. 
For the next best, to James McTear, 
Mantel Bouquets. — For the best pair, not awarded, 

For the next best, to William E. Carter, 
Hand Bouquets. — For the best four, to Martin Trautman, 
For the next best, not awarded, 
For the next best, do. 
Cut Flowers. — For the best display, and best kept during the 
exhibition, to Hovey & Co., a prize of 
For the next best, to Barnes & Washburn, . 
For the next best, to Charles Copeland, 
For the next best, to G. G. Hubbard, 
For the next best, to Franklin Winship, 
Achimenes — For the best six pots, not larger than 12-inch, not 
awarded, ..... 
For the next best, not awarded, 

The following additional prizes were awarded at the Annual Exhibi- 
tion : — 

Plants in Pots. — For the best collection, of not less than twenty 
varieties, to Hovey & Co., 

For the next best, to Evers & Comley, 

For the next best, not awarded, 

For the next best, do. . 
For the best ten varieties, in bloom, not awarded, 

For the next best, not awarded, 

For the next best, do. . 
Specimen Plant. — For the best, to G. G. Hubbard, 

For the next best, to Evers & Comley, 

For the next best, to Azell Bowditch, 



7 00 


6 00 


5 00 


4 00 


3 00 


2 00 


5 00 


3 00 


5 00 


4 00 


3 00 


15 00 


12 00 


10 00 


8 00 


6 00 


5 00 


3 00 





. 25 00 




. 20 00 




. 15 00 




10 00 




12 00 




10 00 




8 00 




8 00 




6 00 




4 00 



PREMIUMS ON FLOWERS. 



41 



Variegated-leaved Plants. — For the best collection, not less 

than ten varieties, to Hovey & Co., . . $8 00 

For the next best, to Evers & Comley, . . 5 00 

For the next best, to Martin Trautman, . . . 3 00 

For the best single specimen, to Hovey & Co., . 5 00 

For the next best, to G. G. Hubbard, . . . 3 00 

Ferns and Lycopodiums. — For the best collection, not less than 

ten varieties, to Hovey & Co., . . . 5 00 

For the next best, to Evers & Comley, . . 3 00 

For the next best, to Martin Trautman, . . 2 00 
Orchids. — For the best display, not less than five specimens, not 

awarded, . . . . . . 10 00 

For the next best, not awarded, . . . 7 00 

For the next best, do. . . . 5 00 

Dahlias. — For the best fifty blooms (dahlias not being included 

in the prizes for cut flowers), to Barnes & Washburn, . 5 00 

For the next best, to Charles Copeland, . . 3 00 
For the next best, to Hovey & Co., . . . .2 00 

Saturday, November 17th. 

Parlor Bouquets. — For the best three, not awarded, . 3 00 

For the next best, not awarded, . . . 2 00 

Hand Bouquets. — For the best three, not awarded, . 2 00 

For the next best, not awarded, . . . 1 00 



GRATUITIES. 

The Committee have awarded the following Gratuities 

To Evers & Comley, for display of epacris, 
for variegated daisy, 
for collection of ferns, 
for collection of begonias, 
for maranta regalis, 
for Tillansia acaulis zebrina, 
for native plants, 
for displays at various times, 
To Martin Trautman, for pot plants, 
do. do. for auriculas, 

do. do. for seedling petunias, 

do. do. for Dianthus Hedwegii, 

do. do. for displays at various times, 

To Hovey & Co., for camellias, 
do. do. for azalea, 

do. do. for collection of plants, 

do. do. for petunias, 

do. do. for seedling pelargoniums, 



do. 


do. 


do. 


do. 


do. 


do. 


do. 


do. 


do. 


do. 


do. 


do. 


do. 


do. 



#1 00 
1 00 
8 00 
8 00 
1 00 

1 00 

2 00 
13 00 

6 00 
2 00 
2 00 

1 00 
6 00 

2 00 
4 00 
8 00 
2 00 
2 00 



42 



MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 



To Hovey & Co., for Dianthus Hedwegii, 
do. do. for display of roses, . 

do. do. for Pteris argyrea, 

do. do. for Rondeletia speciosa major, 

do. do. for seedling cereus, . 

do. do. for displays at various times, 

To Antane Apple, for azaleas and ericas, 
do. do. for collection of roses, 

do. -do. for displays at various times, 
To Wm. C. Strong, for seedling pelargonium, 
do. do. for fine gloxinias, . 

do. do. for displays, 

To James Nugent, for collection of roses, 

do. do. for displays, 

To James McTear, for fuchsia Rose of Castile, 
do. do. for bouquets, 

do. do. for displays, 

To Mrs. Benjamin Bruce, for bouquet, . 
do. do. do. for displays, . 

To Marshall P. Wilder, for display of plants, 
do. do. for collection of roses, 

do. do. Stephanotus floribundus, 

To Wm. H. Spooner, Jr., for fine verbenas, 
do. do. for fine Iris, . 

do. do. for the same, 

do. do. for fine Antirrhinums, 

do. do. for displays, . 

To Cambridge Botanic Garden, for cut flowers, 

do. do. do. for collection of plants, 

To William T. Merrifield, for fine display of plants, 
To Edward S. Rand, for Maxillaria Harrisonii, 
do. do. for Lycaste aromatica, 

do. do. for Pavetta Bourbonica, 

do. do. for Cattleya Forbesii, 

do. do. Coelogyne Wallichiana, 

To J. Egerton, for floral decoration, 
" A. C. Bowditch, for pressed flowers, Society's 

" Azell Bowditch, for displays, 
" E. G. Kelley, for cut flowers, 
" E. A. Story, for the same, 
11 Miss S. W. Story, for floral decorations, 
do. do. for wreaths, 

do. do. for baskets, 

do. do. for bouquets, 

To J. A. Kenrick, for magnolia, 
do. do. for displays, 
To Miss Annie C. Kenrick, for baskets of flowers, 
" Miss S. A. Russell, for displays, 





. #1 00 




2 00 




3 00 




1 00 




1 00 




6 00 




3 00 




5 00 




5 00 




1 00 




2 00 




4 00 




2 00 




9 00 




1 00 




3 00 




16 00 




1 00 




5 00 




6 00 




5 00 




3 00 




3 00 




3 00 




1 00 




1 00 




7 00 




2 00 




5 00 




8 00 




1 00 




1 00 




5 00 




3 00 




3 00 




3 00 


sil 1 


per medal. 




1 00 




1 00 




9 00 




2 00 




1 00 




2 00 




1 00 




1 00 




5 00 




4 00 




4 00 



PREMIUMS ON FLOWERS. 



43 



To Eliphalet Stone, for displays of roses, . . . #21 00 

" Miss E. M. Harris, for bouquets, 
do. do. for wreaths, 

do. do. for displays, 

To G. G. Hubbard, for collection of roses, 

do. do. for displays, 

To Warren Heustis, for display of roses, 
" Charles Copeland, for the same, 
" Francis Park man, for delphiniums, 
do. do. for roses, 

do. do. for displays, 

To J. C. Chaffin, for display of roses, 
" Miss M. P. Wilson, for display, 
" Miss M. A. Munroe, for the same, 
" R. W. Lincoln, for Kalmia latifolia, 
" Thos. Smallwood, for display, 
" Wm. E. Carter, for bouquets, 
" Thomas Walsh, for displays, 
" J. J. Stone, for display, 
" J. F. C. Hyde, f )r the same, 

do. do. for seedling carnation, Socie 

To J. W. Walcott, for displays, 
" Dennis Murray, for native plants, 

do. do. for pressed native orchids, 
do. do. for fungi, . 
To Franklin Winship, for displays, 
" F. Thieler, for balsams, 
" Mrs. Wetherell, for bouquets, 
" Mrs. Abner Pierce, for display, 
" Robert Watt, for asters, 
" Miss Hovey, for display, 
" Miss Hudson, for basket, 
" Wm. Wheelwright, for Peresteria elata, 
" Miss Driscoll, for display, 

The following Gratuities were awarded at the Annual Exhibition :- 

To Chas. S. Storrow, for dahlias, 
" Wm. T. Emerson, for lemon tree, . 
" Mrs. Wm. Kenrick, for display, 
" Fred. Lamson, for baskets of flowers, 
" Miss Annie Story, for pressed flowers, 
" Fred. Lockwood, for decoration, 
" Miss M. E. Capen, for pressed leaves, 
" Mrs. Wm. Whiting, for bouquets, . 
" Mrs. Abner Pierce, for decoration, . 
" Dennis Murray, for Sparissis crispa, 
do. do. for variegated natives, 



. 


2 00 


. 


3 00 


. 


1 00 


, 


2 00 


. 


5 00 


. 


2 00 


. 


10 00 


. 


1 00 


. 


1 00 


. 


1 00 


. 


1 00 


. 


] 00 


. 


1 00 


, 


2 00 


. 


1 00 


. 


2 00 


. 


12 00 


. 


1 00 


. 


J 00 


ty's silver 


medal. 


. 


6 00 


, 


6 00 


. 


2 00 


. 


1 00 


• 


10 00 


. 


1 00 


. 


1 00 


. 


1 00 


. 


1 00 


. 


1 00 


. 


1 00 


. 


1 00 


• 


1 00 


Exhibition 


: — 


. 


$3 00 


. 


1 00 


. 


1 00 


. 


2 00 


• 


1 00 


• 


1 00 


• • 


1 00 


. 


3 00 


. 


1 00 


« 


1 00 




1 00 



44 



MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 



To Thomas Walsh, for grass bouquets, . 

do. do. for coxcombs, 

To Mrs. Thomas Walsh, for grass bouquets, 

" Miss M. A. Munroe, for wreath, 

" Francis Parkman, for delphiniums, . 

" Warren Heustis, for cut flowers, 

" Miss E. M. Harris, for pressed flowers, 

" Eliphalet Stone, for cut flowers, 

" Miss S. A. Russell, for bouquets, 
do. do. for basket, 

To Miss S. W. Story, for decoration, 

" Mrs. E. A. Story, for the same, 

" Mrs. C. M. Bowditch, for pressed flowers, 

" Mrs. E. E. Bowditch, for basket, 

" Azell Bowditch, for cut flowers, 

" Wm. T. Merrifield, for fine variegated-leaved plants, 

" Edward S. Rand, Jr., for Trichosanthes colubrina, 

" Cambridge Botanic Garden, for native plants, 

do. do. do. for Trichosanthes colubrina, 

" Wm. H. Spooner, Jr., for gladiolus, . 

" James McTear, for plants, . 
do. do. for cut flowers, 
To James Nugent, for variegated Hydrangea, . 

" Hovey & Co., for Cyanophyllum Assamicum, 

" Martin Trautman, for Passiflora quadrangularis, 
do. do. for cut flowers, 



$1 00 



00 
00 
00 
00 
00 
00 
00 
00 
00 
00 
00 
00 
00 
00 



]0 00 



00 
00 
00 
00 
00 
00 
00 
00 
00 
00 



The Committee have 
displays : — 

To Joseph Breck, 
" Antane Apple, 
" James McTear, 
" M. Trautman, 
" James Nugent, 
" Wm. H. Spooner, Jr, 
" F. Winship, 
" Miss Story, 
" J. A. Kenrick, 
" D. Zirngible, 
" Thomas Walsh, 
" Wm. C. Strong, 



also awarded the following Gratuities for fine 



$25 00 

15 00 

10 00 

8 00 

10 00 

5 00 

5 00 

5 Q0 

5 00 

10 00 

5 00 

5 00 

Edward S. Rand, Jr., 
Geo. W. Pratt, 
A. Apple, 
James McTear, 
Thos. G. Whytal, 
C. H. B. Breck, 
Wm. J. Underwood, 



FRUIT 



committee's report. 45 



REPORT OF THE COMMITTEE ON FRUITS, 

For the Year 1860. 
BY JAMES F. C. HYDE, CHAIBMAN", PBO TEM. 

The Fruit Committee, in accordance with the rules of the society, sub- 
mit their Annual Report. It has been the practice in years past for the 
Chairman to make a lengthy Report of the exhibitions during the season 
of new fruits, and other matters of interest, before announcing the award 
of premiums. These reports have in past years been of considerable 
value. The Chairman of our Committee having been absent in Europe 
during nearly all of the past year, the making of this Report devolves upon 
a chairman pro tern., and it will not be found to be so full and complete as 
it would otherwise have been. The past year has been in some respects 
quite remarkable, for during the months of April and May, when there is 
usually an abundance of rain, there was very little ; but about the first of 
June, the rains commenced, and from that time forward the earth was well 
supplied. Though the drouth was severe yet nothing seemed to suffer. 
The fruit trees came on well, and presented a beautiful bloom, giving prom- 
ise of the abundant harvest that was fully realized in the autumn. It has 
been observed that all the fruits, and especially the pears, have been deficient 
in flavor the past season, which may have been in consequence of the great 
amount of wet weather. It has been impossible to form a correct opinion of 
the merits of new pears from having tested them this year. The same will 
apply in a measure to other fruits. 

The winter fruit, apples and pears, have ripened up a month or more 
earlier this year than usual, while the pears have an unusual tendency to 
decay. It is the opinion of the most intelligent fruit-growers that the early 
and severe frost we had was partly the cause of this. Such pears as Win- 
ter Nelis, Lawrence and Glout Morceau, were fully ripe in the autumn 
months, and before winter fairly set in there were comparatively few pears 
to be found. The season has been one very favorable for the growth of 
trees, and fears are entertained by some that pear trees may suffer during 
the approaching winter. Fruit of all kinds has been very abundant and 
comparatively cheap. It is doubtful if money can be made by raising apples 
at the prices they have been sold for this fall. So it is doubtful if the cul- 
tivation of pears can be made profitable, unless under favorable circum- 
stances, and by good management. In proof of this position we would ask, 
how many have succeeded in growing good fruit, and profitable crops, out 
of the great number that have engaged in this pursuit ? Very few. This 
often arises from a poor situation, neglect, or bad management, or perhaps 
an unfortunate selection of kinds. While this is true, it is equally true 
that some have been very successful with this fruit, and what has been 
done may be done again. It is a fine fruit, and even though it may not be 
grown to profit in all cases, still should be grown for home use, let it 
cost what it will. This rule will apply to all fruits, for no home would 
be complete without such luxuries. 



46 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

STRAWBERRIES. 

The crop of strawberries this year was very fine, except in a few instan- 
ces where the vines blasted. The Brighton Pine blasted badly in some 
localities. The show of this fruit at the rooms of the Society during the 
season was very fine. Most of the old sorts and some new ones have been 
exhibited. Hovey's Seedling still maintains its high reputation, both as a 
market fruit and for amateur cultivation. No variety perhaps is more pro- 
fitable when properly cultivated. The Jenny Lind has appeared well from 
year to yearj and is a favorite variety to grow with the Hovey's Seedling 
or separately ; though not of the highest quality, yet very desirable on 
account of its size and earliness. 

Brighton Pine has done well in most cases, though it has blasted more 
than most other sorts. It is a fruit of good size, firm, good color and flavor. 
A desirable sort. 

Scott's Seedling is not considered worthy of general cultivation. 

Lady of the Lake, is a seedling from the Brighton Pine. Large, and 
said to be very productive, yet is coarse in appearance and texture, and of 
second quality. Does not seem to be desirable. 

Cutter's Seedling is a comparatively new sort, of fair quality, medium 
size, color similar to Jenny Lind. Its value will depend upon its hardiness 
and productiveness. Though it has not been fully tested, yet it seems to 
show good qualities. 

A strawberry shown by Messrs. Bunce & Co. was new to the Committee. 
It was of medium size, color rather light, fine texture, not very firm, flavor 
good, lacks spirit somewhat. Worthy of a further trial. 

Hooker. — Color dark red, like Wilson's Albany, though more glossy ; 
good size, acid, and of high flavor ; not always hardy. It does not seem to 
be a desirable sort for this region. 

Wilson's Albany — Is of a dark, dull, dirty color ; good size, very produc- 
tive, but very acid and of poor quality ; unworthy of general cultivation. 

La Constance. — This is a new French variety exhibited for the first time 
this season, by Hovey & Co. Fruit very large, color of Hovey's Seedling, 
of regular conical form, quite firm, flavor good, great bearer, and may prove 
a valuable variety for amateurs. 

Wonderful. — A new English variety, large size, coxcomb shape, dark 
color, firm, flavor good ; said to be very productive. 

May Queen. — Same origin as the last ; small, early, flavor fair ; same 
season as Jenny Lind ; not desirable. 

Bonte de St. Julien. — A foreign sort. Fruit large, color rich crimson, 
coxcomb shape, flavor peculiar, great bearer. 

Duke de Malakoff. — Large size, color dark, flavor decidedly poor, not 
worthy of cultivation. 

La Btlle Bordelaise. — A French variety of strong Hautbois flavor, highly 
esteemed by some and as strongly disliked by others ; very productive. 
To amateurs who are fond of a strawberry of this flavor, it is of value. 
None of the foreign sorts rank high when compared with the best Ameri- 
can varieties, and are not desirable for gene.al cultivation. Experience 



FRUIT 



committee's report. 47 



has shown that Hovey's Seedling", with some varieties for impregnation, is 
one of the very best sorts known. Jenny Lind and Brighton Pine are vari- 
eties worthy of general cultivation. Some would include Boston Pine, 
which is a fruit of high flavor, but not first-rate for market, as it does not 
hold its color well. It is sometimes grown with Hovey's Seedling. The 
strawberry crop is one of considerable importance around our large cities, 
and the Society has been very liberal in offering premiums for this delicious 
fruit. While so many new varieties are being brought forward, from year 
to year, it becomes of the highest importance that every new variety should 
be thoroughly tested and fully endorsed by some Horticultural Society be- 
fore the public should venture to purchase very largely of it, unless they 
are anxious to be cheated out of their money and labor. Of all the new 
sorts that have been introduced within a few years, few stand the test for 
this part of the country, while a host of such varieties as Peabody, Wil- 
son's Albany, Richardson's Early, Late, and Cambridge, Scott's Seedling, 
McAvoy's Superior, and many other American sorts, to say nothing of the 
legion of foreign sorts, which have in almost every instance proved fail- 
ures, have been or soon will be forgotten, as they deserve to be. There is 
still room for improvement in this fruit, for the public very much want, 
what it is feared they will not soon get, a variety which will combine the 
size and color of the Hovey's Seedling, the flavor of Burr's New Pine, or 
Boston Pine, the hardiness of the Wild Strawberry, and the productiveness 
of the Wilson's Albany. The man who shall obtain such a sort may ven- 
ture to introduce it with the fullest assurance that he will be richly rewarded. 
We have read during the past year of sorts that promise all this, and per- 
haps more, such as Feast's Fillmore, Great Austin Shaker Seedling-, Wiz- 
ard of the North, Triomphe de Gand, and others that are already or soon 
will be for sale. It will be well to try them on a small scale at first, for it is 
very doubtful if they will all prove acquisitions. 

CHERRIES. 

The show of Cherries at the rooms was much better the past season than 
the year previous. The Black Tartarian takes the lead for size and quality. 
Black Eagle was as fine as usual. The Cumberland appeared very well. 
The Downer is, perhaps, all things considered, one of the most valuable 
sorts. It is grown extensively for market. 

RASPBERRIES. 

This fruit was produced this year in great perfection. The varieties 
most extensively cultivated are Franconia, which is grown by market gar- 
deners ; Knevett's Giant, which does not bear transportation as well as the 
former variety, though a very much better fruit ; and the Brinckle's Orange, 
which is very handsome and productive, but not a favorite with the market 
farmers. 

CURRANTS. 

A great many specimens of Currants were shown, and some of them of 
very large size. A new and very pretty currant, the Gloire of Sablons, 



48 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

has been introduced from France. It is very small, acid, and valuable only 
on account of its unique and pretty striped appearance. The Cherry Cur- 
rant, which is extensively cultivated, is a very large, coarse, acid variety of 
decidedly poor quality. It may do for a market fruit until it is more fully 
known. La Caucase, Versaillaise, Red and White Grape, and many 
other sorts have been shown, which appear well ; but, so far as your Commit- 
tee can judge, the old sorts, Red and White Dutch, still maintain their 
position at the top of the list. 

GOOSEBERRIES. 

The exhibition of Gooseberries was very fine. Two or three contributed 
English sorts grown to great perfection. Of the American varieties, 
Houghton's Seedling and Mountain Seedling take the lead. The latter is 
a new sort that originated among the Shakers at New Lebanon, New York, 
and on account of its erect habit, great productiveness, good size, and free- 
dom from mildew, promises to be a valuable acquisition, though the fruit is 
not of the very highest quality. 

BLACKBERRIES. 

The display of this fruit has never been surpassed. Some two or three 
contributors lead off with this fruit in a surprising manner. The Dorches- 
ter seems to be the favorite, while the Lawton is not extensively cultivated. 

PLUMS. 
A few contributors have shown fine specimens of this fruit. It is not 
very extensively grown in this vicinity. 

PEACHES. 

The crop of peaches was good this year and some splendid specimens of 
Coolidge's Favorite, Crawford's Early, and other well-known sorts were on 
our tables. There is strong reason to believe that the peach is recovering 
from its diseased condition, and that we shall again be able to raise peaches 
as of old. We hope this may be the case, for no fruit is perhaps more de- 
licious, while it may be eaten freely by sick and well without fear of inju- 
rious consequences. 

GRAPES. 

The crop of Grapes this year has been almost an entire failure. It is 
true there have been a few fine ones exhibited that were grown in particu- 
larly favorable localities. But these cases are only exceptions to the gen- 
eral fact. It is certain that we must have one of two things if we would 
have ripe grapes, either longer and warmer seasons, a matter over which we 
have no great control, or new varieties that will ripen earlier than those 
now cultivated. We are obliged to go without grapes two years out of 
three. Even the Concord, that is claimed to be ten days or a fortnight 
earlier than the Isabella, did not as a general thing ripen this year. What 
is true of this variety is true of all varieties of good quality. There were 
some grapes shown at our rooms, by Mr. James Hill, as early as Septem- 
ber first, but they were so outrageously poor that your Committee feel 



FRUIT COMMITTEE'S REPORT. 49 

called upon to caution the public against them unless they desire a very 
bad grape ; one that is so foxy and hard as scarcely to be eatable. A few- 
Diana, Delaware, Hartford Prolific, and other grapes, were shown, of very 
satisfactory appearance. 

Allen's Hybrid and Allen's No. 13 were on exhibition several times, and 
were tested by your Committee. 

The former is a grape of the best quality, and said to be hardy. If such 
should prove to be the case, and our seasons will allow of its ripening, it 
must be a valuable sort. Of the No. 13, we cannot say as much in praise, 
though time may prove it to be equally valuable. A grape was sent to the 
Society called the Ontario, but your Committee believe it to be identical 
with Union Village. Jt is evident that the cultivation of hardy grapes in 
this State has thus far been nearly or quite a failure ; and yet every year 
there are new varieties announced that are superior to all others, the best 
grape in the world, and to be just what the public need, which, after a fair 
trial, prove to be no better, if as good as the old and well-known varieties. 
There is a broad field open for experiment in this direction, and he who 
will produce a good grape, that will ripen every year, will prove a true 
benefactor. The grape is a luxury which the people should have within 
their reach, for any one who has a square yard of ground can plant a grape 
vine, and had better do so, if a variety can be found that will ripen. 

APPLES. 

The past year has been one of great fruitfulness, and the apple has 
yielded its fruit in great abundance. It has been the bearing year with 
the Baldwin, a variety which is largely cultivated in this region. The 
display of apples of all kinds, at the weekly exhibitions and at the Annual 
Show, has never been surpassed, if equalled. The tables at the Music 
Hall were loaded to their fullest capacity, and yet there was not room for 
all the fruit, and especially for the apples that were brought in. Among 
the newer kinds the Primate, Gravenstein and Washington hold high rank. 
The list of apples is very large, and yearly increasing. The Pomological 
Society should condemn and entirely discard many of the poorer sorts. 

PEARS. 

The crop of this fruit has been remarkably large this year. Never, in 
the history of the country, have pears sold so low in Boston market as 
during the month of September of this year. Bartlett pears, of good 
quality, sold as low as two dollars per bushel, while those of inferior 
quality sold at a still lower rate. This may not be the case again for 
many years. It is desirable to have the price reasonably low, so that the 
people may buy and eat of this fruit. The varieties of pears are so numer- 
ous that a novice is lost in wonder and bewilderment when he takes up the 
Catalogues of our nurserymen to select a dozen or two trees for his own 
garden. The question is often asked, what varieties shall we raise ? One 
of our intelligent cultivators will answer, plant for six varieties, Bartlett, 
Seckel, Beurre Bosc, Fulton, Winter Nelis, and Buffum. Another would 
4 



50 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

add, or substitute, Beurre d'Anjou, Merriam, Louise Bonne de Jersey^ 
Flemish Beauty, Sheldon, Swan's Orange, and other sorts. The Glout 
Morceau has done unusually well this year. It is pretty certain if a soil 
is at all adapted to the production of pears one cannot get far astray if 
he plants these sorts, while experience may teach him that there are other 
varieties that can be grown to profit. Some new varieties have been 
shown during the past season. The Hovey, or Dana's No. 16, has been 
before the Society for several years, and has fully sustained the high opin- 
ion at first entertained concerning it. It is a pear of the highest quality, of 
fair size, and long-keeping for an autumn pear; a vigorous, symmetrical 
grower, with beautiful, glossy, camellia-like foliage. It promises to take a 
high rank among our best pears. The Committee have examined and 
tested several of Mr. Dana's other seedlings, including the Mace, Ladies' 
Favorite, and others, not yet named, but do not consider them of any par- 
ticular value. Mr. Dana has been very successful in producing new seed- 
lings, several of which have found their way into the Catalogues of the 
nurserymen. 

Mr. Thaddeus Clapp exhibited the fruit of several seedling pears, raised 
by him from seed planted in 1848. The following descriptions were 
kindly furnished by Mr. Clapp : — 

" Seedling, No. J . This pear was raised from the seed of the Flemish 
Beauty, and, in many respects, as to quality, time of ripening, and external 
appearance, resembles its parent, except it is more globular in form, and 
inferior in size. In flavor, however, it is more sprightly and vinous, and 
hence, by some tastes, preferred. Ripe, from the second to the last week 
in September. Tree, vigorous and productive." 

The Committee did not regard this pear as particularly valuable, from its 
near resemblance to its parent, without any advantages over it. 

" Seedling, No. 2. On exhibition at the Horticultural Rooms, September 
first. This is, perhaps, a seedling of the Seckel, which it resembles in 
form and quality. Size, nearly medium ; skin, of a greenish russet, be- 
coming yellow towards maturity; flesh, rich, sweet and juicy. The fruit 
should be picked early, for, if allowed to mature on the tree, it is apt to 
become dry and mealy. Ripe, from the middle to the last of August." 

The Committee believe this pear to be well worthy of a further trial. 

" Seedling, No. 3, or Clapp's Favorite. This tree has, from the first, 
attracted attention, on account of its vigorous growth and the beauty of its 
foliage. It presents a smooth trunk, the lower branches horizontal, or 
gently inclined ; upper ones erect, and thickly set with fruit-spurs ; leaves, 
large, of a deep glossy green, thick and camellia-like. It has never shown a 
thorn. Through favor of Col. Wilder, I here avail myself of a description 
of the fruit, as furnished him by Mr. Charles Downing." " Clapp's Fa- 
vorite. Fruit, large, obovate, pyriform ; greatest diameter, towards the 
centre ; slightly angular, surface uneven ; somewhat in general appearance 
like the Bartlett ; skin, very thin, pale lemon-yellow, marbled and faintly 
splashed with crimson and fawn, when fully exposed to the sun, and 
thickly sprinkled with brown dots, and sometimes slight traces of russet. 



FRUIT COMMITTEE'S REPORT. 51 

Stalk, nearly an inch long, stout, and somewhat fleshy, a little inclined, 
inserted in a slight depression ; calyx open, or partially closed, segments 
stiff and erect; basin shallow, slightly corrugated. Flesh, white, fine, 
juicy, buttery, melting, with a rich, sweet, delicate vinous flavor, a little 
perfumed. A new, promising fruit. Ripe, last week of August and first 
week of September." 

This is truly one of the most promising varieties that has come before 
your Committee, and they do not hesitate to say that they believe it will 
be a great acquisition to our early autumnal pears. 

" Seedling, No. 4, or Dorchester Beauty. The tree is a fine grower, and 
very productive. I here insert a description from the same source as the 
preceding. Size, rather large, 2| by 2§ inches ; form, obovate ; skin, yel- 
low, with a carmine cheek, inclining to orange, and containing a few gray 
dots ; stem, three fourths of an inch long, inserted in a very small cavity, 
with several faint rings ; calyx, medium ; segments, erect, set in a super- 
ficial plaited basin ; core, medium ; seed, plump, light brown ; flesh, not 
very juicy ; flavor, pleasant ; quality, very good. Ripe, from the middle of 
August to the middle of September. In size and attractiveness so pre- 
possessing that it is worthy of cultivation." 

This is one of the most beautiful looking pears that have been produced, 
but the specimens tested by the Committee were dry, and of ordinary 
quality. The past season having been unfavorable for the production of 
fruit of high flavor, it is not safe to express a very decided opinion of any 
new fruit. 

" Seedling, No. 20. The form of this pear resembles that of the Marie 
Louise ; size, somewhat above medium ; skin, greenish ; flesh, fine-grained, 
melting and juicy, and so nearly resembling the Bartlett in flavor as 
scarcely to be distinguished from it; hence, probably, a seedling of that 
variety. The fruit keeps well, not rotting at the core, and is in use from 
the last week in September to the middle of October." 

This fruit was twice tested by the Committee, and they are unanimously 
of the opinion that it never will be a desirable sort. The flavor is like the 
unpleasant part of the flavor of the Bartlett, intensified. Mr. Clapp is an 
intelligent cultivator, and we shall watch his experiments with a good deal 
of interest, and if he never gives to the world another pear except the 
Clapp's Favorite, he will long be remembered. 

Hon. Samuel Walker placed upon the tables his new seedling pear, 
which is said to be very productive. It is a pear of medium size, russet 
color, with red cheek, stout stem, and of a very remarkable strong cinna- 
mon flavor. This is a chance seedling, and certainly a promising one. 

There was a pear brought into the annual exhibition by J. F. C. Hyde, 
from the farm of Mr. William Aiken, of Newton Centre, which was sup- 
posed to be the St. Michael. The best judges could not agree upon what 
to call it, for, though it resembled some of the old sorts, yet it was some- 
what peculiar. After a careful examination of the tree, there is little doubt 
but that it is a seedling. If it should prove to be a new variety, it will be 



52 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

a valuable addition to our list of pears, as all agree that it is of the first 
quality, good size, and ripens the last of September to the first of October. 

A seedling pear, which was sent from New Haven by Mr. E. E. Clark, 
appears to be a seedling of the Jargonelle, and promises to be of some 
value. Other seedling pears have been tested, but none found to possess 
any considerable merit. 

Among the older sorts that appeared well on the tables, were Supreme 
de Quimper, Pinneo, Ott, Brandywine, Sterling, Tyson, Dearborn's Seed- 
ling, Bartlett, and others among the early varieties. Among the fall pears, 
Beurre Snperfin, Beurre Sterkman or Hardy, Andrews, Buffum, Beurre 
Bosc, Beurre Diel, Beurre d'x\njou, Duchess d'Angouleme, Merriam, Swan's 
Orange, Seckel, and other well-known sorts, appeared remarkably well. Of 
the winter fruit, the Lawrence, Glout Morceau, and Winter Nelis were 
very fine. 

A few specimens of the new pear, Durandeau, or De Tongres, were 
exhibited and tested by your Committee. The annexed description we 
take from Hovey's Magazine : " This is another noble and beautiful pear. 
It was raised by M. Durandeau, at Tongres, in France, and was first put 
into the market in 1851. It is called sometimes by the name of its culti- 
vator, and sometimes by that of the town where it was raised. The tree is 
moderately vigorous on the pear root, but is rather tender and weak on the 
quince. It forms a handsome pyramid, and bears young and abundantly. 
Fruit, very large, pyriform, much swollen out; skin, delicate, covered with 
a fine golden russet, tinged with red when fairly exposed to the sun ; flesh, 
fine, buttery, very juicy, vinous, sprightly, and deliciously perfumed. It is 
a pear of the highest quality, which, with its size and beauty, must make 
it a general favorite. It ripens in October, and keeps some time." 

New pears should be received with some caution, and, whether foreign 
or native sorts, should be well tested before they are recommended for 
general cultivation. A man must be very bold who will introduce a new 
pear for popular favor when there are so many varieties of such high merit. 
It is perfectly absurd to add one after another to the long list of pears, 
unless they are better in some respect than any other variety ripening at 
the same season, either in size, beauty, — which has much to do with the 
sale of the fruit, — productiveness, hardiness, quality, its long-keeping, or 
in some other quality surpassing everything now on the list. Every new 
fruit should undergo this test, and if it fails to come up to it, then refuse to 
admit it into good society. This should apply to all fruits. 

Increased attention is being paid to the growing of pears for the market. 
Many new orchards have been set out in the vicinity of Boston within a 
year or two. A large portion of the trees so set will never yield much 
fruit, for the trees will not receive that care and attention which they de- 
mand, and must have, where success is attained. Few soils seem to be 
perfectly well adapted to the growing of this fruit, while in some localities 
it is next to impossible to raise either trees or fruit. The larger and fairer 
specimens, but perhaps not the best in flavor, are raised on what was once 
salt marsh, which has been filled up and prepared for trees. Dwarf pears 



FRUIT COMMITTEE'S REPORT. 53 

seem to flourish better on such soils than in any other locality. It is safe 
to say to any and all who are about setting a pear orchard — first, be sure 
you have a suitable soil ; secondly, that it is well prepared by trenching or 
subsoiling ; thirdly, that it is well enriched to begin with, and kept in such 
a condition year after year ; fourthly, that you have good trees, with good 
roots, of good varieties, and then well set out. After all this is done, make 
up your mind to be content with a few pears for the first seven years, if the 
trees be standards ; and even after they come into full bearing, that they 
will pay, take one year with another, only a fair profit on the investment. 
It is quite time that the public were made to understand that the money 
obtained from fruit sold is not clear profit. To those who cultivate for 
pleasure, or for other reasons than that of profit, these remarks will be of 
less value. 

In bringing this report to a close, it should be remarked that every indi- 
vidual member of the Committee cannot be held responsible for the opinions 
expressed in it, for it must of necessity be prepared by some one, and that 
one will be likely to give his own peculiar views in such a report. In the 
award of premiums and gratuities, the Committee have endeavored to do 
justice to all parties, and if they have failed in any particular, it certainly 
was not intentional. As most men believe that what they raise is better 
than that grown by their neighbors, it is sometimes very difficult to give 
entire satisfaction to all parties. It has, however, been the earnest desire 
of the Committee to do their whole duty as they understand it. 

Joseph S. Cabot, 

James F. C. Hyde, 

William A. Harris, 

W. C. Strong, j> Fruit Committee. 

A. C. BOWDITCH, 

E. A. Story, 

GUSTAVE EVERS, 



14 



MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 



PRIZES AWARDED FOR FRUITS DURING THE SEASON. 



For the best and most interesting" exhibitions of Fruits during the 
season, the Lowell plate, to Hovey & Co., 
For the next best, to H. Vandine, .... 

For the next best, to J. F. Allen, .... 

Apples. — For the best twelve Summer apples, on or before the 
third Saturday of August, to Bowen Harrington, for Wil- 
liams, ....... 

For the next best, to Thaddeus Clapp, for Sweet Bough, 
For the next best, to G. B. Cor dwell, for Early Harvest, 
For the best twelve Autumn apples, on or before the third 
Saturday of November, to Thaddeus Clapp, for Wash- 
ington, . . 
For the next best, to James Eustis, for Gravenstein, 
For the next best, to Bowen Harrington, 
For the best twelve Winter apples, on or before the first Satur- 
day in December, to Thaddeus Clapp, for Baldwin, 
For the next best, to F. H. Corey, for Rhode Island Greening, 
For the next best, to E. Brown, for Yellow Bellflower, 
Apricots. — For the best twelve, on or before the third Saturday 
of August, not awarded, .... 

For the next best, not awarded, .... 

Blackberries. — For the best specimens, not less than two boxes, 
to James Nugent, ..... 

For the next best, to Galen Merriam, 
For the next best, to J. W. Foster, 
For the next best, not awarded. 
Cherries. — For the best specimens, not less than two boxes, to 
William Bacon, .... 

For the next best, to G. B. Cordwell, 
For the next best, to C. E. Grant, . 
Currants. — For the best specimens, not less than two boxes,, to 
J. W. Foster, for Red Dutch, 
For the next best, to James Nugent, for Red Dutch, 
For the next best, to M. P. Wilder, 
Figs. — For the best twelve speci" *ens, to Josiah Newhall, 

For the next best, to J. F. Allen, . 
Gooseberries. — For the best specimens, not less than two boxes 
to James Mitchell, . . 

For the next best, to A. D. Webber, 
For the next best, to G. G. Hubbard, 
Grapes. — For the best specimens, grown under glass, on or be 
fore the third Saturday in July, to Mrs. Durfee, . 
For the next best, to M. H. Simpson, 
For the next best, to Oliver Bennett, 



$15 00 


10 00 


7 00 


6 00 


4 00 


3 00 


6 00 


4 00 


3 00 


6 00 


4 00 


3 00 



5 00 
4 00 
3 00 



4 00 
3 00 

2 00 

3 00 

2 00 

1 00 

3 00 

2 00 

3 00 
2 00 
] 00 

8 00 
6 00 

4 00 



FRUIT COMMITTEE S REPORT. 



55 



For the best specimens, grown under glass, subsequently to the 
third Saturday of July, to Oliver Bennett, 
For the next best, to J. F. Allen, . 
For the next best, not awarded, 
For the best specimens of Native Grapes, to C. E. Grant, for 
Isabella, .... 

For the next best, to Kendall Bailey, for Isabella, 
For the next best, to F. Dana, for Diana, 
For the next best, not awarded, 
For the next best, not awarded, 
Melons. — For the best Muskmelon, grown under glass, on or be 
fore the third Saturday in July, to 
For the best Muskmelon, open culture, on or before the third 

Saturday in September, to E. M. Richards, 
For the best Watermelon, on or before the third Saturday in 
September, to Thomas Walsh, . 
Nectarines. — For the best twelve specimens, to J. F. Allen, 
Peaches. — For the best twelve specimens, grown under glass 
on or before the third Saturday in July, to Oliver Bennett 
For the next best, to C. S. Holbrook, 
For the next best, to J. F. Allen, 
For the next best, not awarded, 
For the best twelve specimens, open culture, to Thaddeus Clapp 
For the next best, to George A. Mudge, 
For the next best, to R. W. Ames, 
For the next best, to G. R. Sampson, 
Pears. — For the best collection, not exhibited 
the Society's plate, 
For the next best, 
For the best twelve specimens Summer pears 

third Saturday in August, to P. R. L. Stone, for Bloodgood 
For the next best, to Hovey & Co., for Bloodgood, . 
For the next best, to H. Vandine, for Beurre GhTard, 
For the best twelve Autumn pears, on or before the third Sat 
urday in November, to J. F. Allen, for Seckel, 
For the next best, to H. Vandine, for Buffum, 
For the next best, to P. J. Stone, for Van Mons Leon le Clerc 
For the next best, to Hovey & Co., for Moore's Pound, 
For the best twelve Winter pears, on or before the first Satur 
day in December, to A. J. Dean, for Beurre Diel, 
For the next best, to J. B. Loomis, for Lawrence, 
For the next best, to William R. Austin, 
For the next best, to William R. Austin, 
Plums. — For the best specimens, not less than two boxes, to 
R. W. Ames, 
For the next best, to H. Vandine, . 
For the next best, to F. Dana, for Jefferson 



before, this year. 



on or before th 



$8 00 
6 00 



8 00 
6 00 
5 00 



2 00 

2 00 

3 00 



00 
00 
00 

00 
00 
00 
00 



none, 
none. 

5 00 

3 00 

2 00 

6 00 

4 00 

3 00 
2 00 

6 00 



00 
00 
00 

00 
00 
00 



56 



MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 



Quinces. — For the best twelve specimens, to Thomas Page, . $3 00 

For the next best, to E. M. Richards, . . 2 00 
Raspberries. — For the best specimens, not less than two boxes, 

to J. W. Foster, . . . . 4 00 

For the next best, to William R. Austin, for Knevet's Giant, 3 00 

For the next best, to William R. Austin, for Franconia, . 2 00 

For the next best, to George Davenport, . . 1 00 

Strawberries. — For the best display, during the season, to 

Hovey & Co., . . . . . 8 00 

For the best collection, shown at one time, to Hovey & Co., . 6 00 
For the best specimens, not less than two boxes, to J. W. 

Foster, for Brighton Pine, . . . 5 00 

For the next best, to W. H. Barnes, for Brighton Pine, . 4 00 

For the next best, to T. Walsh, for Jenny Lind, . 3 00 

For the next best, to Isaac Fay, for Jenny Lind, . 2 00 



GRATUITIES. 

To F. Dana, for Seedling pear No. 16, (Hovey,) Silver medal, and 
" Thaddeus Clapp, for new pears, 
" Samuel Walker, for new pear, 
" Warren Heustis, for De Tongres pear, 
" G. A. Godbold, for De Tongres pear, 
" Hovey &, Co., for new pears, 
" W. A. Crafts, for Glout Morceau pear, 
" F. H. Corey, for collection of fruits, 
" G. L. Stearns, for peaches, . 
" Dr. Bemis, for collection of apples, . 
" J. B. Moore, for Golden Russet apples, 
" Marshall P. Wilder, for fruits during the season, 
" Joseph Breck, do. do., 

" Bowen Harrington, do. do., 

" J. W. Foster, do. do., 

" Asa Clement, do. do., 

" James Eustis, for apples, 
" William Bacon, for pears, 
" John A. Kenrick, for apples, 
" W. C. Strong, for currants and grapes, 
" George B. Cutter, for grapes, 
" J. W. Manning, for fruit during the season, 



" Oliver Bennett, do. 

" C. E. Grant, do. 

" Kendall Bailey, for grapes, . 
" James Munroe, for apples, . 
" E. A. Story, for apples, 
" George Davenport, for grapes, 
" Thomas Walsh, 



do., 
do., 



Silver medal. 



$20 00 
3 00 
3 00 
2 00 



00 
00 
00 
00 
00 



00 
00 
00 
00 
00 
00 
00 
00 



2 00 
2 00 
2 00 
2 00 
2 00 
2 00 
2 00 
2 00 

2 00 

3 00 
1 00 



FRUIT COMMITTEE'S REPORT. 



57 



PRIZES FOR FRUITS AWARDED DURING THE ANNUAL 

EXHIBITION. 
For the best 12 Bartlett pears, the Stanwood Silver Cup, to 

Alexander Dickinson, valued at . . . . $25 00 

Apples. — For the best twenty varieties, of twelve specimens each, 

the Lyman Plate, to Thaddeus Clapp, . . 20 00 

For the next best, to A. D. Williams, . . 15 00 

For the next best, to Asa Clement, . . 12 00 
For the best fifteen varieties, twelve specimens each, to Hovey 

& Co., . * . . . . 12 00 

For the next best, to J. W. Foster, . . 10 00 

For the next best, to Josiah Stickney, . . 8 00 
For the next best ten varieties, twelve specimens each, to 

John Gordon, . . . . . 8 00 

For the next best, to B. Bruce, . . . 6 00 

For the next best, to E. S. Rand, . . 5 00 
For the best five varieties, of twelve specimens each, to J. 

Gammell, . . . . . 6 00 

For the next best, to Thomas Walsh, • . 5 00 

For the next best, to Bowen Harrington, . . 4 00 
For the best dish of apples, twelve specimens of one variety, to 

Warren Heustis, . . . . 5 00 

For the next best, to Thaddeus Clapp, . . 4 00 

For the next best, to Thomas Marsh, . . . 3 00 

For the next best, to W. Bachelder, . . 2 00 
Pears. — For the best twenty varieties, of twelve specimens each, 

to Hovey & Co., . . . . . 25 00 

For the next best, to William Bacon, . . 20 00 

For the next best, to John Gordon, . . . 16 00 
For the best fifteen varieties, of twelve specimens each, to 

J. Eaton, . . . . . 15 00 

For the next best, to Hervey Davis, . . 12 00 

For the next best, to Wm. R. Austin, . . 10 00 
For the best ten varieties, of twelve specimens each, to Jesse 

Haley, . . . . . . 10 00 

For the next best, to Francis Dana, . . 8 00 

For the next best, to W. H. Barnes, . . 6 00 
For the best five varieties, of twelve specimens each, to W. P. 

Butterfield, . . . . . 6 00 

For the next best, to S. W. Fowle, . . 5 00 
For the best dish of pears, twelve specimens of one variety, 

to A. D. Williams, for Seckel, . . . 5 00 

For the next best, to lohn Gordon, for Beurre Bosc, . 4 00 

For the next best, to J. Eaton, for F. Beauty, . 3 00 

For the next best, to W. R. Austin, for E. Beurre, . 2 00 



58 



MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 



Peaches. — For the best collection of not less than eight varieties, 
to Thaddeus Clapp, .... 

For the next best, to Francis Dana, 
For the best collection of not more than four varieties, to Joseph 
Breck, ...... 

For the next best, to Samuel Walker, 
Plums. — For the best collection of not more than four varieties 
to William Bacon, .... 

For the next best, to H. Vandine, . 
Grapes, Foreign. — For the best five varieties, two bunches each 
to E. S. Rand, . 

For the next best, to Joseph Breck, 
For the best two varieties, two bunches each, to C. E» Grant, 

For the next best, to G. G. Hubbard, . 
For the best collection, not less than six varieties, to Mrs. F 
B. Durfee, ..... 

For the next best, to H. S. Mansfield, 
Grapes, Native. — For the best specimens, to George Davenport 
For the next best, to G. B. Cutter, . 
For the next best, to I. P. Clark, 
For the next best, ..... not 



#10 00 
6 00 



00 
00 





GRATUITIES. 


To Hovey and Co., for collection of 


pears, 


To Marshall P. Wilder, 


do. 


do. 


To Samuel Walker, 


do. 


do. 


To Josiah Stickney, 


do. 


do. 


To Aaron D. Weld 


do. 


do. 


To Wm. H. Spooner, Jr., 


do. 


do. 


To N. R. Child, 


do. 


do. 


To W. T. Andrews, 


do. 


do. 



5 00 

4 00 

10 00 
8 00 

5 00 

4 00 

10 00 
8 00 

5 00 
4 00 
3 00 

awarded. 



10 00 

10 00 

8 00 



00 
00 
00 
00 
00 



To J. F. Allen, George Newhall, Charles Newhall, J. S. Sleeper, J. 
B. Smith, H. Vandine, J. R. Poor, $3 each, 

To N. White, J. B. Loomis, J. C. Chase, R. S. Frost, Augustus 
Parker, C. D. Swain, S. Downer, J. W. Merrill, John A, 
Kenrick, William Aiken, and E. A. Story, $2 each, 

To Isaac Fay, W. R. Sampson, R. Lamson, G. Gilbert, N. Har- 
ris, Jame« Munroe, J. Parker, and Mrs. S. C. Cole, $1 

ccLCIl* •••••• 

To G. G. Hubbaid, for orchard-house fruit, and to Smith & Han- 

chett, Syracuse, N. Y., for collection of pears and apples, 

each, Silver 
Plums. — Joseph Breck, A. J. Dean, J. B. Loomis, John Mulley, C. 

Hill, Jr., $2 each, . 

To H. Homer, Francis Dana, R. W. Ames, A. R. Roberts, $1 

each, ....... 

Peaches. — J. F. Allen, Asa Clement, S. Sweetser, Wm. Paige, 

A. H. Ramsey, $2 each, .... 



21 00 

22 00 

8 00 

medal. 

10 00 

4 00 

10 CO 



FRUIT COMMITTEE'S REPORT. 59 

To E. Paige, S. Howard, G. E. Howard, G. E. Ridler, Charles 
Williams, Benj. Bruce, Mrs. S. Pratt, G. Stedman, J. B. 
Loomis, W. P. Lamson, N.Harris, T. J. Elliott, H. Winship, 
J. W. Merrill, #3 each, . . . . 42 00 

Nectarines.— To G. W. Willis, $2. To W. Delano, #1. . 3 00 

Grapes. — To A.Davenport, for Native Grapes; to J. Fiske Allen, 

for a display of greenhouse grapes, $2 each, . 4 00 

Apples. — For collections, to G. G. Hubbard, Joseph Breck, S. B. 
Blagge, George Newhall, E. M. Richards, Eben Wight, 
S. M. Weld and W. W. Wheildon, #3 each, . . 24 00 

To J. A. Stetson, W. T. Andrews, James Munroe, and E. C. 

Sparhawk, $2 each, . . . . 8 00 

To Samuel Walker, for Gravensteins, . . . 1 00 

To Isaac Fay, E. Spalding, Mrs. S. W. Cole, J. H. Chadwick, 
W. P. Baker, J. B. Judkins, Nathaniel White, J. W. 
Manning, Eliphalet Stone and E. Luke, $ I each, for collec- 
tions, . . . . . . 10 00 

To Seth W. Fowle, W. J. Breed, J. B. Moore, and Mrs. Lydia 

Dodge, $1 each, for single dish, . . . 4 00 

To E. A. Story, for dish of Orange Sweets, . . 1 00 



60 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

REPORT OF THE COMMITTEE ON VEGETABLES, 

For the Year 1860. 
BY DANIEL T. CURTIS, CHAIRMAN. 

In conformity to the By-Laws of the Society, we offer our report for the 
past year. Your Committee feel gratified at the renewed interest mani- 
fested during the past season, as evinced by the healthy competition among 
contributors for the prizes in this department, and look forward with confi- 
dence to increased efforts in the future. 

The kitchen garden is often regarded, by those who may be following 
larger and more complicated pursuits of life, as a spot hardly deserving 
notice; yet to the intelligent and reflecting mind, what place can be made 
more attractive ? No land pays a higher rate of interest than a well-man- 
aged kitchen garden, and the quantity of vegetables it may be made to 
produce, under proper cultivation, is really astonishing. The eye, as well 
as the other senses, cannot fail to be pleased by a well-stocked vegetable 
garden ; it not only contributes largely to good living, but also to healthy 
exercise and refinement. 

The cultivation of vegetables for the markets of large cities is one of 
those branches of agricultural science that requires a very practical mind. 
Where do we find this better illustrated, than at the well-conducted market 
gardens in this vicinity, — the Williams', the French's, the Coolidge's, the 
Crosby's, the Stone's, the Rand's, the Stickney's, and others in the environs 
of Boston that have contributed so much to the interests of the Society, 
and we may truly say of the Commonwealth, during the past thirty years, 
by developing the science of agriculture ? 

During the season there have been but few new varieties offered for 
examination, and these may be left until another season for further trial. 
The varieties placed on the tables were a " Hybrid sweet corn," raised by 
A. D. Webber ; the "Honolulu Nectarine squash," by Josiah Newhall; and 
" Perfected tomato," by George Newhall. 

The " Victoria Marrow pea," grown by Bowen Harrington, and exhibited 
for the first time this season, is one that we judge worthy the attention of 
every cultivator of this delicious vegetable. As to flavor, we think it has 
no equal among the intermediate or late varieties. Mr. Harrington remarks 
that it is very productive, but not as early as the " Champion of England." 

By referring to the premiums awarded, it will be seen that the " Early 
Daniel O'ftourke pea" is one of the earliest and most productive; a well- 
grown peck measure of them, even full, will weigh in the pods about seven 
and a half pounds, thus giving, perhaps, a standard weight to early varie- 
ties. During the season every variety placed on your tables has been in 
every respect of superior quality. 

The cultivation of rhubarb is extensive, and the prominent varieties are 
the "Myatt's Linnaeus" (early), and "Victoiia" (late). The "Cahoon" 



VEGETABLE COMMITTEE'S REPORT. 61 

does not show any superiority for productiveness, and to the taste is more 
acid. It has an unattractive, dull-green stalk, and does not, in the opinion 
of your Committee, merit extended cultivation in this section of the country. 

The variety exhibited by Messrs. Barnes & Washburn, called the " Early 
Prince Imperial," is, in all respects, the best flavored we have ever tested. 
It invariably turns red in cooking, which makes it preferable for the table 
as a sauce. The stalks are of medium size. We fully commend it for 
extensive cultivation, as particularly adapted to the wants of the family, 
if not to the wishes of the market gardener, to whom size and productive- 
ness are more than flavor. 

As an esculent, the cultivation of Sea kale is very limited, though, when 
well grown, it is considered one of the best, and, on good authority, one 
of the most valuable additions to the list of culinary vegetables. In our 
opinion it is one of the most delicious, for an early production ; and we 
wish to see it oftener placed on our tables, and its cultivation for market 
receive the attention it deserves. 

The Annual Exhibition must still be fresh in the minds of all who visited 
the Music Hall, where there has rarely been seen a more magnificent dis- 
play. The varieties were many, and the greatest perfection was noticed 
among the root crops, that are now claiming so much attention in all parts 
of the country. Comparing this with other seasons, we doubt if the quantity 
and quality presented for examination have ever been exceeded. Taking 
this into consideration, with the zeal manifested by contributors, it may be 
considered one of the main features of the exhibition — for in this depart- 
ment all felt at home, and familiar with most of the specimens contributed. 
In the examination of fruits, there is much that attracts the eye by brilliant 
coloring and size of specimens, and the names of varieties and their quali- 
ties are so little studied and known, that they are little commented upon ; 
but to the vegetable department all come with familiarity, and all delight 
to discuss the merits of potatoes, squashes, carrots, beets, melons, &c. 

The collection of potatoes, exhibited by C. W. Gleason, received much 
attention. Among the seedlings, some, by form and texture, claimed our 
special notice, and from them we may expect additions of superior quality, 
especially as Mr. Gleason has given much time and careful attention to 
this department of agriculture. 

Since the introduction of the " Hubbard squash," by James J. H. Gregory, 
it has been extensively cultivated in most of the States, and in every loca- 
tion has become a favorite. It is well known in our markets, receiving the 
highest praise from all that desire a fine squash for the table. We there- 
fore recommend a special premium or gratuity to Mr. Gregory for this 
valuable introduction. 

In taking leave of this subject, we wish to return our thanks to those 
who have contributed so largely to our mutual benefit during the past 
season, and to express the hope that the coming year will see the gardener's 
labor crowned with equal success. The occupation is a noble one, and in 
the highest degree worthy of the notice and the pursuit of the gentleman 
and the farmer. It becomes us not to neglect these treasures of the vege- 



62 



MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 



table kingdom, which a good Providence has appointed for our sustenance 
and enjoyment, and which he has been graciously pleased to place within 
the reach of every industrious and intelligent cultivator. 



PREMIUMS AWARDED AT THE WEEKLY EXHIBITIONS. 



Asparagus. — For the best, to J. B. Moore, 

For the next best, to J. Nugent, . . . 

Beets. — For the best, to Josiah Crosby, for Turnip Blood, 
For the next best, to Abner Pierce, for Early Bassano, 
For the next best, to Jonas Gammell, for Turnip Blood, 
For the best winter, to James Nugent, for Long Blood, 
Beans. — For the best Early Shelled, to James Nugent, . 
For the next best, to William Bacon, 
For the best Large Lima, to Thomas Walsh, 
Cabbages. — For the best, to G. W. Pierce, for Early Ox-heart, 
For the next best, to Josiah Crosby, for Early Flat Dutch, 
Carrots. — For the best, to Josiah Crosby, for Long Orange, 

For the next best, to G. W. Pierce, for Early Short Scarlet, 
Cauliflower. — For the best, to G. R. Sampson, for Half Early 

.r aris, .«••.. 

Celery. — For the best, to Josiah Crosby, 
Corn. — For the best, to Josiah Crosby, for Improved Sweet, 
For the next best, to Abner Pierce, for Improved Sweet, 
For the next best, to A. D. Webber, for Webber's New Hybrid, 
Cucumbers. — For the best under glass (three varieties),- to M. P 
Wilder, for Carter's Champion, Walker's Fine Long, and 
Manchester Prize, . - 
For the next best, to C. S. Holbrook, for Improved Scion 
house, ...... 

For the best open culture, to G. W. Pierce, 
For the next best, to Josiah Crosby, . 
Egg Plants. — For the best, to Jonathan French, for Long and 
Round Purple, ..... 

Lettuce. — For the best, to Augustus Parker, for Cabbage, 

For the next best, to D. and Geo. F. Stone, for varieties, 
Onions. — For the best, to G. W. Pierce, . 
For the next best, to Josiah Crosby, . 
Parsnips. — For the best, to Abner Pierce, for Long Dutch, 
Potatoes. — For the best, to Josiah Crosby, for Dikeman, 
For the next best, to Jonas Gammell, for Chenango, 
For the next best, to Augustus Parker, Nichol's Early, 
Peas. — For the best, to James Nugent, for Daniel O'Rourke, level 
peck, 7 pounds 10 ounces, .... 

For the next best, lo Thomas Walsh, for do., level peck, 7 
pounds 8 ounces, ..... 



#4 00 



3 
4 
3 
2 
4 
3 



00 
00 
00 
00 
00 
00 

2 00 

3 00 
3 00 

2 00 

3 00 

2 00 

5 00 

3 00 

4 00 
3 00 
2 00 



4 00 

3 00 
3 00 
2 00 



00 
00 
00 
00 
00 
00 
00 
00 
00 



4 00 
3 00 



VEGETABLE COMMITTEE'S REPORT. 



63 



For the next best, to Geo. R. Sampson, for do., level peck, 6 
pounds 8 ounces, ...... 

For the best late, to Bowen Harrington, for Victoria Marrow, . 

Rhubarb. — For the best, to G. W. Pierce, for 12 stalks Victoria, 

22 pounds, ....... 

For the next best, to Bowen Harrington, for 12 stalks Victoria, 
21 £ pounds, ..... 

Squashes. — For the best, to Abner Pierce, for Summer Scollop, 
For the next best, to Bowen Harrington, for Summer Warted, 
Tomatoes. — For the best, to G. L. Stearns, for Smooth Red, 
For the next best, to Thomas Walsh, for Smooth Red, 
For the next best, to G. W. Pierce, for Smooth Red, 
Turnips. — For the best, to Jonas Gammell, for Purple-top Flat 
For the next best, to Abner Pierce, for Purple-top Flat, 

GRATUITIES PREVIOUS TO OPENING THE HALL. 

To E. G. Keliey, for forced rhubarb and Olive radishes, 

To G. R. Sampson, for forced tomatoes, 

To J. B. Moore, for asparagus, 

To R. W. Turner, for forced cucumbers, 

To G. W. Pierce, for lettuce, 

To A. Hatch, for asparagus, 

WEEKLY GRATUITIES. 

To Samuel Sweetser, for early rhubarb, 

To G. R. Sampson, for tomato plant in fruit, 

To Bowen Harrington, for varieties, 

To James Nugent, for Cahoon rhubarb, 

To G. R. Sampson, for the same, . 

To Galen Merriam, for the same, . 

To W. H. Barnes, for the same, 

To G. W. Pierce, for Marrow peas, 

To F. T. Bush, for Imperial Coss lettuce, 

To Augustus Parker, for display of potatoes, in bags, 

To Samuel Phipps, for the same, . 

To I. P. Rand, for tomatoes and cucumbers, 

To Samuel Eldridge, for onions, . 

To E. A. Story, for Early Manley potatoes, 

To J. McTear, for Brussells sprouts, 

To Anthony Hatch, for late cauliflowers, . 

To Josiah Newhall, for six Honolulu Nectarine squashes (new), 



$2 00 
3 00 

3 00 



2 00 


3 00 


, 2 00 


4 00 


3 00 


2 00 


3 00 


2 00 


2 00 


1 00 


1 00 


2 00 


1 00 


1 00 


2 00 


2 00 


3 00 


1 00 


. 1 00 


1 00 


1 00 


1 00 


1 00 


2 00 


2 00 


2 00 


1 00 


1 00 


1 00 


2 00 


2 00 



SPECIAL PREMIUM, IN PLATE. 

To James J. H. Gregory, for the introduction of the Hubbard 
squash, ....... 



25 00 



64 



MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 



PREMIUMS AWARDED AT THE ANNUAL EXHIBITION. 



-Sweet 



Beets. — For the best, to G. W. Pierce, for Turnip Blood, 

For the next best, to Josiah Grosby, for the same, 

For the next best, to S. A. Merrill, for Long Blood, . 
Carrots. — For the best, to Josiah Crosby, for Long Orange, 

For the next best, to Augustus Parker, for the same, 

For the "next best, to G. W. Pierce, for the same, 
Corn. — For the best, to A. Bowditch, for two varieties 
Burr's Improved and Early Yellow, 

For the next best, to J. B. Moore, for the same, 

For the next best, to S. A. Merrill, for the same, 
Potatoes. — For the best, to E. A. Story, for varieties, 

For the next best, to S. A. Merrill, for the same, 

For the next best, to J. B. Moore, for the same, 

For the next best, to Augustus Parker, for the same, 
Parsnips. — For the best, to Josiah Crosby, 

For the next best, to Abner Pierce, . 

For the next best, to Augustus Parker, • 

Squashes. — For the best, to I. P. Rand, for Hubbard and Marrow 

For the next best, to Josiah Stickney, for the same, . 

For the next best, to Josiah Crosby, for the same, 

For the next best, to D. & Geo. F. Stone, for the same, 
Turnips. — For the best, to Abner Pierce, for Purple-top Flat, 

For the next best, to G. R. Sampson, for the same, . 

For the next best, to D. & Geo. F. Stone, for the same, 
Tomatoes. — For the best, to W. T. Andrews, 

For the next best, to S. A. Merrill, . 
Cabbages. — For the best Drumhead, to Anthony Hatch, 

For the next best, to S. A. Merrill, . 

For the next best, to Abner Pierce, . 
For the best single specimen Drumhead, to S. W. Hathaway 
41 pounds, ...... 

Melons. — For the best, to E. M. Richards, for Christiana, 

For the next best, to Josiah Crosby, for Greenflesh, . 

For the next best, to Josiah Stickney, for the same, . 

Water Melons. — For the best, to Thomas Walsh, for Mountain 

Sweet, ....... 

No other awarded. 
Mammoth Squash. — For the best, to Anthony Hatch, weight 
138 pounds, ..... Silver 

For the next best, to W. II. Barnes, weight 117 pounds, 



. #4 00 


3 00 


2 00 


4 00 


. 3 00 


2 00 

.4. 


4 00 


3 00 


2 00 


5 00 


4 00 


3 00 


2 00 


4 00 


3 00 


2 00 


5 00 


4 00 


3 00 


2 00 


4 00 


3 00 


2 00 


3 00 


2 00 


4 00 


4 00 


2 00 


2 00 


4 00 


3 00 


2 00 



4 00 



medal. 
3 00 



GRATUITIES. 

To G. R. Sampson, for fine collection, . . . 10 00 

To C. W. Gleason, for collection of fifty-six varieties potatoes, . 10 00 



VEGETABLE COMMITTEE'S REPORT. 



65 



To D. & Geo. F. Stone, for collection, 

To S. A. Merrill, for the same, 

To J. B. Moore, for the same, 

To Abner Pierce, for the same, . „ 

To Thomas Walsh, for the same, . 

To Henry J. Hill & Co., for Hubbard and Marrow squashes, 

To James Cartwright, for three mammoth squashes, 

To Augustus Parker, for collection, 

To G. W. Pierce, for curled endive (salad), 

To George B. Cordwell, for collection, 

To John A. Kendrick, for onions, . 

To George Newhall, for Perfected tomatoes (new), 

To Josiah Stickney, for Yellow-flesh musk melons, 

To John Wright, for collection, 

To Jonas Gammell, for squashes and corn, 

To Hovey & Co., for the same, 

To David Lane, for Purple egg plants, 

To S. B. Blagg, for squashes, 

To Bowen Harrington, for collection, 

To James Nugent, for beets, 

To Anthony Hatch, for the same, . 

To S. W. Hathaway, for cabbages, 

To William T. Andrews, for squashes, 

To A. D. Weld, for the same, 

To J. W. Foster, for the same, 

To Eliphalet Stone, for corn, 



$8 00 
6 00 
5 00 
3 00 
3 00 
3 00 
3 00 
3 00 



00 
00 
00 
00 
00 
00 
00 
00 
00 
00 
00 
00 
00 
00 
00 
00 
00 
00 



SILVER MEDALS. 

To Samuel Kneeland, 3d, aged 9, for display of potatoes, squashes, and corn, 

raised by him in Littleton, Mass. 
To Howes Nourse, Salem, for collection of pulverized herbs. 



PUBLICATIONS. 

To James J. H. Gregory, Hovey's Magazine, for Hubbard squashes. 
To D. Faulkner, Maiden, Gardeners' Magazine, for Blood beets. • 
To I. P. Clark, Longwood, the same, for tomatoes. 
To William Butterfield, Cambridgeport, the same, for Jackson potatoes. 



66 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 



REPORT OF THE COMMITTEE ON THE LIBRARY, 

For the Year ending Dec. 31, I860. 

BY EDWAED S. RAND, JR., CHAIRMAN". 

The Library of a Society, whose objects and aims are in any degree the 
pursuit and* cultivation of any of the natural sciences, is a great and im- 
portant element of usefulness. The condition and prosperity of such a 
society may be, in a greater or less degree, dependent upon the state of its 
library ; but its usefulness to its members, and to the public, is far more 
intimately connected with the class of books rendered accessible to them, 
and with the facilities afforded for obtaining that information which, not 
being derivable from experience, they can only gain by consulting the la- 
bors of others, either pioneers or skilful laborers in the field in which they 
would work. 

To a scientific man a well-selected library is indispensable ; the store of 
knowledge gained by experience, though perhaps the most useful, is neces- 
sarily but small, while that gleaned from the writings of others spreads 
over a larger ground, is much more varied, and often available at once for 
our own use. 

It is the duty of every society to provide a library for the use of its mem- 
bers, and, as far as its means permit, to keep that library so stocked with 
books that a reference to it may at once furnish the latest, best, and most 
reliable information. 

To fulfil this duty the Library of our Society was founded many years 
ago ; and the standard works on horticulture, agriculture, floriculture, and 
pomology, as well as on landscape gardening and other kindred subjects, 
were procured, many at, great expense, and at a period when the means of 
the Society were very limited, to form a nucleus for a library. 

Thus far it was well — a beginning was made, and had exertions been 
continued to increase our Library, it would now have held most honorable 
rank as one of the finest collections of horticultural books in existence. 

But, for some unknown reason, the interest began to flag at an early day, 
and but little was done to increase the Library, or extend its sphere of use- 
fulness. 

This apathy, on an all-important subject, is more incomprehensible, as, 
during all these years, our Society has been steadily gaining in wealth and 
position, attaining the rank, which it well holds, of the wealthiest Horti- 
cultural Society in the country. 

It would be unfair to leave the impression that since that first beginning 
we have made no progress. On the contrary, many valuable books have 
from year to year been procured, and the Illustrated Periodicals have been 
obtained, and substantially bound. All we would say is, that the condition 
of the Library has not kept pace with the improved position and increased 
wealth of the Society. 



LIBRARY COMMITTEE'S REPORT. 67 

One circumstance which has done much to cast the Library into the 
shade, and impair its usefulness, was the condition of the Library room. 

A dark, back room, fronting on an obscure, il] -lighted court, where often, 
at noon day, it was necessary to light the gas to read ordinary print, was 
all the place for the Library of the Society. 

No wonder the members felt indisposed to procure expensive books, or 
to make donations, when they must be buried in darkness, and often 
exposed to injury from mould and damp. Many times had efforts been 
made, of late years, for some change; but a fondness for that old room 
lingered in the hearts of many of our oldest and most respected members, 
so that, while the Hall was sufficient to accommodate our Exhibitions, there 
was an unwillingness to press the proposition for a change. 

But the time at last came when the Hall was too small for our Weekly 
Shows. This was first evident during the Rose Show in June, 1858, when 
bushels of flowers were taken away, because there was no room to place 
stands for their reception. During the succeeding eighteen months this 
occurred again and again, till it was evident to all a change was necessary, 
and, without opposition, Committees were appointed to dispose of our old 
Hall, and to procure better accommodations for the Society. A sale of the 
Society's property was most advantageously made, and received the sanc- 
tion of the Society, with but one dissenting vote. 

Our present beautiful and convenient rooms were procured, when it be- 
came evident to all that our Library was not in a state befitting the stand- 
ing and position of the Society. 

At an early day in January last a meeting of the Library Committee was 
held " to examine into the state of the Library, and to ascertain what was 
necessary to improve its condition, and to increase its usefulness." 

This meeting was called at an early hour, and continued until late at 
night. The books were all taken from the shelves, re-arranged, a record 
of all missing volumes taken, and some insight gained into the condition of 
the Library. 

Regular meetings of the Library Committee were held, which were fully 
attended, until the time of the Society's removal to the new Hall, when 
the books were arranged in neat and convenient cases, where they are an 
ornament to the Library-room, and show that our Society is by no means 
insensible to this most important means for the improvement and instruc- 
tion of its members. 

At the first meeting of the Committee it was decided to spend a portion 
of the Library appropriation in the establishment and maintenance of a 
Reading Room for the use of members of the Society. 

A circular was accordingly sent to the editor of every horticultural or 
agricultural paper or periodical, requesting him to forward to a given 
address a copy of his publication, with terras of subscription. 

Answers were very generally received, and from the mass of matter 
thus accumulated your Committee selected those papers and periodicals 
which seemed most ably conducted, and best suited to the wants of the 
Society. 



68 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

The periodicals and papers thus subscribed for, and which have been in 
the Reading Room of the Society during the past year, are the following :— 

The Maine Farmer. 

The New Hampshire Journal of Agriculture. 

The New England Farmer. 

The Magazine of Horticulture. 

The Homestead. 

The Genesee Farmer. 

The American Agriculturist. 

The Horticulturist. 

The Working Farmer. 

Moore's Rural New Yorker. 

The Country Gentleman. 

The American Stock Journal. 

The New Jersey Farmer. 

The Gardeners' Monthly. 

The Farmer and Gardener. 

The American Farmer. 

The Rural Register. 

The Virginia Farm Journal. 

The Farmers' Journal. 

The North Carolina Planter. 

The Farmer and Planter. 

The Southern Field and Fireside* 

The American Cotton Planter. 

The Southern Rural Gentleman. 

The Ohio Cultivator. 

The Ohio Farmer. 

The Ohio Valley Farmer. 

The Kentucky Farmer. 

The Southern Homestead. 

The Indiana Farmer. 

The Prairie Farmer. 

The Illinois Farmer. 

The Farmers' Advocate. 

The Northwestern Farmer. 

The Valley Farmer. 

The Michigan Farmer. N 

The Northwestern Cultivator. 

The Nebraska Farmer. 

The California Culturist. 

The Oregon Farmer. 

The Farmers' Journal. 

The Canadian Agriculturist. 

The American Journal of Science and Arte. 

The Southern Cultivator. 



LIBRARY COMMITTEE'S REPORT. 69 

These, as will be seen, comprise publications from all parts of the United 
States and Canadas. Some of them have not been received regularly ; 
these will probably be discontinued, another year, as well as some which 
are but little called for by the members ; and others, not in the above list, 
may be procured should it be deemed advisable. It will be the aim of the 
Committee to supply the Reading Room with every well-conducted and 
useful horticultural or agricultural periodical, and they cordially invite the 
assistance of the members to aid them in procuring any for which they do 
not already subscribe. 

Your Committee have experienced great difficulty in ascertaining what 
foreign periodicals were most useful for general reading, and some of those 
for which they have subscribed have not been regularly received ; but they 
hope for improvement in this respect as their arrangements become more 
perfected. 

The following is a list of the foreign periodicals which have been sup- 
plied to the Reading Room during the last year : — 

Revue Horticole. 
Illustration Horticole. 
Curtis's Botanical Magazine. 
The Florist. 

The Horticultural Cabinet. 
The Cottage Gardener. 
The Gardeners' Chronicle. 
The Farmers' Magazine. 

The Journal of the Royal Agricultural Society of England. 
Transactions of the Highland and Agricultural Society of Scotland. 
Journal of the Bath and West of England Agricultural Society. 
Flore de Serres. 
The Floral Magazine. 

Pescatore's Manual of Orchidaceous Plants, and the Continuation by 
Linden. 

Your Committee also found that there was no means of marking the 
pamphlets and papers of the Society in the Reading Room ; they therefore 
caused a stamp to be procured, on which the name of the Society, with the 
words, " Not to be taken from the room," was engraved. Each periodical, 
as soon as received, is thus stamped, so that the accidents of missing 
periodicals have been of less frequent occurrence. 

A book was also procured, in which the names of those taking books 
from the Library are registered, with the date, and a space for the signature 
of the member, and the date of return. Thus a receipt is given by each 
member, on his taking a book from the Library, whereby the possibility of 
its loss is very greatly lessened. 

Your Committee, however, regret to say that there were, when they took 
charge of the Library, several very valuable works missing, which, though 
using every endeavor, they have failed to trace. They are the following : 



TO MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

Audubon's Birds, 8vo. edition, 2d vol. 

Illustration Horticole, 2d vol. 

Anderson's Introduction to the Practice of Gardening, 2 vols, 

Bigelow's Plants of Boston, 1 vol. 

Bryant's Floral Dictionary, I vol. 

Downing's Landscape Gardening, 1 vol. 

Gilpin's Landscape Gardening, 1 vol. 

American Orchardist, 1 vol. 

Encyclopaedia of Gardening. 

Mcintosh's Greenhouse, 1 vol. 

Nicol's Practical Planter, 1 vol. 

Phillips' Pomonium Britannicum, 1 vol. 

Phillips' Silva Florifera, vols. 1 and 2. 

Jardins du Roi du Prusse. 

Bulletin de la Societe de Horticulture de Rouen. 

Soyer's Treatise on Cactus and Dahlia. 

Smith's Catalogue of Phsenogamous Plants in South Kent 

Saunders' Culture of the Vine. 

Ecole Centrale des Arts et Manufactures, by Vertismenil, 2 vols. 
And most earnestly would we urge members to examine their libraries and 
book-shelves, to see if any of the above have not ignorantly been retained, 
as thereby much inconvenience or serious loss to the Society may be pre- 
vented. 

The volumes, of themselves, are of little value, but, as portions of sets, 
are invaluable, as many are now out of print, and cannot be procured at 
any price. 

Donations of horticultural or agricultural works would also be thankfully 
received, and acknowledged as provided in the laws relating to the Library. 
It is impossible for us all at once to place our Library in a position cor- 
responding with our condition, but, by constant and untiring efforts, much 
may be done each year to attain this end. 

During the past year two most valuable and rare works have heen added 
to the Library by the Society. 

At the regular May meeting of the Society, Hon. Marshall P. \yilder, in 
a few words, called the attention of the Society to the services rendered 
to Natural History by James D. Dana, of New Haven, and, on motion, it 
was voted — That the Library Committee be specially authorized to purchase 
his works for the Society, at a cost of sixty dollars, the same to be appro- 
priated and paid for out of the treasury, as follows : 

Synopsis of the Report on Zoophytes, 180 pp., 8vo. 

Atlas of Zoophites, containing sixty-one colored plates. 

Structure apd Classification of Zoophites, 128 pp., 4to. 

Report on Crustacea, 2 vols, of text, 1600 pp., 4to. 

Folio vol. of 96 Plates, partly colored. 
At the regular October meeting of the Society, on motion of Eben 
Wight, it was voted — That the Library Committee be specially authorized 
to purchase, and the Treasurer to pay for, at an expense of $25, Histoire 



LIBRARY COMMITTEE'S REPORT. 71 

Naturelle, Agricole et Economique Du Mais, par Matthieu Bonafous, Paris, 
1836. 

This beautifully illustrated and very valuable work is of the utmost rarity, 
and this is probably the only copy in the country. Both of these splendid 
works have been substantially bound, and are in readiness for inspection, 
though, by their size and value, they are, by law, not allowed to be taken 
from the Library room. 

The following works have been added to the Library from the Library 
Fund ; many of them are of great value and are splendidly illustrated: 

Bigelow's History of Mount Auburn. 

Westwood's Arcana Entomologica, 2 vols. 

Curtis's Farm Insects. 

Perennial Plants, by Mrs. Loudon, 1 vol. 

Ornamental Greenhouse Plants, by Mrs. Loudon, 1 vol. 

Our Farm of Four Acres, 1 vol. 

Morton's Handbook of Dairy Farming. 

Downing's Fruit and Fruit Trees of America, last edition. 

Pescatore's Orchidaceous Plants. 

New American Encyclopaedia, vols. 7, 8, 9 and 10. 

Patent Office Report, 1859. 

French's Farm Drainage. 

Chorlton's Grape Grower's Guide. 

Field's Pear Culture. 

Cole's Fruit Book. 

Dixon's Domestic Poultry. 

Flint's Milch Cows and Dairy Farming. 

Jardin Frutier, Nos. 23 to 36. 

Journal of Royal Agricultural Society of England, 20 8vo. volumes. 

Journal of the Highland and Agricultural Society of Scotland, 21 8vo. 
volumes. 

Also, Prize Essays of same Society, 16 8vo. volumes. All these are 
very rare in complete sets and very valuable. 

Hooker's Exotic Plants, 3 vols. 8vo. Very fine plates. 

Scientific Farming Made Easy. 

The Manse Garden. 

Sweet's Flora Australasica. A very beautiful and rare work. 

Hooker's Flora Boreali Americana, 2 vols. 4to., finely illustrated. • 

Burnett's Ornamental and Useful Plants, 2 vols. 4to., finely illustrated. 

Lindley's Introduction to Botany, 2« vols. 8vo. 

Lindley's Ladies' Botany, 2 vols. 8vo. 

Pursh's Flora of North America, 2 vols. 8vo. 

Don's Hortus Cantabrigiensis, 1 vol. 8vo. 

Smith's British Flora, 4 vols. 8vo. 

Moore's Nature Printed Ferns, 2 vols. 8vo. Elegantly illustrated. 

Schliden's Principles of Botany, 1 vol. 8vo. 

Doyle's Cyclopaedia of Husbandry, 1 vol. 8vo. 
The Committee find several sets of books incomplete and have been un- 



72 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

able to obtain the numbers. Should any of the members have the missing 
numbers they would be gratefully received as a donation, or purchased at 
a liberal price. 

They are as follows : 

Edwards' Botanical Register. 

Album Pomologie, 1 and 2 vols. 

Loudon's Gardeners' Magazine, from 1835 to 1844 inclusive. 

Curtis's Botanical Magazine, from vol. 51 to vol. 8, last series, that is, 

"the whole second series. 
Cottage Gardener, vol. 15. 
The whole number of volumes at present in the Library is about nine 
hundred and twenty-five ; of these, 

Twenty-five are folio. 
One hundred are quarto. 
Seven hundred are octavo. 
One hundred are duodecimo. 
The whole number of pamphlets and papers is not far from two thousand. 

In conclusion, your Committee cannot but be well pleased with the im- 
proved condition of the Library; a beginning has been made which may 
result in much in the future, and another year will show a vast improve- 
ment. 

It is with the deepest satisfaction they find the Society have so ap- 
preciated their labors as to honor them with a reelection, and they trust, 
with the cooperation of the other officers and members of the Society, to 
make the Library and Reading Room a potent means of usefulness and 
improvement. 

Your Committee would respectfully ask for an appropriation of five hun- 
dred dollars for the increase of the Library for the year 1861, and also that 
the Society assume the expense necessary in binding the various magazines 
and periodicals, amounting in the aggregate to about fifty dollars per 
annum. 

Edward S. Rand, Jr., 

William A. Harris, 

J. Otis Williams, } Committee. 

W. C. Strong, 

R. McCleary Copeland. j 



LIBRARY COMMITTEE'S REPORT. 73 



In this connection your Committee must accord the highest praise to Mr. 
R. McCleary Copeland, who has held the position of Librarian for more 
than seventeen years. It is wholly owing to his care, diligence, and faithful 
watchfulness, that the Library has been so well preserved under so many 
disadvantageous circumstances. 

It is not saying too much to assert, that but for his care and attention our 
most valuable works would have been very much injured if not wholly 
destroyed, by the damp in our old library room. Your Committee feel that 
Mr. Copeland's long and faithful services demand some token of the So- 
ciety's appreciation, and they respectfully suggest the appointment of a 
Committee to procure, in the name of the Society, a suitable testimonial 
of its appreciation of the value of his services in their behalf. 



Committee 



Edward S. Rand, Jr., 

Wm. A. Harris, 

J. Otis Williams, f ™ the 

W. C. Strong, j 



74 



MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 



REPORT OF THE FINANCE COMMITTEE. 



BY JOSIAH STICKNEY, CHAIRMAN. 

Receipts for 1860. 
By cash, balance brought forward from last year, 

" Principal, from Parker, balance over and above mort- 

gage note, ..... 
Income, Dividends and interest, . $3,220 67 

Rents, . . . 1,589 58 

Receipts from Mount Auburn, 6,164 95 

Assessments ($205 from last year), 1,172 50 
Miscellaneous receipts, . 252 75 

Not income, Receipts from Annual 

Exhibition, . . . 1,600 00 



$2,514 14 



9,317 12 



Payments for 1860. 
To cash paid Mount Auburn, in full, principal and interest, 



14,000 45 

$25,831 71 

$6,496 90 



Premiums and gratuities, . $2,124 00 
Salaries, . . . 650 00 
Printing, binding, and advertising, 558 00 
Expenses Annual Exhibition, . 1,718 54 
Painting, papering, plumbing, whiten- 
ing, &c, new quarters, . 822 00 
Carpeting and furnishing same, 958 00 
Cancelling leases on School Street, 2,225 00 
H. Munroe, bills job work and repairs 

to roof of old building, . 227 93 
Rent, two quarters, . . 775 00 
Special awards, mechanics and mis- 
cellaneous bills, . . 1,709 76 



Investment — To cash paid 65 shares Fitchburg R. R., cost, 
Cash in the treasury, December 31, 1860, 

Property of the Society. 

Permanent Funds, . 

Lyman Fund, 

20 shares Portland and Saco Railroad, 

16 shares Boston and Maine Railroad, 

This year — 65 shares Fitchburg Railroad, 

" Parker's note, secured by mortgage, 

" Library, $2,000 ; Furniture and glass, $2,500, 

Cash on hand December 31, I860, 



11,768 23 

6,625 75 

940 83 

$25,831 71 

$4,000 00 

10,000 00 

2,000 00 

1,600 00 

6,500 00 

60,000 00 

4,500 00 

940 83 



$89,540 83 



FINANCE COMMITTEE^ REPORT. 75 

Note. — The Society having paid to Mount Auburn $6,496 90, in full, 
owe now no debt, nothing but the prizes and bills incident to each new 
year, and the amount voted towards the expenses of waterworks at Mount 
Auburn. 

It will be seen it has cost the Society over $4,000 to cancel leases and 
prepare new quarters, which has added to the expenses this year, and will 
not occur again. 



76 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

ANALYSIS OF CAHOON'S RHUBARB WINE. 

BY PBOF. E. N. HOKSFOKD. 

The wine has the hue of pale brown sherry, and a bouquet and taste 
which several connoisseurs of wine, to whom it has been submitted, pro- 
nounce to be peculiarities of the same wine. Some have perceived also a 
resemblance to Teneriffe. It is dry, slightly acid, and slightly astringent- 
It is clear, and free from sediment. 

The quantity received, being a little less than a tenth of an imperial gal- 
lon, made the determination of some of the ingredients difficult, and of 
others quite impossible. 

Qualitative analysis showed the wine to contain alcohol, sugar, gum, 
slight traces of volatile essential oil, coloring matter, tannin (?), free organic 
acid, organic acid combined with potassa and traces of other inorganic sub- 
stances, but no oxalic acid. 

Quantitative analysis gave the following results :— 

Specific gravity, - - - 0.99837 

Alcohol. — The wine was subjected to distillation, and the total alcohol 
and most of the water separated from the gum, sugar, and other organic 
and inorganic matters, and its specific gravity determined, as in the case of 
the wine, by weight ; and the alcohol calculated from this weight. 

The result gave of alcohol, by weight, 13.15 per cent. 
Corresponding with, by volume, 16.56 " " 

Sugar. — The sugar was determined by the method of the reduction of 
oxide of copper, and gave in three analyses, 
1.80 } 

1.86 > average - 1.80 per cent. 

1.74 ) 
Acid. — The acid was determined by neutralizing, with a graduated solu- 
tion of soda, a given volume of wine. The soda, calculated as anhydrous, 
neutralized by 100 cubic centimetres of wine, was 0.1530 grms. 

This weight of soda would neutralize .2961 grms. of acetic acid, or 

.3306 " of malic acid, or 
.2106 " of citric acid, or 
.3701 " of tartaric acid. 
Acetic acid may have been present as a product of fermentation ; malic 
and citric acids are known to be present in the juice of rhubarb, and tar- 
taric acid is the form in which the acid of acid wines is usually expressed. 
It is proper to add that slow concentration of the wine, to see if any bitar- 
trate of potassa (cream tartar) might crystallize out, gave no indication of 
the presence of this salt. Examination for oxalic acid proved it to be 
wanting. 

The taste suggested the presence of tannin, but the wine at command 
was too small in quantity to permit the satisfactory determination of this 
point. 



cahoon's rhubarb wine. 77 

The gummy residue, remaining after the distillation of the alcohol and 
water, on evaporation to dryness at 212° Fah., contained 

In 100 cubic centimetres, - 4.8126 grms. 

Of this, on ignition, there remained of inorganic 

matters, - .2742 " 

Of this residue, the carbonate of potassa determined 

with bichloride of platinum, was - - .2026 " 

Which, estimated as potassa, gave - - .1380 " 

Leaving a balance of silica and traces of other bod- 
ies, but no soda, - .1716 " 

Deducting from the residue from distillation the in- 
organic matter, sugar and acid, and assuming the 
acid present to be malic acid, and all the potassa 
to be combined with it, there will remain, 

Sugar, - - 1.8000 Total residue, 4.8126 " 

Free malic acid, - .3306 

Malate of potassa, - .3347 

Inorganic residue, - .0716 

2.5369 " 

2.5369 

Of gum, coloring matter, tannin (?), and other unde- 
termined organic substances, - 2.2757 " 

Placing these results together, we have, 

Specific gravity, - .99837 

Composition in one hundred parts — 

Alcohol by weight, 13.15, - - - 13.15 
Alcohol by volume, 16.56. 

Sugar, ------ 1.80 

Free acid, assumed to be malic, - .33 

Potassa salt, assumed to be neutral malate of potassa, .33 

Gum, coloring matter, and other organic matter, - 2.28 

Inorganic residue, - .07 

Water, ----„. 82.04 



100.00 



The analyses of several of the better known wines and liquors are sub- 
joined for comparison :— 



73 



MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 



NAME. 


Year 


Specific 
Gravity 


Per cent, of 
Alcohol by 
volume 


Per cent of 

Alcohol 
by weight. 


Per cent, of 

Acid as 
tartaric acid 


Per cent, of 
Sugar. 


Per cent, of 
Residue at 
212°. 


Hi 
o 

a 
« . 

v < 


Cahoou's Rhu- 

RHINE WINES. 

Rudesheim 

Johamiesberg... . 
Assmannshausen : 


1859 

1822 
1848 
1846 
1846 
1842 
1842 


0.9983 

0.9963 
0.9963 
9955 
0.9963 
0.9917 
0.9957 

).979 1—0.9770 
0.9781—0.9733 
0.9761—0.9720 
9799—0.9741 
0.9854—0.9845 
0.9860—0.9845 

0.9809 
0.9876 
0.9791 

0.9760 
0.9870 
0.9850 


16.56 

1220 
11.40 
11.60 
1150 
10 00 
11.20 


13.15 

9.76 
9.22 
9.38 
9.30 
8.10 
9.06 

15.4—24.7 
19. —19.7 
20.7—24 7 

9.1—11.1 
10.1—13.2 
14.1—14.8 

8.7— 9.4 
15.91 

9 15 
17. 

50.4—53.8 
72.0—77.1 
47.7 
50.2 
49 9 

19 03 
9.14 

10.96 
2 0— 9.0 
6.0— 9.0 

6.6 
6.5 
6.5 


1.05 

1.28 
165 
1.31 
1.19 
1.64 
1.40 

4.71— 6.89 
6.53— 8.71 
5.08— 8.59 
6.17— 8.34 
6.17— 9.80 
5.80— 762 
6.89—10.89 


1.800 

0.243 
0.425 
0.352 
0.437 
0.416 
0.342 

0.83—3.74 

1.25—4.18 

3.32—6.87 

0. 

0. 

1.25-5.82 

11.64-13.72 
15.39 

0.36—1.44 
0.36—0.72 

2.16—3.99 
4 32—5.12 
3.26—5.44 


4.48 

2 39 
2.45 
2.06 
1.64 
2.06 
2.51 


0.071 

0.194 
0.179 
0.152 
0.180 
0.120 
0227 






























































v •> 






Holland 







































































I cannot conclude this statement of the results of analysis without re- 
marking that I have availed myself of the skill of one of my pupils, Mr. 
Langley, of Milton, who has made the examination of liquors a special 
study during his connection with the Laboratory. 

All of which is respectfully submitted. 

E. N. Horsford, 
Chemist to the Mass. Hort. Society. 
Cambridge, May 18, 1860. 



ZOOLOGICAL REPORT. 79 

ZOOLOGICAL REPORT. 

BY PROF. J. W. P. JENKS. 

Mr. President: — 

Though I have nothing specific to offer in connection with the depart- 
ment confided particularly to my care, yet I am unwilling that it should be 
entirely ignored in the published " Transactions" of the past year, and there- 
fore beg leave to submit the following Report. 

It will be remembered that one year ago I suggested the importance to 
the "tiller of the soil," of determining the alimentary regimen of each spe- 
cies of birds, and proposed to enter upon the investigation as a life-work, 
under the auspices of our Society. A committee having been promptly 
appointed to consider my suggestions in detail, and a favorable report from 
them adopted by the Society, with a generous appropriation to meet the 
incidental expenses of the investigation, I employed the year in preliminary 
work ; such as the printing of Registering Schedules, and the circulation 
of the same among naturalists in different parts of the country, in order to 
enlist their cooperation if possible, and the devising of the surest and speed- 
iest methods for procuring specimens for examination. To head the sched- 
ules with the Number, Order, Family, Genus, and Species of several hun- 
dred birds has been no small task, as well as the effort, by correspondence, 
to explain to others the nature of the work proposed, by whose simultaneous 
researches I might correct or confirm my own. These preliminaries attend- 
ed to, I hope to pursue the investigation during the ensuing summer with 
definite results in reference to, at least, some species. 

And here I may be permitted to correct a very general impression in 
reference to my Report upon the Food of the Robin. The public press, in 
various parts of the country, have insisted upon it that I assert positively to 
the great utility of the robin, with no habits of inutility to either the horti- 
culturist or agriculturist ; whereas my report, as published in your " Journal" 
of March, 1859, asserts nothing upon either of those points, but simply pre- 
sents the facts of the alimentary regimen of the bird for one year, and leaves 
every one to draw their own inference. It is somewhat gratifying to know 
that that inference has been drawn almost universally in favor of the bird, 
but I am not responsible for it beyond presenting the facts in the case. 

In respect to this entire subject of the alimentary regimen of birds, it is 
plain that it is commending itself to the attention of naturalists in America 
as well as in Europe, as evinced by the fact that some of the States have of 
late enacted more stringent laws for the protection of the nonedible birds. 
To this result, 1 am authorized to say that the Report upon the Robin has 
directly contributed, as I infer from the extra copies of the Report demanded 
of me by the legislators while the matter was under advisement by them. 

I have been repeatedly asked if there is any way to protect strawberry 
beds, cherry trees, &c, from the depredations of the robin. In answer, I 
will merely suggest, that a neighbor being much annoyed by them, I gave 



80 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

him a stuffed cat from my cabinet and requested him to mount it upon a 
stool in the midst of his strawberry bed of perhaps thirty feet square and 
note the result. Some days afterward he told me it effectually protected 
the fruit, and I therefore recommend others to try the same remedy ; or 
perhaps better, substitute a living cat, hung up in a wire cage, and thus 
turn the surplus of the feline race to some profitable account. 

When first elected to the Professorship of Zoology connected with your 
Society, about three years ago, I supposed there were specific duties in- 
volved in the office, and that the different members would propose a variety 
of researches to me, as your servant in that department. But as yet hardly 
a question has been proposed to me by a single member. Feeling unwil- 
ling to hold any office that is in effect a sinecure, I herewith desire the 
members of the Society to forward to me at Middleboro', by express, any 
specimens of Natural History that may be found injurious, with whose hab- 
its they may not be familiar, with such observations as they themselves have 
made ; and, at the earliest possible opportunity, I will report at a monthly 
or quarterly meeting. I desire that my Professorship shall not be a mere 
ornamental appendage to the Society — but not being a practical horticul- 
turist, I can only hold myself ready for service at your bidding. The forth- 
coming revised edition of " Dr. Harris's Treatise," and the most excellent 
Reports of Dr. Fitch, of New York State, on " Noxious Insects," preclude 
the necessity of minute investigation in that branch of Natural History. 
But there are questions connected with the habits of other than insects, 
that must suggest themselves to the observing horticulturist, and occasion 
more or less anxiety to have solved according to the facts of nature. Let 
such be communicated to me by mail, at any time, and they shall receive 
prompt attention according to the best of my ability, and perhaps some new 
field will be opened for exploration, connected, it may be, with the habits 
of the smaller quadrupeds and reptiles. 

Respectfully submitted. J. W. P. Jenks. 



PRESIDENT BRECK'S ADDRESS. 81 



PRESIDENT BRECK'S ADDRESS. 

Gentlemen : 

Another year has passed away, and we are again permitted to greet each 
other with a happy new year, and renew our assurance of cooperation and 
union in the work for which our Society was organized, and to which many 
of us have been for so many years devoted. 

We cannot, however, meet together to commence the business of the 
year, without strong feelings of sadness, as we call to remembrance the 
beloved and active members of our Society, who, in the providence of God, 
have been called from their labors, and whose chairs are to-day vacant. 
With these faithful and devoted friends and active members, we have been 
accustomed, for a long series of years, to meet from week to week to ex- 
change salutations, and to receive their counsels of wisdom and instruc- 
tion ; and through them we have felt our hands strengthened and our hearts 
encouraged. 

The decease of Josiah Bradlee, Esq., was announced at the commence- 
ment of last year, — a gentleman whom we shall ever remember as a liberal 
benefactor and devoted friend of our Society. 

A few months after, we were called to mourn the loss of our invaluable 
friend, the Hon. B. V. French, one of the original founders of the Massa- 
chusetts Horticultural Society, and who never failed, to the day of his 
death, to take the deepest interest in its prosperity. Who that knew him, 
can ever forget the enthusiasm ever uppermost in his mind on the subject 
of horticulture, agriculture, or anything connected with the cultivation of 
the soil. 

The departure of Enoch Bartlett, Esq., in a good old age, having passed 
the time allotted to man on earth, was not so marked a loss to the members 
of the Society, who only knew him as one from whom one of our most 
popular pears received its American name, but who, nevertheless, was one 
that those more advanced in life highly appreciated for his activity and 
interest in the Society in the earlier stages of its history. 

The mild and modest Sumner was hardly known, except to his immediate 
circle of friends, but he might have been often seen in the rooms passing 
from stand to stand of flowers, admiring everything new and beautiful — 
evidently enjoying all the productions exhibited with a keen delight ; but, 
like the flower of the field, he has also faded away, and we shall see his 
face no more. 

We hoped, almost against hope, that we should not be called upon again 
to mourn the loss of another of our most valuable and highly esteemed 
associates during the year, already so remarkable for the impress of the 
fell destroyer upon the ranks of our Society. But those of us who were 
privileged with a more intimate communion and exchange of feelings with 
our beloved Walker, could hardly be made to feel otherwise than that his 
work on earth was about to cease, though unwilling to believe that he 
6 



82 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

would so soon and suddenly be taken from earth to his mansion in heaven. 
We shall ever regard him as one of the bright lights of our Society. He 
served us in almost every capacity, in the standing committees and other 
important offices and trusts, and, when he retired from the presidential 
chair, — which he filled with great ability for a succession of years, — he 
still continued to labor for the Society, being placed on most of the promi- 
nent special and important committees, and died at last in working order, 
with the harness on, an example to us all. It is but a few weeks since he 
sat in the chair at my right hand, as deeply interested in the welfare of the 
Society as in his younger days in the flush of health. I do not feel com- 
petent, nor is it necessary to speak more particularly of him we so much 
loved, as it is but a few weeks since able and touching tributes were paid 
to his memory by our esteemed associates, Messrs. Wilder and Rand. 

We mourn the loss of our companions and friends, and may well ex- 
claim, Who shall fill their places in the Society? They have finished 
their work, they have gone to their rest, and " the places that have known 
them shall know them no more forever." 

But, gentlemen, if we are mortal and must one after another pass away, 
we are to remember that our Society is to be perpetuated, and, as we hope, 
flourish for ages to come, when we shall sleep in the dust with those who 
have gone before us. As we are now among the living, we have our 
appropriate work to perform, and must, for the year to come, stand in our 
respective places, ready to discharge the duties which devolve upon us, 
bearing up the institution upon our shoulders, until others succeed and 
follow us in our labors, who will again in their turn be succeeded by others 
to the distant future. 

In noting the operations of the Society for the past year, there is nothing 
of marked interest to communicate, other than what will be found in the 
reports of the various committees, which will soon be printed and placed in 
your hands for perusal. 

The transfer of the head-quarters of our Society from the building we 
owned and occupied in School Street to the present place, is a change 
which I believe is acceptable to a great majority of the members. This 
room, for business and the accommodation of the library, far surpasses, in 
convenience, the room in the old building used for the same purposes. We 
have here light, air, comfort, and every convenience. Thanks are due to 
our Librarian for the neatness and order in which we always find the place ; 
and as it is open every business day of the week, in certain hours, it affords 
good opportunities for the members who have leisure to pass a few hours, 
to consult the numerous periodicals with which our reading desk is so 
abundantly supplied. The hall we now occupy has been found to answer 
all its requirements for the weekly exhibitions through the summer, and 
might have accommodated many more than have generally been in attend- 
ance to witness the brilliant displays of the season. The rooms for the 
reception of fruit preparatory for exhibition in the hall, and the room for 
the Fruit Committee, are both convenient. Taking all the accommodations 
together, I believe we have never been more pleasantly situated than we 



PRESIDENT BRECK'S ADDRESS. 83 

are at the present time. If we can content ourselves in this place until 
the expiration of our lease, we may by that time find a convenient locality, 
when we may erect an edifice commensurate with the wants and means of 
the Society. 

The state of our finances is highly satisfactory, as will be perceived by 
the report of the Treasurer. The receipts from Mount Auburn will fall 
somewhat short of the amount we received last year, which, after deducting 
the sum of Si, 500 voted by the Society towards the improvements now in 
progress there, will probably reduce the amount to be received into our 
treasury to about $3,500. It is to be hoped that our ample resources will 
not be encroached upon at present for any other than our ordinary ex- 
penditures. 

Two years since, a committee was appointed to petition the legislature, 
in connection with the Boston Natural History Society and other scientific 
associations, for a reservation of a part or whole of three sections of the 
Back Bay lands, of about three acres each, for the accommodation of these 
various associations, on which to erect buildings, and for other purposes 
that might be required for the advancement of horticulture, agriculture, the 
ornamental arts, and to science in its application to the various purposes 
of life. The various societies and associations were represented by their 
respective committees and agents, before the committee on the Back Bay 
lands, who gave a patient hearing ; but our united efforts were unavailing. 

The same committee, with some additional members, were appointed, in 
December, 1859, to take the same subject into consideration, and to report 
at a future meeting. Of this number, our lamented deceased friends, 
Walker and French, were included. At a regular meeting of the Society, 
held December 31, 1859, the Hon. Marshall P. Wilder submitted a paper, 
signed by all the members of the committee (nine in number), which might 
be used in a memorial to the legislature for a reservation of lands on the 
Back Bay. The memorial was accepted, and the same committee having 
in charge the matter were instructed to present it. You will find this 
document (page 115) in the report of our transactions for 1859. This 
committee, with the representatives from other scientific societies, had 
successive hearings before the joint committee on education at the State 
House, when interesting addresses and statements were presented, by 
Professor Rogers and other scientific and practical gentlemen, upon the 
importance of congregating together, upon these sections on the Back Bay, 
all these various institutions, not merely for the benefit of our city and these 
societies, but for scientific, educational, agricultural, and commercial pur- 
poses for the whole Commonwealth and Union, — institutions which would 
command respect throughout the scientific world. The legislative com- 
mittee gave a patient and attentive hearing, which resulted in bringing in 
a bill granting a portion of the land petitioned for, which passed unani- 
mously in the house, but was defeated in the senate. 

This same committee was appointed again to consider the subject of a 
further trial before the legislature at the present session, and were instructed 
to report to the Society what action, if any, should be taken in relation to 



84 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

the petition already sent in by the Presidents of the Boston Natural History 
Society and our own. This committee made their report two weeks since, 
and which now awaits the action of the Society. 

The whole scheme may, perhaps, appear to some Quixotic ; but if we 
have a continuation of the unexampled increase and prosperity of our 
country, we may reasonably believe that the Back Bay will, in a few years, 
become the most prominent and attractive part of the city ; and when these 
sections we desire to be reserved are surrounded with elegant residences, 
no doubt liberal subscriptions will be readily made, if needed, to sustain 
the institutions which we hope will be established there. 

The present aspect of the affairs of our country have so affected my own 
mind, that I must confess I have some misgivings about the rapid settle- 
ment of the Back Bay lands ; for, if our worst fears should be realized, 
there may be such a depreciation of the value of this land, as well as of 
all other property, that it might about as well have remained from whence 
the soil or gravel was taken, where the possessor of a farm composed of it 
was the poorer the more he had of it. God grant that we may have a 
speedy settlement of all our difficulties. Yet, with the present existing 
uncertainty of public affairs, my courage rather fails me, and I feel almost 
inclined to recede from the stand I have hitherto taken. No doubt our 
Society will be disposed to use all their influence in aiding and assisting 
the other associations, but I trust we shall not commit ourselves to any 
course that will involve us in any very heavy expense. 

A few remarks were made last year, in the opening address, relative to 
the season, in its effects upon horticultural products, though perhaps it may 
have been out of place ; yet I cannot refrain from alluding, now, to some 
of the peculiarities of the past season, which has been a remarkable one. 
From the 1st of March to the 1st of June, scarcely any rain fell. It was 
excessively dry, cold, and backward. Very disagreeable, cold, easterly 
winds prevailed for twenty-eight days, without intermission or change, to 
the middle of May. From that time to the 1st of June the weather was 
warmer and mild — very favorable for a successful bloom, which was abun- 
dant, and fruit of all kinds set remarkably well. June was cold, with a 
great amount of rainy weather, particularly near its close. 

Strawberries were very much injured by excessive rain, the fruit lacking 
flavor, and unusually acid. Cherries promised to be plenty, but some 
disease occasioned a blight just as they began to ripen; the crop was 
light, and very few really good ones. We had the satisfaction of noting 
an unusual scarcity of caterpillars. Canker worms seemed to have entirely 
disappeared, and very few curculios infested the apple. It was equally 
remarkable that birds destructive to small fruits were very few in com- 
parison with last year. Apples were very abundant and fair; a very 
extraordinary crop. Pears were equally abundant, but lacked flavor, and 
the autumn and winter varieties ripened prematurely, or decayed without 
ripening. The peach trees promised a fair crop, but the same disease that 
injured the cherries seemed to affect the peach, and, just as they beg'an 



PRESIDENT BRECK'S ADDRESS. 85 

to color, commenced decay ; and, while in some places and on some trees 
the fruit was fine, in others it was a complete failure. 

All the summer months were cold and wet, and on the 1st of September 
the season was at least two weeks behind the average of seasons. 

Grapes, which gave abundant promise, were retarded by the cold weather? 
and the excessive moisture brought on the mildew, which spread rapidly 
upon the vines, when it began to be doubtful whether any fruit would come 
to maturity. The severe cold weather on the njght of the 29th of Septem- 
ber gave the finishing stroke to all hope of any ripened grapes, except in 
warm, sheltered places. The thermometer fell to 28°, and in some places 
as low as 22°. In my garden it stood at 24°. Concord grapes, nearly or 
quite ripe, were completely frozen through, as were the Dianas by their 
side, which, however, were already hopelessly injured by the mildew. 
Some of the Isabellas, where well sheltered and partially free from mildew 
and beginning to color finely, met with the same fate. What is very un- 
usual, the Black Hamburgh and other varieties of foreign grapes, in a cold 
grapery, were also frostbitten, so that most of them were almost worthless, 
notwithstanding the house is very close and well made. 

The past year has been one of the most prosperous since the formation 
of the Society, if we may judge from the great number of gentlemen of 
high respectability who have become associated with us during the season. 
Sixty-six new members were admitted in I860; fifteen have ceased their 
connection with us, and six have died. The whole number at the present 
time is five hundred and eighty. Of these, two hundred and thirty-five are 
life, and three hundred and forty-five subscription members. In addition to 
these, there is a large number of honorary and corresponding members. 

Gentlemen: Before concluding these remarks, I wish to express my 
gratitude and thanks for the kind forbearance and friendly support I have 
invariably received from you since I have occupied the chair. It was not 
my intention to have given you an opportunity to place me the third time 
in this honorable position ; but, through the influence of our departed friend 
Walker, and others, I was persuaded to permit my name to be reported as 
a candidate once more, and I thank you for the unanimity with which I was 
elected. Expecting a continuance of your kind forbearance and friendly 
support, I shall enter upon the duties of another year with more confidence 
that I shall be able to discharge the duties which devolve upon me in the 
last term of service in this capacity ; but ever happy and willing to take 
any subordinate office in which I can benefit the Society. 



MEMBERS FOR LIFE. 



87 



MEMBERS 



OP THE 



MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 



A * DENOTES THE MEMBER AS DECEASED. 



MEMBERS FOR LIFE. 



* A dams, Daniel, Newbury. 
Adams, George E., Medford. 
Allen, John Fisk, Salem. 
Amory, Charles, Boston. 
Amory, James S., " 
Andrews, Frank W., " 
Andrews, W. T., " 
Andros, Milton, Brooklint. 
Appleton, Nathan, Boston 
Appleton, Robert, " 

* Armstrong, Samuel T., Boston. 
Aspinwall, Augustus, Brooklint. 
Austin, William R., Dorchester. 

Babbitt, Isaac, Boston. 
Bailey, Edwin C., " 
Bailey, John P., " 
Barnard, James M., " 
Barnard, Rev. C. F., " 
Barnes, William H., Roxbury. 
*Bartlett, E., Newburyport. 
Barrows, Thomas, Dedham. 
Bates, John D., Boston. 
Bemis, Amory, Cambridge. 
Blagg, Samuel, Waltham. 
Blake, George B., Brooklint. 
Blodgett, J. W., Boston. 
Bond, George W., Roxbury. 
Bouve, Th. T., Boston. 
Bowditch, A. C, " 



Bowditch, J. Ingersoll, Roxbury. 

Brackett, C. N., Newton. 

Bradford, Samuel D., W. Roxbury. 

Bradlee, J. B., Boston. 
*Bradlee, Joseph P., " 
*Bradlee, Josiah, " 

Breed, Andrew, Lynn. 

Breed, Henry A., " 
*Brewer, Eliab Stone, Roxbury. 

Brewer, Gardner, Boston. 

Brewer, John Reed, " 

Brewer, Otis, Roxbury. 
# Brewer, Thomas, Boston. 

Bright, Jona. B., Waltham. 

Brown, Ebenezer, Lynn. 

Burr, Fearing, Jr., Bingham. 

Burr, M. H., * 

Cadness, John, New York. 
Carruth, Ch., Boston. 
Carruth, Nathan, Dorchester. 
*Chapman, Jona., Boston. 
Chase, Hezekiah, Lynn. 
Chase, Hezekiah, South Boston. 
Chase, Wm. M., Worcester. 
Childs, N. R., Dorchester. 
Chruickshank, James, Maiden. 
Clapp, Thaddeus, DorchesUr. 
Clark, W. L., Neponset. 
Clement, Asa, Dracut. 



88 



MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 



Cleveland, Ira, Dedham. 
♦Codman, John, Dorchester. 

Collamore, G. W., Boston. 

Comer, G. N., Newton. 

Comerais, Henry, Dedham. 

Copeland, R. M'Cleary, Boston. 

Cope] and, R. Morris, Lexington. 

Courtis, William, Marblehead. 

Crafts, Ebenezer, Roxbury. 

Crocker, Uriel, Boston. 
*Crowninshield, George C, Boston. 

Cummings, John, Jr., " 

Cushing, Thomas T., " 

Daggett, H. L., Boston. 

Dana, Ch. B., Brookline. 

Dana, Nathaniel, " 
*Decker, Louis, Boston. 

Dennie, Daniel, Dorchester. 
# Denny, George, Westborough. 

Denny, R. S., Dorchester. 

Dexter, G. M., Boston. 

Dickinson, Alexander, Cambridgeport 

Downer, Samuel, Dorchester. 

Duncklee, John, Brighton. 

Durfee, Mrs. F. B., Fall River. 
*Durfee, Geo. B., " 

Durfee, Nathan, " 

♦Edwards, Elisha, Springfield. 
Eliot, Samuel A., Boston. 
Everett, Otis, " 

♦Fairbanks, H. P., Charlestown. 

Fairbanks, Stephen, Boston. 

Fearing, Albert, " 

*Fenno, John, Chelsea. 

Fisher, Daniel Simmons, Roxbury. 

Fisher, Warren, " 

*Fiske, Oliver, Worcester. 

Foster, John H., Boston. 

Foster, J. W., Dorchester. 
♦French, Benj. V., " 

French, Jonathan, Roxbury. 

Frothingham, S. C, Boston. 

Fuller, Henry Weld, Roxbury. 



♦Gaffield, James, Gloucester. 

Gage, Addison, West Cambridge. 

Gardner, W. F., Salem. 
*Gibson, Kimball, Boston. 
# Gilmore, Addison, " 

Greig, George, Newton. 

Grinnell, Joseph, Neiv Bedford. 

Groom, Thomas, Dorchester. 

Grundell, H., " 

*Hall, A din, Boston. 

♦Harris, William T., Cambridge. 

Hastings, Edmund T., Boston. 

Hayden, A. W., Portsmouth. 
♦Hedge, Isaac L., Plymouth. 

Hazeltine, H., Boston. 

Holbrook, C. S., E. Randolph. 

Hollis, J. W., Brighton. 

Hooper, John, Jr., Marblehead. 

Hooper, Robert C, Boston. 

Hovey, C. M., Cambridge. 

Hovey, P. B., Cambridgeport. 
. Howe, George, Roxbwy. 
♦Howe, Hall J., South Boston. 

Howe, Jabez C, Boston. 

Howe, John, Brookline. 

Howland, Henry, Maiden. 

Howland, John, Jr., New Bedford. 

Hubbard, G. G., Cambridge. 

Hubbard, W. J., Boston. 

Huckins, James W., Roxbury. 

Humphrey, F. J., Dorchester. 

Hunnewell, H. H., West Needham. 

Jones, C. F., Roxbury. 
♦Jones, Thomas, Boston. 
Johnson, Otis, Lynn. 

Kendall, D. S., Boston. 
Kenney, John M., Wareham. 
Kimball, A. P., Boston. 
King, Edward, Dorchester. 
King, Franklin, " 
King, William S., Roxbury. 
Kingsbury, Wm. B., " 
Kinsley, Lyman, Cambridgeport. 
Kittredge, E. A., Boston. 



MEMBERS FOR LIFE. 



89 



Lamb, Thomas, Boston. 

Lawrence, James, " 

Lawson, Peter, Dracut. 

Leavens, S. Davis, Boston. 

Lee, George, Watertown. 

Leland, George, Waltham. 

Leuchars, R. B., Quincy. 

Lewis, A. S., Framingham. 

Lewis, Wm. G., " 

Lincoln, Levi, Worcester. 
^Lincoln, William, " 

Lincoln, D. Waldo, " 
*Loyd, James, Boston. 

Lodge, Giles H., " 

Lombard, I., " 

Lothrop, Ed. W., Chelsea. 

Lovett, G. A., Beverly. 

Lowder, John, Watertown. 

Luke, Elijah H., Cambridgeport. 

Lyon, Henry, Charlestown. 

Mann, Jonathan, Cambridge. 

Manning, Joseph, Medford. 

Manning, Robert, Salem. 

Mansfield, H. S., Blackstone. 

March, Francis, Dedham. 

Marland, A., Andover. 
*Marsh, Andrew S., Roxbury. 

Martin, J. S., Boston. 
*Martin, Richard T., " 

May, Samuel, " 

Merriam, Charles, West Newton. 

Merrifield, W. T., Worcester. 

Mills, Charles H., Boston. 

Milton, W. H., Roxbury. 

Minott, Charles, Somerville. 

Mixter, Charles, Boston. 

Morse, S. B., " 

*Morse, Samuel F., " 

Motley, Thomas, Jr., W. Roxbury. 

Mudge, George A., Boston. 

Mudge, E. R., Lynn. 

Mudge, Geo. W., " 

Newhall, Cheever, Dorchester. 
Newhall, George, " 

Newhall, John M., " 



Newhall, Josiah, Lynnfield. 
Newman, Henry, Roxbury. 
Nourse, B. F., Boston. 
# Nuttall, Thomas, of England. 

Page, Thomas, Cambridge. 

Paige, James W., Boston. 

Paine, Robert T., " 

Palmer, J. P., " 

Parker, Augustus, Roxbury. 
# Parker, Daniel P., Boston. 

Parker, James, " 

Parker, William A., " 

Parkman, Francis, Roxbury. 
# Parkman, Rev. Francis, Boston. 
# Parsons, Gorham, Brighton. 
*Parsons, William, Boston. 

Partridge, Henry, " 

Peirce, S. B., Dorchester. 

Penniman, A. P., Waltham. 

Perkins, Ed. N., Brookline, 

Perkins, Wm. P., " 
# Perry, John, Sherborn. 

Pierce, George W., Maiden. 

Poole, Benjamin C, Chelsea. 

Poor, John R., Somerville. 

Pope, Alexander, Dorchester. 

Pratt, George W., Boston. 

Prescott, C. H., Cornwallis, N. & 

Preston, John, Dorchester. 

Rand, E. S., Dedham. 
Rand, E. S., Jr., " 
Reed, George W., Kingston. 
Reynoso, Bernard de, & Boston. 
Richards, Edward M., Dedham. 
Richards, William B., Boston. 
Robinson, J. H., Dorchester. 
*Rotch, William, New Bedford. 
Russell, George R., Roxbwy. 
Russell, John Lewis, Salem. 

Sampson, G. R., Brookline. 
Sanford, O. S., Cordaville. 
Sargent, Ignatius, Brookline. 
# Seaver, Nathaniel, Roxbury. 
Sever, J. W., Dorchester. 



90 



MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 



♦Shaw, Robert G., Boston. 

Sheafe, Ch. C, Newtonville. 
# Silsby, Enoch, Bradford. 

Smith, Ch. A., Boston. 
*Smith, Stephen H., Providence. 

Sparhawk, Edward C, Brighton. 

Springer, John, Sterling. 

Stetson, Nahum, Bridgewater. 

Stevens, Paran, Boston. 

Stickney, Josiah, Watertown. 

Stickney, Rufus B., Somerville. 

Stimpson, George, Charlestown. 

Stone, G. F., Newton. 

Stone, Phineas J., Charlestown. 

Story, E. A., Brighton. 

Story, F. H., Salem. 
*Story, Joseph, Cambridge. 

Sturgis, William, Woburn. 

Swain, Ch. D., Roxbury. 

Tappan, Charles, Boston. 

Taylor, Horace B., " 
# Teschemacher, J. E., " 

Thacker, Alfred C, Dorchester. 

Thaxter, A. W., Jr., Boston. 
# Thayer, J. E., " 

*Thorndike, Israel, " 

Thorndike, John H., " 
*Towle, Lyman, " 

*Tremlett, Thomas, Dorchester. 

Turner, J M. 

Turner, R. W., Jr., Randolph. 



Upton, George B., Boston. 

Wainwright, Peter, Boston. 

Wain wright, William L., Braintree. 

Wakefield, E. H., Chelsea. 
*Waldo, Daniel, Worcester. 

Walker, Edward C. R., Roxbury. 
♦Walker, Samuel, " 

Walker, Samuel A., Brookline. 

Walker, T. W., Waltham. 

Warren, G. W., Boston. 

Wason, E., Brookline. 

Webber, A. D., W. JYeedham. 

Webster, Joshua, Lynn. 

Webster, Nathan, Haverhill. 

Weld, Richard H., Roxbury. 

Welsh, J. H., Dorchester. 
♦West, Thomas, Haverhill. 

Whitcomb, Levi, Boston. 

White, B. C, 

Whiting, Nathaniel, Brookline. 

Whitmore, C. O., Boston. 

Whytal, Thomas G., W. Roxbury. 

Wight, Eben., Dedham. 

Wilder, Marshall P., Dorchester. 

Williams, Aaron D., Roxbury. 

Williams, Aaron D., Jr., " 

Williams, Moses B., Brookline. 

Winship, Franklin, Brighton. 

Winship, F. Lyman, " 

Wolcott, Edward, Pawtucket. 
*Worthington, William, Dorchester. 



AWWTTAIi MEMBERS. 



*Adams, Benjamin, Boston. 

Adams, Charles F., Quincy. 

Adams, Ch. Fred., Boston. 

Adams, Joseph H., " 

Adams, Isaac, South Boston. 
*Adams, Z. B., Boston. 

Albree, John, " 

Allen, Calvin, Roxbury. 

Ames, R. W., " 
♦Andrew, John H., Salem. 



Andrews, Alfred A., Boston. 
♦Andrews, Ebenezer T., " 
♦Andrews, Ferdinand, " 

Andrews, James, Waltham. 
♦Andrews, Robert, Boston. 

Apple, Antone, Cambridge. 

Appleton, Samuel A., Boston. 
♦Arnold, John, Dorchester. 

Bachelder, Samuel, Cambridge. 



ANNUAL MEMBERS. 



91 



*Bachi, I. C, Dorchester. 

Bacon, William, Roxbury. 

Bailey, Dudley H., Boston. 

Bailey, Kendall, Charlestown. 
# Baker, Walter, Dorchester. 

Baker, W. P., Quincy. 
*Balch, Joseph, Roxbury. 

Barnes, Parker, Dorchester. 
# Barrett, George C, Boston. 
# Bartlett, Enoch, Roxbury. 

Bartlett, Levi, Boston. 

Bean, James, Medford. 

* Belknap, A. E., Boston. 
Bennett, Oliver, Framingham. 
Bigelow, Samuel, Boston. 
Billings, Joseph H., West Roxbury. 
Binney, Amos, Boston. 

Blake, G. T., 
Bliss, B. K., Springfield. 
Boott, William, Boston. 
Bowditch, Azell, Roxbury. 
Bowditch, W. I., Brookline. 
Boyd, Francis, Boston. 
Brackett, E. A., Winchester. 

* Bradbury, Charles, Boston. 
Bradford, Charles F., Roxbury. 
Bradlee, John D., Milton. 

*Bradlee, Joseph, Boston. 

Bradlee, J. T., " 

Bradley, Benjamin, " 

Bradstreet, Samuel, Dorchester. 

Breck, C. H. B., Brighton. 

Breck, Joseph, " 

*Bridge, Nathan, Charlestown. 

Briggs, Richard, Brookline. 
*Brimmer, Martin, Boston. 

Britton, S. A., Roxbury. 

Brown, Frederick, Boston. 

* Brown, James, Cambridge. 
Brown, Joseph T., Boston. 
Brown, Simon, Concord. 
Bruce, Benjamin, Brookline. 
Bryant, G. F. J., Boston. 
Bucklin, S. S., Jamaica Plain. 
Suckman, Bo wen, Woburn. 
Buckminster, W. J., Maiden. 
Bull, E. W., Concord. 



Bullard, Calvin, Boston. 
Bui lard, Lewis, Dedham. 
Burley, Edward, Salem. 
Burnett, Joseph, Southborough. 
Burr, Charles C, Newton. 
Busch, John W., Brookline. 
Buswell, E. W., Maiden. 
Butterfield, W. P., Cambridgeport. 

Cabot, Edward C, Brookline. 

Cabot, Joseph S., Salem. 

Caines, William, South Boston. 

Carey, Isaac, Boston. 

Carter, William E., Cambridge. 

Chad wick, Joseph H., Roxbury. 

Chaffin, John C, Newton. 

Chandler, Horace B., Milton. 

Chandler, J. G., Roxbury. 

Chenery, Winthrop W., Belmont. 

Cheney, Arthur, Boston. 

Chickering, Horatio, Dedham. 
*Chickering, Jonas, Boston. 

Chilson, G.. " 

Clapp, W. W., Jr., " 

Clark, E. D., " 

Clark, John J., Roxbury. 

Clark, Joseph W., Dedham. 

Clark, Randolph M., " 

Cobb, Edward W., Boston. 

Cobb, Jonathan H., Dedham. 
*Cole, S. W., Boston. 

Collamore, John, Jr., " 

Comins, Linus B., Roxbury. 

Converse, Joshua P., Woburn. 

Copeland, Charles, Wyoming. 

Cordwell, G. B., Roxbury. 

Crafts, W. A., " 

Crocker, Fred. W , Barnstable. 

Crooker, Ralph, Roxbury. 

Crosby, Josiah, Jfest Cambridge. 

Cross, R. A., Boston. 
*Crowninshield, Benjamin W., Boston. 
*Crowninshield, George C, ** 

Cruickshank, J. T., Roxbury. 

Cummings, Amos, Jr., Reading. 

Curtiss, Charles F., West Roxbury. 

Curtis, D. T., Boston. 



92 



MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 



Cutter, George B., Weston. 

Dana, Francis, Roxbury. 
*Dane, John, Boston. 

Daniel, Ellery C, Dedham. 
*Daniel, Josiah, " 

Davenport, Edward, Dorchester. 

Davenport, George, Dedham. 

Davenport, J., Brookline. 

Davenport, Lewis, Milton. 

Davis, Adolphus, Boston. 

Davis, Barnabas, " 

Davis, Harvey, Cambridgeport. 
# Davis, Isaac P., Boston. 

Davis, Seth, West Newton. 

Davis, W. H., Milton. 

Dean, A. J., Roxbury. 
# Dearborn, Henry A. S., Roxbury. 

Dennison, J. N., Boston. 
# Derby, John, Salem. 

Dexter, Anson, Roxbury. 

Dillaway, Charles K., Roxbury. 
# Dimmock, J. L., Boston. 

Dixwell, J. J., West Roxbury. 
# Downer, Samuel, Dorchester. 
# Dowse, Thomas, Cambridgeport. 

Driver, Stephen, Salem. 
# Dudley, David, Roxbury. 

Dutton, Henry W., Boston. 

Eastburn, John H., Boston. 

Eaton, Jacob, Cambridgeport. 

Edmonds, J. W., Boston. 

Eldridge, J. S., " 

*Eldridge, Chas. H., " 

Ellicott, J. P., Jamaica Plain. 

Ellis, Jonathan, Boston. 

Emerson, Benjamin D., Roxbury. 

Emerson, E. C, Boston. 

Eustis, James, South Reading. 
♦Eveleth, Joseph, Boston. 

Everett, George, Concord. 

Evers, Gustave, Brighton. 

Faxon, Nathaniel, Boston. 
Fay, Isaac, Cambridge. 
*Fessenden, Thomas G., Boston. 



Fisk, Robert T. P., Hingham. 
*Fitch, Jeremiah, Boston. 

Flynn, Edward, Lawrence. 

Forbush, Jonathan, Bolton. 

Ford, Elisha B., Boston. 

Fowle, Seth W., Brookline. 
*Francis, David, Boston. 

French, Asa, Braintree. 

Frost, Rufus S., Chelsea. 

Frothingham, Samuel, Boston. 

Fuller, Henry A., Cambridge. 

Galvin, John, Somerville. 

Gammell, John, Lexington. 

Gardner, John, Dedham. 

Gibbons, Samuel H., Boston. 

Gilbert, Samuel, Jr., " 

Gilchrist, D. S., " 

Goddard, Thomas, " 

Goodrich, Daniel O., " 

Gordon, John, Brighton. 

Gould, Augustus A., Boston. 

Grant, Charles E., Roxbury. 

Grant, E. B., Watertown. 

Gray, James, JYeedham. 
*Gray, John, Boston. 

Gray, John C, " 

Greenough, D. S., West Roxbury. 
# Greenough, David S., " " 

Gregory, James J. H., Marblehead. 

Griggs, Charles, Boston. 
*Grosvenor, L. P., Pomfrel, Ct. 
*Guild, Benjamin, Boston. 

Guild, Chester, Somerville. 

Gwynneth, William O. H., Boston. 

Haggerston, David, Roxbury. 

Hall, C. J., Medford. 

Hall, Dudley, " 
*Hall, Jesse, East Cambridge. 
# Hallett, George, Boston. 

Haley, Jesse, Cambridgeport. 

Harding, Newell, Boston. 

Harrington, Bowen, Lexington. 

Harris, Miss Ellen M., Jamaica Plain. 
*Harris, Richard D., Boston. 

Harris, William A., JVewton. 



ANNUAL MEMBERS. 



93 



Hastings, Thomas, Lechmere Point. 

Hatch, Anthony, Saugus. 

Hatch, Samuel, Boston. 

Hathaway, Seth W., Marblehead. 
*Hayden, John, Brookline. 

Hazelton, H. L., Newton. 

Healey, Mark, Lynn. 
*Heard, John, Boston. 

Hendee, C. J., Roxbury. 

Henshaw, Samuel, Boston. 

Heustis, Warren, Belmont. 
*Hewens, Whiting, Roxbury. 

Hewins, Charles A., " 
*Higginson, Henry, Boston. 

Hill, Henry Y., Belmont. 

Hill, James, Somerville. 

Hill, Jeremiah, Boston. 

Hill, John, " 

Hogan, John, Belmont. 
*Holbrook, Amos, Milton. 

Horton, Henry K., Boston. 

Hosmer, Z., Cambridge. 
*Hovey, John, Roxbury. 

Hovey, J. C, Cambridgeport. 
*Howard, John C, Brookline. 

Howe, Estes, Cambridge. 

Howe, Joseph N., East Cambridge. 

Howe, Rufus, Marlborough. 

Howe, S. G., South Boston. 

Hunneman, J. J., Roxbury. 

Hyde, George, Newton. 

Hyde, J. F. C, " 
# Hysop, David, Brookline, 

Jenks, J. H., Boston. 
Jennings, Levi, Newton, L. F. 

* Johnson, Samuel R., Charlestown. 

* Johnston, William, South Boston. 
Jones, James L., Chelsea. 

# Joy, Joseph G., Boston. 

Keith, W. W., Boston. 
Kelley, E. G., Newburyport. 
Kelly, John, Watertown. 
Kennard, M. P., Brookline. 
Kenrick, John A., Newton. 
Kenrick, William, " 



Kimball, Charles, Winchester. 
Kittredge, Alvah, Roxbury. 
Knott, James, Boston. 

Ladd, William G., Watertown. 
# Lamb, John A. W., Boston. 

Lamson, Rufus, Cambridgeport. 

Lathrop, John, Dedham. 
# Lawrence, Abbott, Boston. 
# Lawrence, Amos, " 

Lawton, Walter, Brookline. 

Lee, Francis H., " 

Lee, Francis H., Salem. 

Lee, Thomas, Brookline. 

Leeds, Samuel, South Boston. 
*Lemist, John, Roxbury. 

Leonard, Joseph, Boston. 

Lerned, T. P., Cambridgeport. 

Lincoln, Calvin A., Hingham. 

Lincoln, F. W., Canton. 

Lincoln, F. W., Jr., Boston. 

Little, C. C, " 

Livermore, Isaac, Cambridgeport. 

Lockwood, R. G., Charlestown. 
*Loring, Benjamin, Boston. 

Loring, C. G., " 

*Loring, Wm. J., " 

# Lovett, Josiahj Beverly. 

Low, Ariel, Roxbury. 

Low, John J., " 
# Lowell, John, " 
*Lowell, William B., Newton. 

Lynde, Stephen H., Winchester. 

# Mackay, John, Boston. 

Manning, J. W., Reading. 
*Manning, Robert, Salem. 

Martin, D. U., Boston. 

Martin, Jeremiah, Melrose. 

Mason, John, Cambridgeport. 
# Mayhew, A. C, Boston. 

McDermott, Andrew, Roxbury. 
*McIntire, Daniel, Framingham. 

McLellan, Alexander, Watertown. 

McTear, James, Roxbury. 
*Mellar, William, " 

Merriam, Galen, West Newton. 



94 



MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 



Merrill, S. A., Salem. 

Merrill, J. Warren, Cambridgeport. 

Millar, John L., Boston. 

Miller, David, South Boston. 
# Miller, Edward, Boston. 

Mills, Lewis, " 

# Minns, Thomas, " 

Minot, G. R., Roxbury. 
# Morgan, Thomas, Boston. 

Moore, J. JB., Concord. 

Morse, O. S., Andover. 

Morse, Robert M., Boston. 
# Munroe, James, Jr., Cambridge. 

Murray, Dennis, Roxbury. 

Murray, James, " 

# Newell, Joseph W., Charlestown. 

Nichols, W. S., Roxbury. 
*Nicholson, Com., (U. S. N.) 

Nudd, Jacob, Cambridgeport. 

Nugent, James, Roxbury. 

Oliver, H. K., Lawrence. 

Oliver, Stephen, Lynn. 
# 01iver, William, Dorchester. 
*Otis, Harrison Gray, Boston. 

Owen, John, Cambridge. 

Page, P^dward, Boston. 

Page, J. H. W., Dorchester. 

Palmer, G. W., Needham. 

Parker, Harvey D., Boston. 
# Parker, Isaac, " 

Parker, M. S., " 

Parker, Theodore D., Brighton. 
# Parris, Alexander, Pembroke. 

Parsons, Theophilus, Cambridge. 

Payson, Samuel R., Roxbury. 

Pearman, W. R., Chelsea. 
*Penniman, Elisha, Brookline. 
*Perkins, Thomas H., Boston. 
*Pettee, Otis, Newton. 

Phillips, Nathaniel, Brighton. 

Phipps, Samuel, Dorchester. 

Pierce, Abner, West Cambridge. 
*Pond, Samuel, Cambridgeport. 
# Pope, Rev. A. R., Somerville. 



Porter, Andrew, South Danvers. 

Porter, Z. B., Cambridge. 
# Pratt, William, Jr., Watertown. 

Prescott, Eben. C, Boston. 
*Prescott, William, " 
*Priest, John F., " 

Prince, F. O., Winchester. 
*Prince, John, Roxbury. 

Rand, Edward S., JYewburyport. 

Rand, I. P., Boston. 

Rice, Edward E., Dorchester. 

Rice, George W., Roxbury. 

Rice, Henry, Boston. 

Rice, Thomas, Jr., JVewton, L. F. 
*Richardson, Josiah, Cambridge. 

Rivers, George H., Roxbury. 
*Robbins, Charles, South Boston. 
*Robbins, Edward H., Boston. 

Roberts, Edward, Roxbury. 

Robinson, S., Brookline. 
# Rollins, Ebenezer, Boston. 
*Rowe, Joseph, Milton. 

Ryder, Rev. W. H., Roxbury. 

Sanborn, John, Charlestown. 

Sargent, Epes, Roxbvry. 

Savage, John, Jr., Somerville. 
# Savage, William, Boston. 
*Sawyer, M. P., " 

Sawyer, Nathl. C, " 

Sawyer, Timothy T., Charlestown. 
*Schimming, H., Watertown. 

Schlegel, Adam, Boston. 

Scott, J. C, Brighton. 
# Seaver, Benjamin, Boston. 

Shaw, Charles B., Dedham. 

Shaw, Christopher C, Boston. 

Shaw, Lemuel, " 

*Simmons, D. A., Roxbury. 

Simpson, Michael H., Saxonville. 
*Skinner, John, Charlestown. 

Sleeper, J. S., Roxbury. 

Small wood, Thomas, JVewton. 

Smith, Amos, Cambridgeport. 

Smith, Edmund, Brighton. 

Smith, J. M., Boston. 



ANNUAL MEMBERS. 



95 



Southack, George, Roxbury. 

Spooner, Wm. H., Jr., West Roxbury, 

Sprague, Charles J., Boston. 

Stanwood, H. B., " 

Stearns, George L., Medford. 

Stetson, James A., Quincy. 
*Stevens, Isaac, Boston. 

Stone, Eliphalet, Dedham. 

Stone, James W., Dorchester. 

Stone, Leonard, Watertown. 

Stone, P. R. L., Cambridge. 

Strong, W. C, Brighton. 

Sturtevant, Noah, Boston. 
# Sumner, William R., Dedham. 

Swan, Daniel, Medford. 

Sweetser, Samuel, Woburn. 

Taft, John B., Boston. 
*Taylor, Charles, Dorchester. 

Thatcher, Thomas, Jr., Roxbury. 
*Thaxter, Levi, Watertown. 

Ticknor, W. D., Roxbury. 
*Tidd, Marshall, Woburn. 

Tolman, J. P., Boston. 
*Towne, Orr N., " 

Trautman, Martin, Roxbury. 

Tucker, James, Jr., Dorchester. 

Tudor, Frederic, Boston. 

Turner, N. W., Newton. 

Turner, R. W., South Maiden. 

Tuttle, Hugh H., Boston. 
*Tyler, John, " 

Underwood, William, Boston. 
Underwood, Wm. J., " 

Vandine, Henry, Cambridgeport. 
Vila, James, Boston. 
# Vose, Elijah, Dorchester. 

*Waldron, R. R. (U. S. N.) 
Wales, Williams, Dorchester. 



Walsh, George, Charlestown. 

Walsh, James, Cambridge. 

Walsh, Thomas, Brighton. 

Ward, Edward A., Cambridge. 

Ward, Richard, Roxbury. 
*Ward, Samuel, " 

Warren, Ira, Boston. 
*Warren, J. C, " 

Warren, Samuel D., Waltham. 

Washburn, Alexander C, Boston. 

Washburn, Allen J., Dorchester. 
* Washburn, John, Plymouth. 

Weld, Aaron D., West Roxbury. 

Weld, Stephen M., " " 

*Wellington, Andrew, E. Lexington. 

Wellington, Joseph V., Cambridge. 
# Wentworth, James, Boston. 

Wetherell, John G., Dorchester. 

Wetherell, Leander, Boston. 
*Wheelwright, Wm.W., " 

Wheildon, Wm. W., Concord. 
# White, Ferdinand E., Boston. 

White, Nathaniel, Quincy. 

White, Nathan H., " 
*White, Stephen, Boston. 

Whiting, William, Dedham. 

Whitney, Joel, Winchester. 

Whitney, William F., Boston. 
*Williams, Francis L., Roxbury. 

Williams, John, Fairmont. 

Williams, J. Otis, Winchester. 

Williams, Stephen, Roxbury. 

Wilson, George, Marblehead. 

Wilson, George W., Maiden. 
# Winchester, William P., Boston. 
*Winship, Jonathan, Brighton. 

Winslow, Reuben, Roxbury. 

Wolcott, J. W., " 

Worcester, Joseph E., Cambridge. 
*Wyatt, Robert, Boston. 

Young, William, Fall River. 



n 



Si) (\J A 

OFFICERS AND STANDING COMMITTEES 



OF TUE 



•T Stassar^usetts Iporiintlhtral Storwig 






p FOR 1861. m 

» V/- 



President : 

JOSEPH BRECK of Brighton. 



Vice Presidents : 

EDWARD S. HAND of Boston, EBEN. WIGHT of Dcdham, 

J. F. C, HYDE of Newton, W. C. STRONG of Brighton. 

</\) . Treasurer : (tS| 

d,) WILLIAM R. AUSTIN of Dorchester. (U 

*^ Corresponding Secretary: * 

EBEN. WIGHT of Dedham. 



Recording Secretary : 
F. LYMAN WIN SHIP of Brighton. 

Professor of Botany and Vegetable Physioloify .- 
ASA GRAY of Cambridge'. 



■ 



a' Professor of Zoologt) : \'\ 



Vs 



J. W. P. JENKS of Middleboro 

Professor of Horticultural Chemistry: 
A. A. HAYES of Boston. ' 



STASDISG COMMITTEES. 

Executive Committee . 






L The President, Chairman ; The Treasurer, J. S. Cabot, S. Walker, M. P. Wilder. I 

C^) Por Establishing Premiums: (£« 

^L Chairman of Committee on Fruits, Chairman; Chairmen of Committees on Flowers, \/ 
sx Vegetables, and Gardens; F. Lyman Winship. 

On Finance : 
Josiah Stickney, Chairman ; Samuel Walker, M. P. Wilder. 

On the Library : 
tfiN E. S. Rand, Jr., Chairman ; Wm. H. Spooner, Jr., W. A. Harris, J. 0. Williams, 
J R. McCleary Copeland, Librarian. 

y-7) On Ornamental Gardening: 

^1 Samuel Walker, Chairman; A. Bowditeh, W. R. Austin, W. C. Strong, 

>y Chairmen of Committees on Fruits, Flowers, and Vegetables. 

On Fruits : 
J. S. Cabot, Chairman ; W. C. Strong, J. F. C. Hyde, E. A. Storv, W. A. Harris, 

A. C. Bowditeh, P. B. Hovey. 

On Flowers t 

E. S. Rand, Jr., Chairman ; G. W. Pratt, James McTear, C. H. B. Breck, 

A. Apple, E. W. Buswell, Wm. H. Spooner. 

(L On Vegetables: 

\x D. T. Curtis, Chairman ; Levi Whitcomb, James Nugent, I. P. Rand, Franklin 
^ Winship, Augustus Parker, B. Harrington. 

On Synonyms of Fruit : 
M. P. Wilder, Chairman ; Samuel Walker, C. M. Hovey, Eben. Wight, 
Chairman of the Committee on Fruits. 

On Publication : 
Corresponding Secretary, Chairman; Recording Secretary; G. W. Pratt; Chairmen 
I of Committees on Flowers, Fruits, Vegetables, and Gardens. 

On Arranqemenls for Annual Exhibition ; 
P. li. Hovey, J. S. Cabot, J. F. C. Hyde, E. S. Rand, Jr., D. T. Curtis, G. W. 
Pratt, C.*H. B. Breck, W. C. Strong, F. L. Winship, A. C. Bowditeh, W. 11. 
Spooner, Jr., W. J. Underwood, and R. McCleary Copeland. 

^ <^ — 6^gg^ &*tH^ C^ ! — 2^ £^ 



t 



1 1 



;, 



l/'Sy 



•fe?*5^5=3> — fez*R*3C^ — fez*R*3=5 — £z&§j*s& 



TRANSACTIONS 



or THE 



tTassacjrasrfts horticultural Stotietj, 



Ton 



1 



Till-: YEAR 18(11. 




/ 



1 



^ 



X 



Vk 



BOSTON: 

HENRY \V. DUTTON & SON, PRINTERS, 

Transcript Building. 

1862. 



■^^H^^ — i^Bj? 2 -^ — ^-^H^^> — ^^g^^, 



h 

V) 



..■■ 




TRANSACTIONS 



OF THK 




assacfmsetts Jinrticultoal Sfocidg, 



FOit 



THE YEAR 1861. 




BOSTON: 

HENRY W. DUTTON & SON, PRINTERS, 
Transcript Building. 

1862. 



CONTENTS. 



Report of the Committee on Ornamental Gardening, - 1 

Estate of Dr. Lodge, 1 

Estate of E. S. Rand, Jr. 2 

Estate of E. S. Rand, Sen. --------- 2 

William Bacon's Pear Orchard, - 3 

Gratuities awarded, 4 

Report of the Committee on Flowers, 5 

Calluna vulgaris, a native of the United States, 32 

The Garden Classification of the Rose, - - - - - - - 41 

A few notes on the Culture of Polianthes tubcrosa, ... - 45 

Premiums and Gratuities awarded, 48 

Report of the Committee on Fruits, ------ 60 

Strawberries, 64 

Currants, Raspberries, --- 65 

Blackberries, Cherries, Peaches, Pears, ----,--- 66 

Grapes, 67 

Premiums awarded, 70 

Report of the Committee on Vegetables, 76 

Premiums awarded, ---------- 77 

Report of the Committee on the Library, 82 

Report of the Finance Committee, 86 

President Breck's Address, ----- 88 

Life Members of the Society, 93 

Annual Members, _ 97 



EEPOETS. 



REPORT OF THE COM. ON ORNAMENTAL GARDENING, 

For the Year 1861. 

BY WILLIAM C. STRONG, SECRETARY. 

It was to be expected that the labors of the Committee would be light. 
Our peaceful art shrinks from the presence of arms. Yet, while there has 
been less than usual display and competition during the past season, we 
think there is a permanent and growing love of horticulture among our 
citizens. Very few, if any, of the noted estates and gardens in this section 
have suffered from neglect, and in some cases, though to a less extent than in 
past years, new grounds have been opened, glass structures erected, and other 
improvements made. It is an unwelcome fact that, owing to the attractions 
of the cheap, rich and exhaustless fields of the West, and also the larger 
" promise to pay" of commerce, the agriculture of the Commonwealth has been 
at least stationary, if not even in retrograde, for the past few years. But 
while the farm may have been deserted for the counting-room, it may not be 
unreasonable to expect that our business men, as they again go out to adorn 
their country seats, and pursue their experiments in rural culture, will set 
such an example, and give such a stimulus as will bring back a more thorough 
and scientific agriculture throughout the State. Forbidding as much of our 
soil is, by nature, we have multiplying proofs of its susceptibility to the 
highest possible adornment, and its surprising capacity of production. 

ESTATE OF DR. LODGE. 

As an instance of marked success, in this combination of landscape gardening 
and agriculture, the estate of Dr. Lodge may be mentioned. The site selected 
was the naturally rough, bleak, rock-bound shore of Cape Ann. Yet science 
and art have so transformed this place that now we see an intermingling of 
beauty and luxuriance and grandeur, scarcely to be equalled in the country. 
Verdant lawns stretch to the very ocean's edge, which yield two crops, year 
after year, of over three tons per acre. Successive gardens of the pear and 
apple, of root and other field crops, all under the lee of the various spurs of 
huge rock, each suggest the luxuriance of the West, if, shut out from the 
sight, we could also shut out the sound of the ever-murmuring sea. 

As the visit to this place was unofficial, it may not be proper to dwell upon 
1 



2 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

the many interesting particulars in culture, in pruning, and in chemical 
experiments with manures. A single fact, that Dr. Lodge has cultivated the 
strawberry for the past four years in hills, without removal, and with con- 
tinuing good results, will be of special interest to cultivators who are jutt 
entering upon this mode of culture. Judging from the size of the plot, the 
yield was about four thousand quarts per acre, for this the fourth year — the 
plants indicating perfect health and vigor. This method is but an application 
of Dr. Lodge's theory of pruning, which is the removal of all superfluous 
wood, laterals or runners, forcing the plants to form fruit spurs, with the least 
possible amount of wood, and no unnecessary foliage. This subject, so 
interesting and practical, is quite beyond the limits of this Report. 

ESTATE OF E. S. RAND, JR. 

On the 3d of July the Committee visited the residence of Mr. Edward S. 
Rand, Jr. Mr. Rand's object in asking this examination was in order to 
show what might be accomplished on a new place, in a short time, and with 
little expense — three points of greatest importance. In the spring previous 
the eight-acre lot was a wild thicket of oak, birch, juniper, and pitch and 
white pine. The site, though uninviting at the commencement, was well 
chosen, being remarkably undulating, and giving great variety of effect. 
With a true appreciation of its capacities Mr. Rand has entered upon the 
work of transforming this forest info a garden, with all the ardor of true love. 
The main part of the work has been done with his own hands, before and 
after office hours in Boston. It was surprising how great changes had been 
made in so short time, and at such moderate cost. Instead of the pines and 
blueberry bushes of the previous spring, we saw a garden of herbaceous 
plants — a bed of strawberries — specimens of choice trees, such as Salisburia, 
Magnolias, Liquidamber, Lycesteria, a hedgerow of Pyrus Japonica, and 
many other evidences that the work of transformation was going on with 
great skill and good judgment in every expenditure. It is in this respect that 
the place is specially note-worthy, the results in all cases exceeding the 
means used in producing them. From the piazza of the house we look up a 
most charming stretch of the Charles River. Added to this, a wide sweep of 
luxuriant interval gives an English picturesqueness of landscape rarely to be 
equalled. This place, in the hands of one so enthusiastic and persevering in 
his love of nature and her sciences, will surely be worthy of a visit in future 
years. 

ESTATE OF E. S. RAND, SEN. 

On the 4th of September your Committee visited the estate of Edward S. 
Rand, Esq., which is also in Dedham, and about two miles distant from his son's 
residence. Here we found the objects of interest totally dissimilar, the culture 
of this estate being advanced almost to the limit of present art. Around, and 
on the northerly side of the house, were extensive groups of Rhododendrons, 
Kalmias, and Azaleas, in remarkably fine condition. Some specimens of the 



GARDEN COMMITTEE'S REPORT. 3 

Rhododendron are probably unequalled in New England, being eight feet 
high, six feet broad, well-furnished, and profusely set with flower buds. Mr. 
Rand attributes their vigor to the cool, shaded and northerly exposure. A 
striking specimen of Fagus laciniata, (Cut-leaved Beech) ten feet high and 
eight feet in width, and very dense, gave an unique contrast with larger trees. 
Several specimens of English oak were much admired for their vigor and 
depth of color. Not to dwell upon the perfectly kept walks and hedges and 
lawns, we pass to the graperies, loaded with fruit ; the rose pit, in which Glorie 
de Dijon reigns as queen, and come at last to the chief attractions of the 
place — the greenhouse, the conservatory, and the stove. This collection of 
new and choice exotics is beyond question the largest in New England, and 
was under most perfect culture. Among variegated plants we noticed a fine 
collection of Anaectochilus, ten varieties of Caladia, several new Viresia, noble 
specimens of Cyanophyllum, twenty newest Begonias, and a great number of 
others. The collection of Orchids in the Stove were worthy of undivided 
attention. Especially noticeable were Aerides odorata, Nepenthes distil- 
latoria, Cattleyas in variety, Scuticarea Steelii, Stanhopeas, Lelias, Gongo- 
ras, Cypripediums, Dendrobiums in variety, and a long list, which would 
exceed our limit to enumerate. Of the more choice Ferns and Lycopods we 
noticed a great number of beautiful specimens. No one can visit this varied 
collection of the most curious and wonderful products of the vegetable king- 
dom, without a feeling of gratitude to Mr. Rand. His plants are a public 
benefaction, and an honor to the Commonwealth. They supply the place, so 
far as private collections can, of a public garden of plants. Though not 
accessible to many, yet this example is a stimulus to all. It is a help toward 
a result, for the which we will not rest until it is attained, viz., a Public 
Conservatory of Plants, worthy of the city of Boston, of the Commonwealth, 
and of this Society. 

WILLIAM BACON'S PEAR ORCHARD. 

Your Committee also visited the pear orchard of Mr. William Bacon, in 
Roxbury, and found the trees in great vigor, and well loaded with fruit. 
The advantage of protection from winter winds was very manifest, this garden 
being surrounded by high walls, which saved the fruit buds. It is a matter of 
surprise that these trees can continue to thrive in such a location — the surface 
soil being but eighteen inches to two feet above the water level, in the driest 
season. The secret is, that a constant and profuse supply of food is applied 
on the surface, obtained from the city sewer, which flows through the ground. 
So long as the surface roots can be so fed and stimulated the trees may 
thrive, as they have heretofore, in a most marked degree, under Mr. Bacon's 
management. But if, from any cause, the roots should for once venture down, 
quick consumption would be sure to follow. As Mr. Bacon's garden was fully 
reported, and received an award last year, it was excluded from the list for 
this season. 



4 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

No regular applications for premiums having been made, your Committee 
have granted the following gratuities, which, with this Report, are respectfully 
submitted: — 

GRATUITIES AWARDED BY THE GARDEN COMMITTEE. 

To Edward S. Rand, Esq., for neatly-kept grounds, greenhouses, and 

superior collection of orchids, a gratuity of ... $25 00 

To Edward S. Rand* Jr., Esq., for skilful and economical laying out 

and management of a new estate, a gratuity of . . . 15 00 

Respectfully submitted for the Committee, 

WILLIAM C. STRONG, Secretary. 



FLOWER COMMITTEE'S REPORT. 



REPORT OF THE COMMITTEE ON FLOWERS, 

For the Year 1861. 

BY EDWAKD S. RAND, JR., CHAIRMAN". 

The past season has, from excessive drought, been most unfavorable to flora) 
beauty. The plants have been so parched as to fail to bloom, or have produced 
small and unhealthy flowers. We have, however, noticed a greater brilliancy 
in the colors, and better marked flowers than usual — this is probably owing to 
the bright sunlight and the constant clear weather. 

The skill most required in the gardener, during the last summer, has been 
ability to use the watering pot and to shade his specimen blooms from the 
scorching sun. The dry weather also produced swarms of crickets and grass- 
hoppers, which devoured the more delicate flowers, and often seriously damaged 
the plants. These remarks apply more particularly to annuals and late-bloom- 
ing perennials; the spring-blooming herbaceous plants suffered but little, and 
were exhibited in great variety. Various bulbs, such as Lilies, Gladiolus and 
Tiger Flowers, have shown an unusual brilliancy of color, and have more than 
compensated for the deficiency in annuals. 

Pot plants have been better than ever before, and been shown in greater 
number and variety. As usual, some have been exhibited which were a dis- 
grace both to the exhibitor and the Society, and which were only admitted to 
show the beauty of others, by contrasting illy-grown and elegant specimens; 
and some would have taken a first prize had a premium been awarded for 
mealy bug and red spider. 

Despite these exhibitions, pot plants have improved, and we trust the coming 
year may witness no retrograde movement. 

Bouquets have been, as usual, some very good, some very bad. The usual 
display of baskets of flowers, pressed and dried flowers, has been made, and 
some well executed floral painting has been exhibited, as will be seen by the 
weekly reports. Of new and rare plants we have had, many, all of which we 
have described more fully in the weekly reports, to which we will now pass. 

The first exhibition of the year was on the second of February, when plants 
of Erica propendens tubiflora and suavolens were shown by Barnes & Wash- 
burn. The plants, though small, were in good condition, in full bloom and 
well grown. 

Evers & Comley exhibited a fine collection of cut Epacris and Acacias : 
some of the former were remarkably fine, and comprised many new varieties ; 
but we are unable to describe them as we were not furnished with specimens. 
A few tender roses and cut blooms of the prize seedling Camellia were shown 
by Hovey & Co. 

On Saturday the sixteenth of February the warm spring-like weather was 
propitious for a fine floral display, and the Hall presented a fine appearance. 



D MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

The finest display was made by Hovey & Co., from whom we had six fine 
seedling varieties of Cyclamen persicum ; the colors of the flowers varied 
from pure white, and white tipped with deep lake, to those tipped with crim- 
son and purple, and suffused with rosy pink. They were by far the finest 
specimens exhibited for years, and are well worthy of extensive dissemination. 

A plant of Phaiis grandifolius or Bletia Tankervilli, in good bloom. 

Four large double white Primulas. A plant of Columnea eryrothea, a new 
and singular plant. A good specimen of Begonia manicata, and a huge plant 
of Begonia Vershaffeltii, a coarse and not remarkably desirable variety. Aca- 
cia longiflora magnifica, a small plant of a fine species. Azalea Perfection, 
very fine in form ; the plant exhibited was too small to judge of the habit, but 
in other respects it is perfect. Hetrocentron roseum, an old and, with some, 
a favorite plant. Pleroma elegans ; always a fine exhibition plant. Two seed- 
ling Pelargoniums. One Pelargonium, Dollie Dutton. A collection of 
Camellias. Magnolia Linneus, very fine, somewhat resembling Soulangiana, 
but far larger and finer; we do not know whether it has yet proved hardy. 
Cut specimens of Erica Linneoides and Verbena Firefly, the latter a spark- 
ling little flower, but, judging from the specimens, small and poor in truss. 

Six large and very fine Epacris came from the greenhouse of Jonathan 
French, of the following kinds — grandiflora, Lowii, magnifica, miniata splen- 
dens, pulchella minor and Wilmoriana. 

A small plant of Eriostemon nerifolium. 

A new seedling Chorizema, from C. Lawrenciana, and of better habit and 
larger flower than its parent. Goodia latifolia, once a favorite plant, but now 
seldom exhibited; it is very pretty, and worthy of more notice. 

Erica propendens tubiflora, one of our prettiest heaths, and a favorite. Erica 
cafFra rubra and Dioema capitata. 

James McTear sent cut flowers of Acacia ixiophylla, a fine sweet-scented 
species. 

On the twenty-third of February a pretty plant of Pimelia Nieppergiana 
was exhibited by Barnes & Washburn. It is a white-flowering species, of 
graceful habit; the white petals contrast prettily with the yellow stamens; a 
free flowerer, and must be desirable for winter bouquets. 

The second of March was too stormy for a large exhibition, and the only 
plants shown were two Azaleas, (Mary of Cambridge and seedling,) by Wm. 
Wales, and a small plant in full bloom of Cypripedium barbatum, and a larger 
of Cypripedium venustum, by Edward S. Rand; both of these are easily- 
grown plants, the former desirable for its mottled leaves and high-colored 
flowers, the latter for its variegated foliage and curious bloom ; the former is 
rare. 

The Camellia prizes were awarded on the sixteenth of March ; the display 
was very small, but the blooms were of good kinds, and indicated well-grown 
plants. 



FLOWER COMMITTEE'S REPORT. 7 

Pelargonium Dolly Dntton and Azalea Beauty of America were shown by 
Hovey & Co. 

A display of cut flowers was made by James McTear, who also exhibited 
plants of Azalea Iveryana and Cineraria Eclat. 

On account of unfavorable weather on the prize day for Azaleas, Ericas and 
Epacris, there was no exhibition ; but on Saturday, May 23d, fine displays 
were made by Jonathan French, Hovey & Co. and Evers & Comley. 

Some new Ixias were shown by Hovey & Co. 

Ixia Theseus. Rosy pink, shading to a deep purple or lake eye. 

Ixia Aulica. Exterior of petals purple, interior almost white, shading to 
purple at the tips ; eye dark purple. 

Ixia Plutus. Exterior of petals orange, with red stripe down centre of the 
outer; inner petals and interior of all bright orange; eye almost black. 

Ixia Pallas. Only differing from the last described in being straw or cream 
color instead of orange. 

These varieties resemble in growth Ixia viridiflora; are tall growers, with 
narrow leaves. They are very fine, and well worthy of general cultivation. 
There are also many newer varieties advertised in English catalogues, which 
we have not seen. Acacia Drummondii, a very pretty species. Cineraria 
Brilliant, one of the best we have seen; color dazzling lake. 

On Saturday, March 30th, a fine display of roses was made by Evers & 
Comley, also a new rose, of which they possessed the stock — a fine flower, 
of good form and color. 

Saturday, April 6th, the same exhibitors gave us a plant of Eucharis Ama- 
zonica, in full bloom. It is a superb bulb, of the Amaryllis family ; the 
flowers are large, pure white, and of exquisite fragrance. We had seen it but 
once in bloom before, as it is somewhat difficult to flower: as an ornamental 
plant it is deserving a place in every collection. Cut flowers and their new 
rose, from the same. Maranta Warzewicsii, from Edward S. Rand. A new 
and very fine plant; far superior to the old M. zebrina; the markings of the 
leaves were in wavy lines, of rich velvety colors, of light grass-green and 
darker shades, under-surface of the leaf soft purple. The plant was in bloom, 
showing a tall spire of creamy white fragrant flowers, changing to rosy purple 
in fading. It is altogether the most ornamental Maranta yet introduced. 

Lilium fulgens incomparable, from Spooner & Co. Gloxinea rosea muta- 
bilis, from James Bean. Cineraria Wonderful, from Hovey & Co.; and 
seedling Camellias, one of which was very good — color rose pink, form 
good. 

A plant in full bloom, of Sarracenia purpurea, was shown by James 
McTear. A fine specimen ; it is seldom this plant is found in good order in 
cultivation. A native of our wet swamps ; it is very ornamental, both in 
flowers and foliage. 

On Saturday, April 13th, a fine display of roses was made by Azell Bow- 
ditch ; Evers & Comley exhibited their new rose, and E. A. Story specimens 



8 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

of Daphne Mezereon, white and pink ; the former is rare. From Barnes & 
Washburn a very small plant, with a single flower, of Lychnis Haagaana, 
color good, but from the specimen presented we cannot well judge of plant or 
flower. 

On April 20th. A few pots of Cinerarias, from Hovey & Co. ; cut roses, 
from A. Bowditch ; and Hyacinth, Harriet Beecher Stowe, from Curtis <&, 
Cobb. 

Saturday, May 5th. A fine display of cut Hyacinths, by R. M. Copeland. 

Saturday, May 11th. A collection of hardy plants, from Mrs. Benj. Bruce. 

Saturday, May 18th. A fine collection of hardy herbaceous spring flower- 
ing plants, including Arabis, trillium, phlox, caltha, vinca, hellebore, daphne, 
frittelaria, hyacinths, daffodils, and many others, from Mrs. Benj. Bruce. 

From Thomas Page: three seedling Horseshoe Geraniums, all good and dis- 
tinct, both in flower and foliage. No. 1, of very fine form, almost perfect; 
color, soft rosy cream, between cherry and " China pink," very fine, and well 
worthy of propagation and a name. 

Wm. E. Carter: a bouquet of early spring flowers. 

The Opening Spring Exhibition was held at the Society's Hall on Thursday, 
Friday, and Saturday, May 23d, 24th, and 25th. The display of plants and 
flowers, though limited in quantity, was far superior in richness and quality to 
any of preceding years. There were many fine and rare plants, of which spec- 
imens had never been exhibited, and fine specimens of old favorites. The 
show of variegated plants was particularly rich ; the Cinerarias were better 
than on any previous years. Pelargoniums and Azaleas were well grown and 
in profuse bloom. Fuchsias and Verbenas were not as good as on previous 
years, though of the latter there were some well-grown plants exhibited. Pan- 
sies were good, but not up to the mark of prize flowers. Specimen plants were 
never better, and so fine and of such varied species as, after the award of the 
first prize, to much embarrass the Committee. The principal contributors were 
James McTear : six Verbenas, one specimen do., six Cinerarias, and ten plants ; 
also, cut flowers. Martin Trautman : Adiantum cuneatum, Aphelandra Leo- 
poldii, Thyrsicanthus rutilans, Begonias rex, grandis and Zanderii, Maranta 
zebrina, Lycopodium denticulatum and leptophyllum, Coleus Blumei or Plec- 
tranthus concolor pictus, Gymnogramma sulphurea, Dracaena terminalis, sixteen 
pots of Pansies, six Auriculas, six double Petunias, cut Pansies. 

Mrs. Pierce : preserved Hollyhocks. 

Cambridge Botanic Garden: Swainsonia coronillaefolia and Osbornii, (new); 
Begonias rex, argentea and seedlings ; Pilea muscosa, Salvia argentea (new), 
Grevillea robusta, Thyrsacanthus rutilans, Pitcairnea punicea, Funkia elegans 
fol. var., Dracaena terminalis ; also a choice collection of cut flowers. 

Hovey & Co. : Azaleas Gledstanesii, Osbornii, Erica Cavendishii, Geranium 
Rollinson's Unique, Statice Holfordii, Rhyncospermum jasminoides, Tetrathera 
verticillata, Dracaena indivisa, Oncidium flexuosum, Passiflora hybrida flori- 
bunda, Rondeletia speciosa major, Stratheola stricta, six Cinerarias, six Fancy 



FLOWER COMMITTEE'S REPORT. 9 

Pelargoniums, six Ericas, twelve Azaleas, New Monthly Carnation Souvenir 
de Malmaison, Double Zinnia, Gazania splendens, Rhopala corcovadensis (?), 
Yucca filimentosa variegata, Pilea muscosa, Pteris tricolor, Aralia reticulata, 
do. crassifolia, Dracaena ferrea, Cceropegia elegans, Hydrangea aurea variegata, 
cut flowers in variety. 

Evers & Comley : Stephanotus floribundus, Dracaena gracilis, Rhyncos- 
permum jasminoides. Begonia grandis, Hoya variegata, Latania Bourbonica, 
Allamanda Schottii, Adiantum cuneatum, Lycopodium Wildenovii, Clematis 
lanuginosa, Alyxia tetragona. Erica ventricosa Brownii, Coronilla variegata, 
Grevillea robusta, Begonias rex, Miranda, Queen of England, Madam Alward, 
alba coccinea, nitida. 

Didymochlona tfimaculata, Adiantum cuneatum, Polypodium Alpestris, 
Blechnum corcovadense, Davillea Canariensis, Dicksonia tenera, Nephro- 
lepis davilleoides, Lycopodium Wildernovii, Neotopteris elegans, Lycopodium 
densum, &c, two seedling verbenas, two new Pelargoniums Larkfield Rival 
and Madam Chardine. 

Edward S. Rand : Pilea muscosa, Pothos argyrea, Cissus discolor, Begonia 
grandis, Dracaena gracilis, Caladium bicolor, Cissus Sieboldii, Ruscus, sp., 
Meyenia erecta alba, Acanthophippium bicolor, Calamus Rotang, Aspasia 
epidendroides, Lycopodium denticulatum, Livingstonia africana, Maranta albo 
lineata, Davillea Canariensis, Tillandsia acaulis zebrina, Begonia Madam 
Wagner, Tradescantia discolor, Euphorbia splendens, Dracaena ferrea, Aralia 
quinquefolia, do. reticulata, Latania rubra, do. Bourbonica, Ananas sativa vari- 
egata, Pandanus Javanicus variegatus, Campylobotrys discolor, Croton angusti- 
folium, do. pictum, Dieffenbachia picta, Polypodium aureum, Egyptian Papyrus, 
Gymnogramma chrysophylla, Tabernae montanae coronarium, Farfugium grande, 
Rhus succedaneum, Maranta fasciata, do. regalis, Caladium Chantinii, do. 
marmoratum, Lycopodium densum, Caladium hastatum, Cyanophyllum mag- 
nificum, Dracaena terminalis, Caladium Belleymii, Rhopala corcovadensis, Cor- 
dyiine Braziliensis, Rhopala Jongheii, new Begonias Duchess de Brabant, 
Funkii, Lord Clyde, President Van der Hecke, Makoy's Victoria. The Com- 
mittee would especially notice the following plants: — 

In the collection of Evers & Comley : Myriopris elegans, a very fine deli- 
cate fern. Begonia Queen of England, very fine variety ; a great improve- 
ment of B. rex. Rhyncospermum jasminoides, a fine plant of an old favorite. 
Grevillea robusta, a fine foliaged plant of rapid growth. Nephrolepis davil- 
leoides and Blechnum corcovadense, fine ferns. Begonia Madam Alward, 
fine silvery foliage. Clematis lanuginosa, fine flowers, but a poorly grown 
plant. Latania Bourbonica, large plant. 

Collection of Martin Trautman : A very pretty show of auriculas. Thyrsa- 
canthus rutilans. Fine seedling double Petunias. The show of Pansies by 
this exhibitor was fine ; the flowers were large, the plants healthy, and in pro- 
fuse bloom, and though none were, strictly speaking, prize or show flowers, 
yet they were the best we have seen for many years. 



10 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

Collection of Hovey & Co. : Pteris tricolor, a fine plant of this choice fern. 
Tetrathera verticillata, a pretty plant, noticeable from its showy purple flowers. 
Geranium Rollinson's Unique, a fine plant of this fine variety. Rhopala Cor- 
covadensis, (so marked), at the Exhibition of 1860, we were inclined to think 
this plant was correctly named. We were in error; the plant exhibited is a 
spurious variety, too often sent out for corcovadensis ; the leaves are smaller, 
not so richly marked, and the plant is inferior. Passiflora hybrida floribunda, 
a well grown plant in full bloom. Azalea crispiflora, a fine plant. Aralia 
reticulata, always fine; with good culture the leaves grow many times larger 
than those usually seen. Fine Fancy Pelargoniums, Cambridge Pet, Evening 
Star, Boston Belle, Helen Faucit, Emperor, Eulalie, fine plants in profuse 
bloom. Cinerarias Baroness Rothchild, Regalia, Wonderful, Mrs. Coleman, 
Mrs. Hoyle, Prince of Wales, the best plants shown for many years. Ericas 
Cavendishii, Westphalingia, intermedia, Beaumontii, Statice Holfordii, Azaleas 
Gledstanesii, and Osbornii. 

Collection of G. G. Hubbard : Acrostichum alcicorne, a very large and well 
grown plant. A choice collection of fine ferns, all however small plants. A 
single plant of double Zinnia, enough to show the flower is no myth, and'a fine 
plant of Gazania splendens from Hovey & Co.; both will be valuable additions 
to our stock of summer blooming plants. 

Collection of Wm. Wales : Some good Azaleas, very fine cut roses and pots 
of Fuchsias. 

A bouquet of hardy spring flowers was exhibited by Wm. E. Carter; among 
others we noticed Trillium grandiflorum, fine blooms ; Iberis Tenoriana, 
Phlox divaricata, (fine). 

Fine pots of Verbenas were shown by James McTear. 

Cambridge Botanic Garden: Salvia argentea, very ornamental. Grevillia 
robusta, seedling of 1860, two feet high. Swainsonia Osbornii, new, flowers 
dark chocolate color. Funkia elegans, a very fine variegated plant. 

Collection of Marshall P. Wilder: Rhyncospermum jasminoides, a fine 
specimen en balloon trellis. Lilium eximium, fine. Franciscea eximea, a very 
fine specimen, in abundant bloom. 

Collection of Edward S. Rand: Campylobotrys discolor, (new), a very fine 
foliaged plant, of symmetrical growth, and most ornamental ; requires a stove. 
Dracaenas ferrea, terminalis and gracilis, all fine foliaged plants. Rhopala 
corcovadensis, and Jongheii, the former very ornamental from its graceful 
growth and the color of its leaves ; the latter remarkable for its large, broad, 
spreading foliage. 

Latania rubra. As yet very rare, even in England ; a splendid plant, resem- 
bles L. Bourbonica, but far finer; margins of divisions of the leaves delicately 
tinged with red ; foliage spreading. A stove plant of easy culture. 

Latania Bourbonica. A handsome stove plant. 

Livingstonia. A fine African Palm; very ornamental; never before ex- 
hibited. 



FLOWER COMMITTEE'S REPORT. 11 

Calamus Rotang. The rung dung palm ; a very fine palm. 
Polypodium aureum. A very large specimen of this fine fern. 
Gymnogramma chrysophylla. A large plant of the golden fern. 
Meyenia erecta alba. First exhibition in bloom ; flower about the size of 
the more common blue variety ; pure white, yellow throat; very pretty, but by 
no means as showy as the blue variety. 

Rhus succedaneum. The wax plant of Japan; a plant two feet high. 
New Begonias. President Van der Henck; large dark green leaf, with 
darker markings, sprinkled with innumerable spots of powdery white; a very 
fine variety ; leaves very large ; admirably adapted for a show plant. 

Begoria Funkii. Somewhat resembles Miranda and Griffithii; may be a 
hybrid between them, and is far superior to either. Foliage peculiarly soft 
and delicate, with whitish marks. 

Begonia Lord Clyde. A large growing variety, with very dark markings 
on silvery green ground. 

Begonia Duchess of Brabant. A very fine variety ; foliage silvery green, 
with broad bands of darker coloring; the whole leaf sprinkled with pure 
white. 

Tillandsia acaulis zebrina. A peculiar stove orchid, with beautifully varie- 
gated and striped leaves ; foliage hoary and silvery. A very ornamental plant ; 
grown in sandy earth, which must not be watered ; plunge the pot containing 
the plant into a large pot filled with sand, and water the sand in the outer 
pot. The plant succeeds well grown under a bell glass; no water must be 
allowed to collect in the crown of leaves. 

Maranta alba lineata and regalis. Both fine stove plants, prettily contrasting 
in foliage. 

Davillea canariensis. A very large specimen of this fine fern. 
Pothos argyrea. A very pretty little foliaged plant; grows well on cork, 
or in a pot; leaves frosted silver and green. 

Dieffenbachia picta. A fine plant, described in Transactions for 1860. 
Dracaena Braziliensis. A very pretty plant, with broad green leaves ; im- 
ported under the name of Cordyline. 

Aralia quinquefolia. First exhibition of a new and fine species. 
Ananas sativa variegata. Variegated leafed pine-apple ; a very ornamental 
stove plant. 

Pandanus javanicus variegatus. Resembles in appearance the last ; the color 
is more silvery, and the contrast between silver and green more marked. 
Croton angustifolium and pictum. Fine plants of old favorites. 
Caladium marmoratum. A large plant, with very large leaves ; beautifully 
marbled with green and snowy white. 
Caladium Chantinii. A fine plant. 

Caladium hastatum. New ; leaves silvery green, marked with white ; growth 
resembles that of C. argyrites ; a very fine species. 

Caladium Belleymeii. A very fine species; foliage snowy white, suffused 
with rosy pink. A new and very superior kind. 



12 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

Fine displays of Cut Flowers were made by Hovey & Co. ; Geo. W. Pratt ; 
Evers and Comley; James McTear; Thomas Walsh; Joseph Breck ; Mrs. 
Benj. Bruce ; Cambridge Botanic Garden ; and James Nugent. 

Saturday, June 1st. Fine specimens of Dodocatheon media (seedlings) were 
shown by Wm. E. Carter ; also a bouquet of herbaceous plants. 

A collection of Tree or Shrubby Peonies, from Marshall P. Wilder, con- 
tained good flowers, but nothing new. 

A fine display of Rhodora canadensis was made by Edward S. Rand. This 
beautiful native flowering shrub is not common in the vicinity of Boston, but 
more to the' north the fields are often purple for a week in spring with its fra- 
grant flowers. The specimens shown varied in color from white to deep 
purple. It is a plant easily cultivated in moist peat earth, and is one of our 
most ornamental native shrubs. 

Saturday, June 8th. From Evers and Comley : Begonia argentea, do. Gan- 
davensis; Aralia albidus; Lantana Ninon d'Onclos; Pleroma Benthamiana; 
Thrysicanthus rutilans ; Nephrodium molle corymbiflorum ; Gloxinea carnea. 
A fine display of cut flowers. 

James McTear exhibited a good specimen of Petunia Excelsior, and a variety 
of cut flowers. 

Displays of cut flowers were made by Joseph Breck, Marshall P. Wilder, 
Mrs. Benj. Bruce, Thos. Walsh, E. A. Story, Wm. C. Strong, Wm. E. Carter, 
Walker & Co., John A. Kenrick, and others. 

Some very well executed specimens of wax flowers were shown by Madam 
Miel ; the specimens of wax- work usually shown at our exhibitions have been 
false to nature, clumsy in execution, and badly colored. To this censure we 
can remember but one exception during the last six years. The flowers made 
by Madam Miel are coirect in form, and were by many mistaken for natural 
flowers ; the only fault was a slight defect in coloring, caused by not having 
fresh flowers to copy from. This will be remedied in future, as some of our 
florists will furnish Madam Miel with specimens. We cannot but commend 
to all this pretty employment, and to florists and amateurs we would especially 
suggest this mode of preserving copies of rare flowers. The Committee unani- 
mously awarded a silver medal to Madam Miel for the flowers now and pre- 
viously exhibited. 

In the collection of Wm. C. Strong we noticed several fine new Tree 
Pseonies. Also a new herbaceous pseony, color rosy salmon. 

Marshall P. Wilder and Joseph Breck exhibited for the first time blooms of 
the new tree PaBony Elizabeth. We also noticed in the stand of the former a 
fine variety Roi Leopold. They are thus described : — 

Tree Paeony Elizabeth. Flower very large, full and double; outer petals 
regular, interior confused but very close ; form almost globular ; color rich rosy 
red, shading from light rose to deep purple at base of the petals ; petals not 
unfrequently marked with pale purple. This is a very superior flower, new in 
color, and of fine form ; growth very strong, foliage large. A most striking 
variety. 



FLOWER COMMITTEE'S REPORT. 13 

Tree Paeony Roi Leopold. A very large flower composed of five rows of 
large white petals, richly marked with veins of purple at the base ; centre very 
large ; golden stamens very numerous and conspicuous. Habit vigorous. The 
flower from which our description is taken measured over nine inches in diam- 
eter, and two feet four inches in circumference. In every way a superior 
flower. 

The names of the Tree Pseonies exhibited by Wm. C. Strong are: — Neu- 
manii, Rosea elegans, Eugene, Cericea purpurea superba, Heldii, Attonia. 

Saturday, June 15th, 1861. James McTear exhibited Kalosanthes versi- 
color, Epacris campanulata maxima (good). Diplacus glutinosus, and pot 
plants, and cut flowers, in variety. 

Evers and Comley showed their new rose. 

Hovey & Co. showed a fine collection of pot plants, including Pelargonium 
Countess of Devon, Ericas Cavendishi ventricosa, Bothwelliana, do superba, 
grandiflora, carnea, Vestita cruenta and alba superba ; one new Lilium some- 
what resembling Eximeum ; Azalea Criterion (good); six Ericas ventricosa 
breviflora ; Pimelia decussata ; Iberis Tenoriana (new var.) ; a fine collection 
of cut flowers, Azaleas and Rhododendrons. 

Fine cut flowers were shown by Wm. C. Strong, Hovey & Co., Evers and 
Comley, J. Cruikshank, Martin Trautman, James McTear, Joseph Breck, 
Walker & Co., James Nugent, Thos. Walsh, and others. 

Rhododendrons were very fine, but the show was small. Hardy Azaleas 
were shown in great variety. 

A fine display of seventy varieties of Iris, or Fleur de lis, was made by 
Spooner & Co. 

A large collection of Sarracenia purpurea, the side-saddle flower or pitcher 
plant, was shown by Edward S. Rand. 

The same exhibited fine specimens of the rare and beautiful Arethusa bul- 
bosa. This is one of our most beautiful natives, and is fast becoming extinct 
in the vicinity of Boston ; in many localities where a few years since it was 
very plenty, now not a single plant can be found. 

In the collection of Wm. C. Strong we noticed fine Gloxineas, Pinks, and 
Pelargoniums ; in that of Evers and Comley, fine Gloxineas : Mrs. Bruce, fine 
hardy plants ; James Nugent, fine roses ; Hovey & Co., Gazania ringens and 
splendens, and Magnolia umbrellata. 

The show was the finest we have had since the opening of the hall, and 
creditable alike to the Society and to exhibitors. 

Saturday, June 22d. The show was far inferior to that of the past few 
weeks. Of Pot Plants there were none exhibited ; cut flowers were in fair 
quantity, but not very fine. 

The best display was made by Hovey & Co. ; the next by Wm. H. Spooner, 
Jr.; the next by Barnes & Washburn; and the prizes were accordingly 
awarded. 

A fine display of Herbaceous Peeonies was made by Hovey & Co., and 



14 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

Marshall P. Wilder. There were many new varieties, but they did not seem 
to us of remarkable excellence ; the general effect was very fine. 

Choice cut flowers were contributed by James Nugent, James McTear, 
F. Winship, M. Trautman, Wm. C. Strong (fine Gloxineas and Pelargoniums), 
Thomas Walsh, E. A. Story, Mrs. Benj. Bruce, Evers & Comley, Warren 
Heustis (roses), E. Stone (roses), Wm. E. Carter, and Miss Story. 

Some new Gladiolus, varieties of racemosus or cardinalis, by Hovey & Co.; 
the spikes of bloom were weak and colors nothing new. 
Fine Gloxineas of old kinds, by Evers & Comley. 

A new Lily, in the way of L. longifolium, but larger, by Spooner & Co. 
Wax imitation of Clematis azurea grandiflora, by Madam Meil, at first de- 
ceived the Committee by its accuracy in form and color. 

The Annual Rose Show, on account of the little interest taken in floricultuie 
in the [resent troubled condition of our national affairs, was by the unanimous 
vote of the Flower Committee and the general assent of all principal exhibitors, 
limited to a few hours on one day, and assigned for Saturday, June 29th. 

On that day the roses were in perfection ; the hall was filled with fine speci- 
mens, and bushels of choice flowers were taken away because there was no 
room to exhibit them. 

The display of roses was superior to that of thfi last year, the flowers having 
suffered less from hot suns. The strawberry show happening upon the same 
day, the hall was crowded to its utmost capacity, and the Committee found 
great difficulty in moving from stand to stand to judge the flowers. Some of 
the best roses were excluded from competition, from failure to comply with the 
special rules. 

Pot Plants were very poor, except a collection from Hovey &l Co., which 
came in too late to compete for premium. 

Cut Flowers were necessarily crowded by the displays of roses. We noticed 
some very fine English and Spanish [ris in the collection of Spooner & Co. 
The prizes were awarded respectively to Hovey & Co., Spooner & Co., and 
Evers & Comley. 

Hardy June Roses, Class I. : thirty distinct named varieties were shown by 
Hovey & Co. ; the blooms were fine, but on account of the noncompliance 
with the rules, the prizes were withheld. 

In Class II., twenty distinct named varieties, there were none qualified for 
premium. 

Class III. : twelve distinct named varieties had many exhibitors, and all the 
flowers were fine. The prizes were awarded to G. G. Hubbard, Wm. C. 
Strong, and James Nugent, respectively. 

In Class IV. : best twenty-five named Hardy Perpetual Roses ; there is 
always spirited competition. The prizes were awarded to John Hogan, (no 
list furnished the Committee,) Hovey & Co., (no list,) Warren Heustis for 
Gen. Jacqueminot, Baronne Prevost, Lord Raglan, Geant des Battailes, Triomph 
de l'Exposition, Alice Leroy, Jules Margottin, Palais de Crystal, Pius IX., 



FLOWER COMMITTEE'S REPORT. 15 

Caroline de Sans: 1, Madam Tradeaux, Arthur de Sansal, Alexandrine Back- 
meteff, Reveil, Rebecca, Duchess of Sutherland, Lion des Combats, Baronne 
Hallez, Duchesse de Cambaceres, Cardinal Patrizzi, Etendard de Sevastopol, 
Docteur Reynaud, La Bedoyere, Imperatrice de France, Paul Ricault; Barnes 
& Washburn, (no list). 

In Class V.: best fifteen named varieties, Hardy Perpetuals, there were 
many stands shown. The prizes were awarded to Francis Parkman for 
Baronne Prevost, Gen. Jacqueminot, PseOny, Mere de St. Louis, Souvenir de 
la Reine d'Angleterre, Geant des Battailes, Triomph de 1'Exposition, Pauline 
L^nsezeur, Lord Raglan, Colonel de Rougement, Marquise de Bocella, Auber- 
non, Madame Vidot, Madam Rivers, Thomas Rivers; Charles Copeland, (no 
list,) and Wm. C. Strong, (no list). 

In Class VI.: ten named varieties, Hardy Perpetuals, there was no com- 
petition. The first prize was awarded to James McTear, the others withheld. 

There was a fine display in Class VII., — Moss Roses. The principal con- 
tributors were Hovey & Co., and Charles Copeland ; the former showed fifty 
varieties. 

Class VIII. : large Bouquets of Roses. There were only two competitors, 
Messrs. Hovey, and Evers & Cornley; the bouquets of the former contained 
the choicer flowers, but those of the latter were more tasteful. 

There was spirited competition in Class IX., — Tender Roses. James 
Nugent exhibited a fine stand, comprising Bougere, Camellia Tea, Yellow 
Tea, Bonne Sylvain, Lamarque, Undulata, Gloire de Dijon, Safrano, Odorata, 
Cramoisie superieur, Souvenir de Malmaison, and others. Azell Bowditch, 
Le Pactole, La Mere, Souvenir de Malmaison, Camellia Tea, Blush Tea, Sol- 
faterre, Amie Vibert, Hermosa, Safrano, and others. Fine displays were 
made by Charles Copeland and Evers & Comley. 

The Committee would also especially notice a fine collection of Pinks from 
Hovey & Co. A very fine bloom of Stanhopea tigrina, shown by George W. 
Pratt. 

Roses, by Eliphalet Stone, (very fine); two fine bouquets, by M. Trautman ; 
a fine show of flowers, painted from nature, by Miss Eliza Lynde, generally 
very accurate ; the rare Orchis grandiflora (Bigelow), fimbriata (Gray), by 
Edw. S. Rand ; also, Kalmia latifolia. 

Fine Sweet Williams, from Cambridge Botanic Garden; and a fine general 
display of roses by F. Winship, Joseph Breck, James Nugent, James McTear, 
Barnes & Washburn, Wm. C. Strong, Francis Parkman, Marshall P. Wilder, 
Thomas Walsh, Walker & Co., Charles Copeland, Warren Heustis, and G. G. 
Hubbard. 

The Show on Saturday, July 6th, was very good — better than could have been 
expected — on account of very hot and dry weather. Pot Plants were good, 
consisting of Ericas, Gloxineas, Pelargoniums and Ferns. Cut Flowers were 
in great variety ; the finest displays were made by Hovey & Co., Evers & 
Cornley, Spooner & Co., Barnes & Washburn, Franklin Winship, and others. 



16 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

We noticed particularly a fine display of roses, by Eliphalet Stone ; fine 
climbing' roses, by James Nugent ; roses and fine seedling Delphineums, by 
Francis Parkman ; very choice English Iris, by Win. H. Spooner, Jr. ; display 
of Dianthus Dunettii, by G G. Hubbard. 

Some rare native plants, by Dennis Murray ; among others, two blooms of 
Lilium Catesbaei, found wild in Dorchester ; this is the Southern Red Lily, 
and is not found wild north of Kentucky ; the specimen exhibited had probably 
escaped from some "garden. 

A fine display of Pogonia ophioglossoides, by Edward S. Rand. 

July 13th. A few fine pot plants, and a dozen Gloxineas, were shown by 
Evers & Comley. 

A plant of Heather, said to have been found wild about twenty miles from 
Boston, was exhibited by Jackson Dawson. Cut Flowers in variety by Hovey 
& Co.. Evers & Comley, Barnes & Washburn, W. J. Spooner, F. Winship, 
Joseph Breck, James McTear, James Nugent, and Thomas Walsh. 

In the collection of Joseph Breck we noticed fine specimens of Lilium 
excelsum and White Martagon ; in that of Wm. J. Spooner, Lilium Thunber- 
geanum and atrosanguineum ; in that of Francis Parkman, Clematis Hender- 
soni, integrifolia, bicolor Sieboldii, Helena, Helena flore pleno, also erecta. 

A fine collection of roses, phlox and delphineums. The flowers exhibited 
generally showed the effects of excessive drought. 

On Saturday, July 20th, the prize day for Pinks, (Carnation and Picotee,) 
Hollyhocks and Summer Phlox, the displays were small and inferior, owing to 
the continued dry weather, which has parched all out-door flowers. 

Of pot plants there were no exhibitions for prize, except by Wm. C. Strong, 
who showed a fine specimen, Tydea Origesii, which took the first prize for 
specimen plant. 

Cut Flowers were shown in great variety by Messrs. Hovey, Comley, 
Spooner, and the usual contributors. The collection of Messrs. Hovey, though 
always composed of the choicest flowers, owes much of the fine effect always 
produced to the tasteful arrangement of Mr. John Hovey. We noticed nothing 
especially new in any of the stands ; as might be expected in most of the col- 
lections, pinks predominated. Summer Phlox were all parched up and poor, 
therefore the Committee withheld the highest prize. The same may be said 
of Carnations and Picotees. 

We had been led to expect a fine show of the double Hollyhocks, now so 
popular, but were disappointed. Those shown by Oliver Bennett, of Framing- 
ham, were very fine, but the display was small. 

In agreeable contrast to the inferiority of garden flowers stood the display 
of Gloxineas, for which it was also prize day. The plants were well grown, 
in good condition, and profuse bloom. 

The first prize was awarded to Wm. C. Strong for Auricula, Chauverii, 
Heleodorus, Miranda, Prince Metternich, and Alba grandiflora. The second 
to Evers & Comley. The prize of a silver medal for the best seedling was 



FLOWER COMMITTEE'S REPORT. 17 

withheld. Evers & Comley exhibited three bouquets of roses, and a display 
of tender roses. Also plants of Erica Spencerii, Geranium atroviolaceum, 
variegated ivy-leafed do., Gloxinea Prince of Portugal, and others ; Blechnurn 
corcovadense, and other ferns. Francis Parkman sent some summer Phlox, 
comprising Mille. Emma Favio, Countess of Home, Mad. de Flanders, Mad. 
de Trobique, Kleion, Alba magnifica, Amiable, Zoe, Mille. Prial, Augustine 
Lierval, Mad. Dounand. 

Saturday, July 27th. The show of flowers was good for the season, but 
gave the same indications of suffering from excessive drought, in stunted 
growth and small blooms. 

Of pot plants the display was small ; three fine ferns and some ordinary 
fuchsias, achimenes and begonias, from Evers & Comley, and a small plant of 
Erica incarnata from Hovey & Co. 

The new and very rare Alocasia metallica was shown for the first time by 
Edward S. Rand. The specimen was not fully grown, the largest leaf measur- 
ing only about a foot in length ; but the plant was in fine health, and gave 
promise of great future vigor and beauty. No words can describe the beauti- 
ful play of light on the seemingly metallic surface of the foliage. It is an 
unique plant, which, for beauty and novelty, will become indispensable in the 
hot-house, when, by propagation, the price can be so reduced as to bring it 
within the reach of all. 

Of cut flowers the display was good. The variety in the stand of Hovey 
& Co. attracted general attention, which was increased by a fine display of 
Liliura longiflorum and superbum. 

The display of Evers & Comley was remarkable for fine Gloxineas and 
double Zinnias; that of Francis Parkman for a fine variety of Delphineum ; 
that of Joseph Breck for some fine Gladiolus. 

Some rare native plants were shown by Dennis Murray, who deserves much 
praise for his zeal and enterprise in collecting and exhibiting rare native 
plants. 

Fine displays were also made by Spooner & Co., F. Winship, Francis Park- 
man, Thos. Walsh, James McTear, James Nugent, and others. 

Evers & Co. exhibited the new rose so often shown by them. Also a new 
Phlox, Madam Sieur. Habit strong ; truss large and fine ; flower well formed, 
of good substance ; white, with very large well-defined lake eye. Promises 
well. 

The following is a description of some of the Gladiolus of Mr. Breck; thosa 
marked with an asterisk are new varieties now first exhibited : — 

Mad. de Vatry. Sulphur white, shaded with purple or carmine ; a large and 
good flower. 

Ophir. Dark yellow, marked with purple. 

Othello. Light reddish orange* 

Sulphureus. Sulphur color; one of the best 

Vesta. Pure white, marked with carmine, on yellow ground ; very fine ; one 
of the best. 

2 



18 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

Galathee. One of the best ; light colored. 

Dr. Andry. Very good orange ; fine form. 

Diana. Delicate carmine, variegated with rose and carmine, on white 
ground. 

Berthe Rabourdin. One of the best light varieties for general cultivation. 

Count de Morny. Dark cherry red ; white throat, sometimes veined with 
purple ; a very striking and beautiful variety. 

# Achille. Currant red ; white line on centre of each petal. 

*Mrs. Bassville. Large cherry color; purple shades on yellowish white 
ground ; white line in centre of each petal. 

# Linne. Orange cherry, shaded with white ; a very large flower. 

Calypso. Carnation color, streaked with rose. 

*Rembrandt. Very bright clear scarlet. 

# Mrs. Leseble. Pure white ; large purplish rose stains. A magnificent 
variety. 

*Raphael. Deep red vermillion ; centre white and purple. 

*Pline. Pale cherry ; centre white. 

# Ceres. Pure white, stained with purplish rose ; a large flower, and fine 
spike. 

*Princess Clotilde. Salmon rose ; large purple stains, on white ground ; 
large flower. 

Clemence. Light rose, shaded with darker (good). 

# Eldorado. Pure yellow ; the lower petals striped with red. A fine flower. 

# Lelia. Peach bloom, shaded with lilac. 

*Le Poussin. Light red, white ground ; lower petals marked with large 
white blotch. 

Couranti fulgens. One of the best old varieties; brilliant crimson. 

Saturday, August 3d. The display was small, but the flowers showed the 
benefit of the recent rains. The best display was made by Evers & Comley ; 
the next by Hovey & Co. In the former, fine Gloxineas were conspicuous ; in 
the latter, Japan Lilies. 

Good displays were made by Barnes & Washburn, Franklin Winship, 
Francis Park man, Joseph Breck, James McTear, Thomas Walsh, and Mrs. 
Bruce. 

Fine roses were shown by Eliphalet Stone. 

A choice display of Gladiolus Brenchliensis by Wm. H. Spooner, Jr. ; and 
native plants by Dennis Murray. 

Saturday, August 10th. A fine display. Japan Lilies and Gladiolus begin 
to be conspicuous in the displays of cut flowers, and annuals appear in great 
variety. 

In the collection of Hovey & Co. we noticed the pretty annual or biennial 
Hunnemania fumarisefolia then first exhibited. It is very pretty, much re- 
sembling an Eschscholtzia ; indeed it was by many mistaken for a large speci- 
men of that flower ; color golden yellow. A pretty addition to our stock of 
summer blooming plants. 



FLOWER COMMITTEE'S REPORT. 19 

A fine display of roses was made by Eliphalet Stone of Dedham, a most 
successful grower. A fine lot of hardy plants came from Francis Parkman, and 
some choice new Gladiolus from Spooner & Co. 

Joseph Breck exhibited about twenty varieties of Gladiolus, most of which 
have been previously described by us. 

The only pot plants shown were from Hovey & Co. ; the only ones worthy 
of notice being Tritoma grandiflora, and a fine specimen of that sparkling 
little gem of a plant Caladium argyrites. 

Ericas Eastsoniana and cerinthoides superba were shown, but were not in 
good condition. Some fine bouquets were exhibited by James Nugent, and 
prettily arranged baskets by Miss S. A. Russell and Anne C. Kenrick. 

Cut flowers were shown by James McTear, F. Winship, Wm. C. Strong, 
Hovey & Co., Evers & Comley, Spooner & Co., and others. 

Saturday, August 17th. The general display was the best thus far, the 
flowers being choice and there being more exhibitors than usual. 

In cut flowers the best display was made by Hovey & Co. ; the next by 
Barnes & Washburn, and Evers & Comley. In the stands we noticed the 
variety usual at this season ; Japan Lilies, Gloxinias, Gladiolus, and Fuchsias 
being conspicuous. 

Fine collections of cut flowers were shown by Spooner & Co., James 
McTear, Francis Parkman, Thomas Walsh, Franklin Winship, Dennis Murray, 
and others. 

Tastefully arranged baskets were shown by Miss Story, Miss S. A. Russell, 
and Mrs. George A. Mudge. 

Pot pi nts were kw. Hovey & Co. presented plants of Hardy Eiica, red 
white; and Barnes &- Washburn a seedling (Calluna vulgaris). A Hybrid 
Delphineum of good form and color (dark indigo blue) was shown by Francis 
Parkman, who has been very successful in the production of seedlings. 

James McTear exhibited a dozen seedling Gloxinias, with both drooping 
and erect flowers. All were good, but none remarkable compared with im- 
ported varieties. 

Hovey & Co. presented a plant of Achimenes Dazzle ; color vivid scarlet. 
A fine showy variety. 

A new Ipomea, raised from seed sent from Japan, was shown by Martin 
Trautman. The plant is a rapid grower, and apparently an annual; flowers 
resembling the common dark blue varieties. The chief novelty lies in the 
leaf, which resembles that of Ipomea limbata elegantissima, but is larger, a 
lighter green, and beautifully blotched and marked with pure white, somewhat 
in the way of Cissus Sieboldii. It is quite an acquisition to our stock of varie- 
gated climbers. 

It was prize day for Petunias, Phlox and Gladiolus. 

For the Petunia prizes there were but three competitors. The varieties were 
good. There were fewer of the green-edged kinds, which always give a dingy 
appearance to a stand, and the double varieties did not find much favor. The 



20 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

prizes were awarded to James McTear, Hovey & Co., and Martin Trautman, 
respectively. 

The show of late Phlox was poor. The varieties were good, but the flowers 
seemed dashed by the rain and in poor condition. The prizes were awarded 
to Hovey & Co., Evers & Comley, and Barnes & Washburn, respectively. 

The great beauty of the Exhibition was the display of Gladiolus, (the varieties 
of gandavensis and floribundus), which was superb, and attracted universal 
admiration. The improvements in this flower have been wonderful ; it is only 
a few years since the first of these new hybrids was shown by Edw. S. Rand, 
Esq., and now they are numbered by hundreds, and are of every shade of white, 
pink, red, scarlet, and yellow. We give a list of the finest varieties in the 
collection of each exhibitor : — 

Marshall P. Wilder. Mrs. Bassville, Jeanne d'Arc, Vulcan, Count de Morny, 
Pline, Clemence, Raphael, Ceres, Louis Van Houtte. 

Joseph Breck. Isoline, Rembrandt, Erato, Count de Morny, Eldorado, Mrs. 
Leseble, Canari, Ophir, Princess Mathilda, Mathilde de Landevoisin, Princess 
Clotilde. 

Hovey ^ Co. Othello, Daphne, Le Chamois, Princess Mathilde, Madam 
Souchet, Brenchleyensis, Calendulaceus, Olympe Lescouger. 

Barnes & Washburn. Ninon de l'Enclos, Lelia, Mons. Corbay, Linne, Sul- 
phureus, Vesta. 

Spooner & Co. Napoleon III., Vulcain, Velleda, Jeanne de Arc, Oracle, 
Pluton, Count de Morny, Le Poussin, Brenchleyensis, Osiris, Othello, Countesse 
de Bresson, Ophir, Isoline, Daphne, Clemence, Goliah, Raphael, Neptune. 

The prizes were awarded to Spooner & Co., Hovey & Co., and Barnes & 
Washburn, respectively. Probably the three finest and most distinct Gladiolus 
exhibited were Eldorado, Count de Morny, and Le Poussin. 

The following fine varieties have been furnished the Committee by Wm. H. 
Spooner, Jr., to describe for this report. 

Rebecca* Ground color white, variegated with deep pink ; the three inferior 
petals striped with deep lake on yellowish white ground. One of the best of 
the variegated varieties. 

Madam Binder. Pure white ground, slightly tinged with lilac ; lower petals 
striped with rosy carmine, on white ground. A very strong grower ; throws a 
magnificent spike. 

Velleda. Perfect rose color ; lower divisions shaded and striped with rosy 
lilac, emerging in a purple throat. A very large and finely formed flower. 

Isoline. Rosy white, lower petals marked with carmine; throat purple. 
Fine. 

Bowensis. A tall-growing variety, throwing an immense spike of scarlet 
crimson flowers, with yellowish markings on inferior petals. 

Jeanne d?Arc. Rosy white petals, tinted with purple; fine form; throat 
purple. 

Neptune. Rosy cherry, each petal having a distinct white stripe down the 
centre, with the addition of carmine tintings on three inferior. Very fine. 



FLOWER COMMITTEE'S REPORT. 21 

Daphne. Bright rosy reddish pink, shading to pale pink, then to a carmine 
throat ; inferior petals striped and shaded with deepest carmine. 

Diana. Rosy white, variegated with rose and striped with carmine. 

Vulcain. Scarlet, shaded with richest purple. Very fine. It is almost im- 
possible to describe the rich velvety appearance of this flower ; it is unique ; 
in form the flower more nearly approaches the seedlings of ramosus. Very 
fine. 

Clemence. Rosy red, shaded with carmine and yellow ; throat rosy, shading 
to purple. 

Napoleon III. Vivid scarlet, shading through red to pink, then to white, 
then merging in a purple throat, distinct white stripes on five petals ; broad 
yellowish blotch on the lowest, shaded with lake. A brilliant flower. 

Goliah. Rosy red, striped with white and carmine. Flower large and fine. 

Ophir. Dark yellow when first expanding, fading to bright straw color, with 
purple stains ; carmine stripe on lower petals ; lake throat. 

Raphael. Deep vermilion red, shaded with white, pink and purple. Form 
perfect. A most lovely variety. 

Rembrandt. Deep scarlet, lighted with purple ; lake throat. Flowers small, 
but very fine. 

Pluton. Scarlet crimson, lower petals shading from richest lake to a pure 
white line ; large fine flower. A very striking and beautiful variety. 

Le Poussin. Rosy red, on white ground, shaded with purple. Flowers 
large, produced as in oppositiflorus, in a dense spike. One of the very best, 
and most beautiful yet produced. 

Orach. Bright cherry, marked with purple ; fine form ; dense spike. A 
very beautiful variety. 

Count de Morny. A very fine variety. Dark rosy red, shading to and 
lighted with white, with carmine stains. Fine flowers, fine truss. In every 
way superior. 

Achille. Bright red, mottled with carmine, narrow white line in middle of 
each petal ; three lower petals broadly marked with white. 

Many of the fine varieties which we have before described were also in 
the collection of Marshall P. Wilder, which arrived too late to compete for 
premium. 

Saturday, August 24th, the display was small, and not up to the average of 
the season. 

There were no pot plants, and, with few exceptions, the collections of cut 
flowers were inferior. Most of them were only redeemed by fine spikes of 
Gladiolus, and bunches of Gloxineas and Japan Lilies. 

The best display was made by Hovey & Co. ; then followed Evers & Com- 
ley, Barnes & Washburn, Wm. C. Strong, Spooner & Co., Franklin Winship 
and others. The display made by Joseph Breck, President of the Society, is 
always fine ; his stand is never empty, and we often discover many floral rari- 
ties ; but as Mr. Breck declines competing for premium, the collection does 



22 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

not receive the attention it merits, though often, for fine specimens and rare 
flowers, the best in the Hall. 

Fine Gladiolus were shown in the collections of Joseph Breck, Spooner & 
Co. and Barnes & Washburn. 

A fine display of roses and Tritoma uvaria in that of William C. Strong. 

Two very tasteful bouquets came from James Nugent. 

In the collection of Barnes & Washburn we observed a fine perennial 
Stokesia cyanea ; color bright blue, resembling the Succory (Cichorium Inty- 
bus,) so common by our roadsides. In form the flower resembled the garden 
varieties of Centaurea. As yet the plant has not been exposed to the winter, 
so we cannot vouch for its proving a " hardy perennial." 

A new seedling verbena, raised by J. F. C. Hyde, was exhibited ; it main- 
tains its high promise. 

Baskets of flowers tastefully arranged were shown by Anne C. Kenrick and 
Miss S. A. Russell ; also floral decorations by Miss E. M. Harris and Miss S. 
W. Story, both of which were remarkable for elegant arrangement and for the 
taste displayed. Cut flowers in variety were shown by James McTear and 
Thomas Walsh. 

Saturday, August 31st. The display of flowers was better than the average 
at this season. There was a fine show by Hovey & Co., Barnes & Washburn 
and Spooner & Co. 

A good seedling Gloxinea was shown by James McTear ; color white, with 
broad band of deep scarlet lake all round the throat; erect flowering; it is a 
fine seedling, but not superior to many of the new imported varieties. Also a 
fine display of cut flowers, including Gladiolus, by the same. 

A fine display of cut flowers, from Francis Parkman. 

Two fine bouquets, from James Nugent. 

A superb display of roses, from Wm. C. Strong. 

Floral decorations from Miss Story, and baskets of flowers from Misses 
Kenrick and Russell. 

A display of Pinks and cut flowers, from Dr. Ira Warren. 

A very fine display of Asters, from Herman Grundel. 

Wreath, from Mrs. Abner Peirce. 

Tigridia pavonia, (fine,) by James Nugent. 

Very fine Gladiolus, by Joseph Breck. 

Cut flowers, in variety, by Thomas Walsh and Franklin Winship. 

Phlox, Mrs. Walker, by Edward S. Rand, Jr. This is a seedling raised by 
the late Samuel Walker, Esq., and given to the Chairman. Color, purest 
white ; form, perfect ; habit, strong, stout and healthy ; foliage, very large, 
healthy, dark clear green. This will probably prove the best white Phlox. 

The following described fine Gladiolus were exhibited by Spooner & Co. 

Eldorado. The finest of the yellow varieties we have previously described. 

Vicomtesse Belleval. Very fine, rosy pink, streaked with carmine ; three 
lower petals broadly marked with purple. An immense spike, very crowded, 



FLOWER COMMITTEE'S REPORT. 23 

the flowers being arranged round three-fourths of the stem, instead of on one 
side, as usual. This may prove the beginning of a great improvement in 
Gladioli ; could we obtain varieties on which the flowers were arranged so as 
to form a round spike, it would add another recommendation to this showy and 
popular flower. 

Madam de Vatry. White, tinged wiih faint straw color, carmine stiipe on 
lower petals. Large flower, very fine. 

Gustave Malet. Deepest vermilion scarlet, lighted with feathery white, 
deepening to purple. A superior flower, of great substance, in the way of 
Raphael. 

Saturday, Sept. 7th. The floral display was fine, and better in quality than 
usual. 

German Asters were good, though not up to the standard of last year ; the 
drought has been injurious to them. The best stands of thirty blooms, in not 
less than ten varieties, were shown by Hovey & Co., Barnes & Washburn, 
Thomas Walsh and John Kelley, and the prizes were accordingly awarded. 

The stands of Verbenas presented no new features ; the blooms were fair, 
but there was a general lack of variety in color; one stand would have four 
whites, which it was hard to say did not come off of one plant; another had 
six reds, and so on. In a prize stand it should be an object to give as great 
variety in color as possible, not content with having the requisite number of 
names. 

The best stand was that of Hovey & Co., which was ruled out on account 
of containing too many varieties. 

The prizes were awarded to Barnes & Washburn, James Nugent and H. 
Grundell. 

Three seedlings were presented in competition for the silver medal. 

Annie, Jr. By James McTear. Evidently a seedling from Annie ; the truss 
appeared to be fuller, and the flower larger. Recommended for trial. 

Auburn. By G. G. Hubbard. Bright cherry red, with greenish white eye, 
in way of Evening Star; good form and truss. Recommended for trial. 

Hyde's Blue. This variety, which was recommended for trial last year, now 
came up final judgment. All who have grown it speak of it in the highest 
terms. Its color is new ; it possesses a pleasing and very powerful fragrance ; 
habit and foliage good ; stands the sun well, and blooms freely in the open air. 
For a bedding variety it is superior ; it has not as yet been iully tried in the 
greenhouse. The Committee, in view of the many good qualities of this new 
variety, unanimously awarded it the prize of the Society's Silver Medal for 
the best new seedling:. 

Another seedling, of a light purple color, presented by Mr. Hyde, appeared 
to possess nothing to recommend it. 

The display of cut flowers was good. 

We particularly notice fine Gladiolus, by Hovey & Co., James McTear, 
Joseph Breck, Spooner & Co. and Barnes & Washburn. 



24 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

A very fine double Zinnia, as large as and fully equal to a Dahlia. With 
the fine Gladiolus, double Hollyhocks and double Zinnias, we fear the Dahlia 
will never be able to hold its own ; indeed, its popularity as a garden flower is 
fast waning. 

George Leland : Fine display of cut flowers. 

Dr. Horace Richardson : Cut flowers and Dahlias. 
G. G. Hubbard : P^ne display of Asters. 

Miss Annie Story: Drawing of Sarracenia purpurea; well executed and 
faithfully colored. 

James Nugent: Fine bouquets. 

Annie C. Kenrick : Basket of flowers. 

Win. C. Strong : Fine perpetual roses. 

Thomas Walsh and Herman Grundel : Cut flowers. 

Dennis Murray : Collection of native plants. 

Miss S. D. Story : Floral decoration. 

Franklin Winship : Cut flowers. 

The only pot plants were — 

Tritonia aurea, by Hovey & Co. Not a good or well flowered specimen. 

Plocastemma lasianthus, by Edward S. Rand. A small plant, with a single 
truss of bloom, of a new and rare stove plant. The blossom is very peculiar, 
and must be seen to be appreciated ; it resembles in a measure some varieties 
of Asclepias ; the plant is a half climber, producing bunches of flowers in 
great profusion from the end of the new growth; foliage large, roundish oval, 
dark green. Requires stove culture. A well-grown specimen would make a 
superb exhibition plant. 

A new tea rose, Due de Magenta, was shown by Wm. J. Underwood. It 
appears to have established its character abroad, as it is found in most of the 
prize collections. Color white, lighted and shaded with pink ; form superior. 
We trust to see more specimens. 

The following fine Gladiolus were exhibited by Wm. H. Spooner, Jr. : — 

Berenice. Clear cherry rose, faintly variegated with carmine ; lower petals 
broadly marked with purple. 

Celine. Rosy white, marked and variegated with purple. 

Mrs. Haquin. Ground color white, marked with purple and carmine. Fine. 

Madam Vilmorin. Rosy cherry, shading to pink ; marbled and lighted with 
white purple stains on three inferior petals ; large full flower ; stout spike ; tall 
grower. A remarkably fine variety. 

Imperalrice. Rosy white, shaded and marbled with carmine; spike tall; 
flower large. Very fine. 

On Saturdays, September 14th and 21st, the weekly Exhibitions were 
omitted, owing to the preparations incident to the Annual Exhibition. 

The prizes for Dahlias were awarded on Friday, the 20th inst., according to 
notification. There were few competitors, no excitement, and the flowers 
though fair were not up to the standard of previous years. The Dahlia is 
evidently losing its popularity, and is now grown by comparatively few. 



FLOWER COMMITTEE'S REPORT. 25 

The first prizes for the specimen bloom, the best eighteen blooms, and the 
best six blooms, were awarded to Hovey & Co. 

The second prizes for the best eighteen blooms, the first prize for the best 
twelve blooms, and the second prize for the best six blooms, were awarded to 
Edward Flynn of Lawrence. 

The Annual Exhibition was this year held in the Society's Hall, and was 
opened to the public on Tuesday, September 16th, at 3 o'clock. The floral 
display was unusually fine, and the flowers never appeared to greater ad- 
vantage. 

Of pot plants the display was small, but a better collection has never before 
been exhibited. The finest collection w*s that of Edward S. Rand, composed 
of rare stove foliaged plants; the next that of Hovey & Co., containing many 
good varieties ; the next that of Martin Trautman. 

The single specimens were remarkably fine. The prizes were awarded, 
first to Edward S. Rand for Cattleya Forbesii, a splendid specimen in fine 
bloom ; second to Hovey & Co. for Peristeria alata, a large plant with two 
flowers ; third to Edward S. Rand for Rhopala glaucophylla ; fourth to Edward 
S. Rand for Aralia reticulata. 

The specimen variegated plants were well grown and generally choice. 
There was in this class more competition. The prizes were awarded, first to 
Edward S. Rand for Pavetta Bourbon ica, a beautiful specimen of this fine 
plant; second to Hovey & Co. for Pandanus Javanicus variegatus, a superb 
specimen; third to Martin Trautman for a well grown and highly colored 
specimen of Begonia Rex ; fourth to James Nugent for a fine plant of Hydrangea 
Japonica variegata. 

There was a fine display of Begonias. The plants were large, well grown, 
of high color, and marked varieties. 

There were four collections presented for premium. The first prize was 
awarded to Edward S. Rand for Grandis, Duchesse de Brabant, Lord Clyde, 
Griffithii, Makoy's Victoria, and Funkii ; the second to Hovey & Co. for Mar- 
shallii, Roi Leopold, Nivosa, Marginiata, Miranda, and Duchess de Brabant. 

The display of Ferns and Lycopodia was better than ever before. There 
were many competitors. The prizes were awarded to Hovey & Co. for Lyco- 
podium cuspidatum, Polypodium aureum, Pteris tricolor, Gymnagramma Pe- 
ruviana, Adiantum cuneatum, Goniophlebium appendiculatum; second to 
G. G. Hubbard (names not furnished); third to Martin Trautman for Adiantum 
cuneatum, Lycopodium densum, Gymnogramma sulphurea, Dicksonia tenera, 
Doodia rupestris, Lycopodium Willdenovi; fourth to James McTear (names 
not given). 

Bouquets of all kinds were never poorer, and few were worthy of premium. 
The prizes were, however, awarded. A great improvement was introduced in 
the exclusion, by special vote of the Society, of the large bouquets from the 
hall ; these were always monstrosities of ugliness, and the Committee trust the 
Society will never again offer prizes for their construction. 



26 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

The display of cut flowers was very fine. Its effect was much increased by 
the fine gladiolus, tube roses, gloxineas, erythrinas, hybrid perpetual roses, and 
Japan Lilies, plentifully intermingled with the less showy flowers. The new 
double zinnias were also conspicuous, but usually in dull colors. 

The following is a li^t of contributions, as handed to the chairman: — 

G. G. Hubbard. Six ferns for premium; also collection of ferns. 

Mrs. A. Perkins of Lowell. One wreath, and cross of dried flowers. 

Edward Flynn, Lawrence. Dahlias, eighteen blooms: Harlequin, Lady 
Popham, Lady Douglas Pennant, Mrs. Mathews, Splendid, Neville Keynes, Sir 
Henry Havelock, Triomph de Roubaix, Mad. Zahler, Christopher Smide, King 
of Yellows, Pre-eminent, Oliver Twist, Vesuvius, Magnificent, Baron Alderson' 
Charivari, Warrior. Twelve blooms: Prince Fred. William, Mrs. Chas. Kean, 
Belle of Beauty, Ethel, Lord Palmerston, Dandy, Wm. Dodd, Dr. Livingston, 
Orb of Day, Due de Malakoff, Circe, Cocatoo. 

Six varieties : Figaro, Rosebud, Miss Sarah Boyce, Village Gem, Loveliness, 
Exhibitor. 

Mrs. E. A. Story. Two floral crosses, and one wreath. 

Miss S. W. Story. Floral Design. 

Mrs. Wm. Kenrick. Rustic Floral Stand, and basket of flowers. 

Miss S. A. Russell. Large flat bouquet, and basket of flowers. 

Spooner & Co. Cut flowers. 

Mrs. T. W. Ward, Canton. Allamanda cathartica, and nerifolia ; cut blooms. 
Very fine. 

Mrs. G. F. Stone, Newton. Two Mantel Bouquets. 

Franklin Winship. Cut flowers. 

John Kelley, Watertown. Cut flowers. 

Frederick Lamson, Salem. Floral Basket. 

James Nugent. Two Parlor Bouquets, one plant Hydrangea Japonica foliis 
variegatis. 

Miss E. M. Harris, Jamaica Plain. Stand of cut flowers, very tastefully and 
beautifully arranged. 

Thomas Walsh. Two Parlor Bouquets, cut flowers. 

James McTear. Cut Flowers, including thirty named varieties, Gladiolus, 
Asters, Verbenas, Fuchsias, Roses, Pinks, &c. 

Two Parlor Bouquets, six Pot Plants, Ferns, and Lycopodia. 

Cambridge Botanic Garden. Three Seedling Begonias, dwarf and fine. 
Lycopodium circinatum, compactum and stoniliferum, Pteris argyrea, Aspi- 
dium falcatum, Protea argentea, Amaranthus sanguineas (new), do. variegatus, 
Lobelia (seedling) good, Phlox Criterion, Grevillea robusta, Datura chlorantha 
flore pleno, Geranium dissectum (seedling), Coleus Blumerii, Dracaena ferrea 
fol. var., Pitcarnia (species new), Achimenes picta; cut flowers, native and 
exotic, in variety. 

Hovey & Co. Ten Plants : Rhopala corcovadense (not true), Aralia reti- 
culata, Cyanophyllum magnificuin, Caladium argyrites, Statice Holfordii, 



FLOWER COMMITTEE'S REPORT. 27 

Fuchsia, Mad. Corneilson, Pteris Argyrea, Begonia Hypargyreii, Maranta 
pulchella, Cissus discolor. 

Six ferns, (names given above). 

Single variegated specimen, Pandanus Javanicus variegatus. 

Single specimens, Cyanophyllum Assamicum. 

Peresteria alata. 

Six Begonias, (names given above). 

Also Pot Plants, Fuchsia Catharine Hayes, Tube Rose, Gloriosa Plantii, 
Asclepias linaria, Clerodendron Bungeii, Begonia nitida, Torenia Asiatica, Six 
Lantanas well grown, Two Parlor Bouquets, collection of cut flowers. 

Martin Trautman. Six Begonias : Rex, Miranda, Argentea, Madam Alwart, 
grandis, Queen of England ; six Ferns, (names given above); ten Pot Plants: 
Allamanda cathartica, Amaranthus variegatus, Dracaena terminalis, Coleus 
Blumeii, Hydrangea foliis vars., Lilium lancifolium rubrurn, Rondeletia spe- 
ciosa, Farfugium grande, Caladium pictum, Cissus discolor. Also, Maranta 
zebrina, Caladium Chantinii, do. bicolor, Trachelium fol. var., Aphelandra, 
Roi Leopoldii, Croton pictum, Lycopodium, lepidophyllum apuda, ccesium, 
denticulatum, &c. ; one specimen plant Begonia Rex; four Hand Bouquets; 
two Parlor do. ; collection cut flowers ; two small Wardian cases. 

Edward S. Rand. Six Begonias, (names given above); six Begonias: Presi- 
dent Van de Hecke, Silver Queen, Ricinifolia maculata, Sir Colin Campbell, 
Laciniata, Splendens argentea. Plants: Asplenium Belengerii, Pteris tricolor, 
Polypodium aureum, Gymnogramma chrysophylla, Egyptian Papyrus, Cala- 
dium marmoratum, Goodyera pubescens, Latania rubra. 

Ten Plants : Cyanophyllum magnificum, Rhopola corcovadensis, Croton 
pictum, Cordyline Braziliensis, Dracaena ferrea, Maranta zebrina, Livingstonia 
Australiaca, Pandanus Javanicus variegatus, Alsophila australis, Calamus 
Rotang. 

Specimen Plants : Cattleya Fobesii, Rhopala glaucophylla, Aralia lipido- 
phylla. 

Variegated specimen: Pavetta Bourbonica. 

Saturday, September 28th. There was a small display of cut flowers from 
Hovey & Co. 

Fine Dahlias from Francis Parkman, and Hovey & Co. 

Verbena Hyde's Blue, from J. F. C. Hyde. 

A good collection of native plants from Dennis Murray. 

A basket of flowers from Miss S. A, Russell. 

Saturday, October 5th. Hovey & Co., a fine display of cut flowers ; two 
very small plants, Erica Wescottia, neither remarkable for growth or profusion 
of flower. The question in the Committee was why they were brought to the 
Exhibition. 

Miss S. A. Russell, arranged basket of flowers. 

Miss Anne C. Kenrick, arranged basket of flowers. 



28 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCrETY. 

Edward S. Rand. Spike of Cattleya crispa, with six flowers. This is one 
of the most elegant of the tribe, and remarkable for beauty and purity 
of color. 

Dennis Murray. Fifty varieties native plants ; far more curious than beau- 
tiful, and attractive rather to the botanist than the florist. 

James McTear. A fine display of Gladiolus, comprising Hebe, Couranti 
fulgens, Berthe Rabourdin, Neptune, Jean d'Arc, Achille, Osiris, Penelope, 
Celine, Vulcan, Edith Janire, Diana, Comtesse de Bresson, and Calypso. This 
latter a superb flower; the spike was the best shown in the hall this season; 
was three. feet in length, and contained thirty-two flowers ; form almost per- 
fect ; petals of great substance, smooth and well formed ; flower nearly two 
inches in diameter, of a rosy carnation, with purple throat. A very fine and 
desirable variety. 

Saturday, October 12th. From Francis Parkman : A small collection of 
choice Roses, Delphineums, Pinks, &c. 

Hovey & Co. : A small plant of Stanhopea oculata, not true to name, with a 
spike of four flowers. 

Annie C. Kenrick and Miss S. A. Russell each contributed a basket of 
arranged flowers. 

Saturday, October 19th. Hovey & Co. : Dahlias, Plant Eucharis Amazonica 
in bloom. 

Miss S. A. Russell : Floral basket. 

Miss Annie C. Kenrick : Floral basket. 

W. W. Warren : A few Dahlias. 

George W. Pratt : A magnificent spike of Stanhopea oculata, (true), with 
eight large flowers. 

Saturday, October 2fith. The severe frost of the night of the 24th inst. 
killed all the flowers. The only exhibitions were baskets of arranged leaves 
and flowers from Miss S. A. Russell and Miss Annie C. Kenrick. 

Saturday, November 2d. From James McTear: Six large Chrysanthemums ; 
six Pompone Chrysanthemums. 

Hovey & Co. : Six large Chrysanthemums ; twelve Pompone Chrysan- 
themums. 

Miss S. A. Russell : Wreath of dried flowers, mosses, and acorns. 

Henry Vandine : Cut Flowers of Chrysanthemums. 

Dennis Murray : Fine plants of Botrychium lunarioides, (Moonwort or Grape 
fern) ; a rare and strange variety of Plantago maritima ; a very peculiar Sali- 
cornia, probably undescribed. 

The display of Chrysanthemums was very poor; better plants could be 
found in almost any cottage garden. The Pompones of Hovey & Co. were 
the best ; indeed we believe there was one plant which was just passably well 
grown, but poor enough at that. In the collection of Mr. McTear were some 
new varieties which merit notice. The native plants shown by Mr. Murray 



FLOWER COMMITTEE'S REPORT. 29 

were very curious and interesting to botanists, and Mr. Murray deserves much 
credit for his indefatigable researches. 

The Committee award the following gratuities: To Hovey & Co. for 
Chrysanthemums, $3 ; to Dennis Murray for rare native plants, $3. 

Saturday, November 9th. A bloom of the new and pretty climber Lapa- 
geria rosea was exhibited by Jonathan French ; all who have grown it in this 
vicinity agree as representing it as a weak grower and shy bloomer. The 
fault must, however, be in the treatment, and not in the plant ; for we read in 
English periodicals of plants producing several hundred flowers. 

Saturday, November 30th. A plant of Hippeastrum aulicum, with one spike 
of four flowers, from James Comley. 

And now, having finished the review of the season, it becomes us to ask 
what progress we have made, in what we have been benefited, or in what 
aided, the cause of horticulture. We have expended more than twelve 
hundred dollars in prizes and gratuities, including the appropriation of one 
thousand dollars, and the additional amount appropriated by the Society for 
the Annual Exhibition. But to what advantage ? no person in his sober senses 
would give half of this sum for all the pot plants, flowers or bouquets which 
have composed the last year's floral exhibitions. If the Society is a Charitable 
Institution, then very well — it has dispensed liberally; if it is as it purports 
to be, a society to promote the advancement of horticulture, as far as we can 
perceive, all this money has been thrown away. Exhibitors regard the Society 
as a means of making money, and he who has the largest garden or green- 
house pockets the largest amount. On prize days, the stands are full ; when 
there are none to be awarded, we have long arrays of empty bottles and bare 
tables. 

The appropriations have been increased from year to year, everv means 
have been tried to induce exhibitors to forget pecuniary interests, and to com- 
pete in generous rivalry ; but, thus far, in vain ; and we are to-day worse off" 
than six years ago, when the appropriation was only seven hundred dollars. 
Our exhibitions vary from year to year with the introduction of new plants, 
and the dropping of others from cultivation ; but, all things considered, they 
are not up to the standard of ten years since. The Committee have done all 
in their power to increase the interest in the exhibitions, and to maintain their 
character ; but, thus far, without success. Their duties are at the best thank- 
less, requiring a large expenditure of time and patience, and they have looked 
in vain for any endeavor among exhibitors to aid them in their labors. The 
rules are not complied with, the simplest regulations neglected, though laid 
down for the manifest benefit and advantage of the exhibitors themselves. In 
several cases, during the past season, the Committee have been compelled to 
enforce the severest penalty in their power — that of withholding the prizes 
and ruling out the exhibitor, with what good effect remains to be seen. 

Your Committee, after careful consideration, find that this Society, though 



30 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

expending more money than kindred societies, receives the least return ; and 
they would therefore recommend a general reduction of all the prizes, so as to 
render pecuniary profit impossible, trusting by this means to awaken a spirit 
of generous competition, having for its object the obtaining the prize, and not 
the pecuniary value of the prize. 

They would also recommend the institution of Diplomas of Commendation 
and Labels of Commendation for new, rare, or meritorious exhibitions, accord- 
ing to the mode pursued at the English Horticultural Societies. Also a more 
general distribution of the silver and bronze medals of the Society, and the 
striking of other appropriate medals in silver or bronze of greater and less 
value than those we have at present. 

Your Committee also propose, in view of the general ignorance on the sub- 
ject of well grown plants and florists' flowers, to issue at an early day a con- 
densed statement of what constitutes excellence or perfection in both of these 
departments, and upon this standard the prizes will in future be awarded, and 
all not complying with it will be excluded from competition. 

It is also proposed to hold weekly or monthly discussions on floricultural 
subjects, under the superintendence of the Committee, open to all members of 
the Society, or friends introduced by them, the plan of which will be laid 
before the Society at a future day. The Committee trust by these means to 
awaken a new interest in floriculture, and to increase the sphere of influence 
of the Society. 

The attendance at the Exhibition of the Society, during the past season, 
has been, with one exception, limited ; and the receipts from the floral exhi- 
bitions have been very small. It becomes a serious question whether the 
public have not become surfeited with Horticultural displays, and whether it 
would not be advantageous to have less frequent exhibitions; your Committee 
respectfully recommend this subject to the consideration of the Society. The 
experience of the past few years has certainly shown that the public in general 
value a dime more than the finest horticultural display, if the attendance at 
our exhibitions is any indication. 

During the past season there have been some displays of great merit ; the 
best were those of Spooner & Co., Breck & Son, an I Barnes & Washburn, of 
fine Gladiolus. 

We now pass to a review of flowers exhibited : 

Camellias have shown no improvement over previous years ; the displays 
have been small, and the flowers of no remarkable excellence. 

Ericas have been sparingly exhibited, but the plants have generally been 
either very small or poorly grown. 

Epacris have been better than ever before. The plants have shown careful 
treatment, and in fine habit and profusion of flowers have been superior. 

Greenhouse Azaleas have been good, but not superior to those of former 
years. We noticed many long-legged specimens. 

Pelargoniums. — No displays of merit. 



FLOWER COMMITTEE'S REPORT. 31 

Fan y Pelargoniums. — Few exhibited ; but these well grown, and in pro- 
fuse bloom. 

Fuchsias. — None exhibited for prize. At the weekly displays some few 
have been shown. The new variety, Mad. Corneilison, seems the best of its 
class. 

Verbenas in Pots. — Not up to the standard. 

Cinerarias have never been better. Some of the new English seedlings 
promise to be great acquisitions. 

Calceolarias. — No exhibitions. 

Greenhouse Plants exhibit but little improvement. 

Stove Plants have been shown in great variety, and generally well grown 
specimens. 

Orchids. — Very few exhibited ; but these have generally been well grown 
and in good bloom. 

Cut Flowers have been shown in profusion, but little varying from the 
usual displays. 

Hyacinths.— No displays of merit. 

Specimen Plants have been very fine. For details, see the reports of the 
weekly exhibitions. 

Pansies. — Some very good plants shown, but the flowers were deficient in 
size and marking. 

Hardy Azaleas. — A few blooms shown. 

Shrubby Pjeonies. — With two exceptions nothing new or worthy of 
special notice. 

Herbaceous Peonies. — None shown on the prize day. 

Pinks. — None exhibited. 

Hardy Rhododendrons. — Better than last year, but still far below the 
standard. Exhibitors are unwilling to cut up their plants. 

Roses, Hardy June. — The display was unworthy of any award. 

Roses, Hardy Perpetual. — A good display, but the flowers suffered from 
drought. 

Roses, Moss. — A very fine display. 

Roses, Tender. — Have been shown in great variety, and have never been 
better. 

Summer Phloxes. — Were so parched by drought as to be wholly unpre- 
sentable. 

Carnations. — Few exhibited, and those poor. 

Picotees. — The same may be said. 

Hollyhocks. — The few shown were very good. 

Gloxineas. — Have been shown in great profusion, both cut and in pots, and 
have never been better. We commend the attention given to this charming 
flower. 

Late Phloxes. — So dried up that the blooms were shaken off by transpor- 
tation. Very poor. 



32 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

Petunias. — Quite a creditable display. All the standard varieties, and 
some very good seedlings. 

Gladiolus. — Some starveling pots of Cardinalis and ramosus varieties have 
been shown. 

Too much cannot be said of the beauty of the displays of the varieties of 
gandavensis and floribundus. They were magnificent, and, in fact, were the 
redeeming feature in the display of cut flowers. 

Asters. — Some very good blooms. 

Verbenas. — As good as usual. 

Dahlias. — Very few exhibited, and these ordinary; though some good 
blooms have been shown. 

Chrysanthemums. — Very poor, ragged, ill-grown plants. 

This summary can, of course, only give a general idea of the exhibitions. 
For details the Committee must refer to the Reports of Weekly Exhibitions. 
While the dryness of the season has been prejudicial to floral beauty, the 
tardy coming of the frost conduced to a longer display. The first frost fell on 
the evening of October 21st, but did little damage, heliotropes, salvias, castor 
beans, and like tender plants, being uninjured. On the night of October 24th 
came a killing black frost, which destroyed all tender plants in exposed situa- 
tions in the country ; but as late as the 14th of November, in very sheltered 
localities, and in the city, the most tender plants were in full beauty. Such a 
long season is almost unprecedented in our latitude, and it has conduced to a 
fine out-door display of autumnal flowers. We have seen Pompone Chrysan- 
themums finer, this year, in the garden than in the greenhouse. 

Your Committee take pleasure in presenting to the Society the following 
articles : — 

Calluna vulgaris, a native of the United States, by the Chairman. 

The Culture of the Tuberose, by E. W. Bus well. 

The Classification of the Rose, by Francis Parkman. 



CALLUNA VULGARIS, A NATIVE OF THE UNITED STATES. 

BY THE CHAIRMAN. 

Quite a sensation has been created during the past summer (1861) by the 
discovery of plants of the Scotch Heather (Calluna vulgaris) growing wild in 
the vicinity of Boston. 

It has been usually supposed that no true Ericaceae were indigenous to 
America, though the large and highly ornamental family of Ericacese is abun- 
dantly represented by our beautiful native Andromedas, Cassandra, Epigffia, 
Cassiope, Clethras, and many other allied plants. To our shame be it said, our 
representatives of this charming family are better appreciated abroad than at 



CALLUNA VULGARIS, A NATIVE. 33 

home, and plantations of them constitute the "American Plants" which make 
so marked a feature in English landscape gardening. 

While possessing, however, these many species, we have ever yielded to 
Europe the claim of alone possessing the Heather (Calluna vulgaris), or, as 
improperly called, "the Heath," (Erica vulgaris.) 

It is scarcely to be wondered that our botanists doubted the assertion that it 
had been found wild in Massachusetts, nor are the many, who still remain 
incredulous, not having examined the locality, heard the evidence, or seen the 
proofs, to be accused of obstinacy, for the assertion that the Heather is indig- 
enous bears high improbability upon its face. The question at once arises, 
why has not the discovery been made before? how could it have, till now, 
escaped the notice of our botanists, if existing in a region which is known to 
have been a field well gleaned by Greene, and where he discovered many 
rare and beautiful plants. 

If we examine the botanical researches of collectors upon the North Ameri- 
can Continent, and consult the writings of botanists for the last century, with 
two exceptions, we find no mention of the plant in question, as existing in 
North America. 

The Flora Boreali Americana of the elder Michaux, published in Paris, 
A. D. 1803, makes no mention of the plant. 

It is incidentally mentioned in the Index of the Flora Boreali Americana, 
published in London, A. D. 1840, by Sir William I. Hooker, a work of great 
research and authority, and which goes over the ground where the plant was 
said to have been found, by the only writer asserting its existence. 

Had it existed in Massachusetts it should have found a place in Emerson's 
Trees and Shrubs of Massachusetts, a work treating most fully of the 
plants indigenous to our State, published about the year 1846. And it 
should also be mentioned in Bigelow's Plants of Boston, long our favcrite 
Botany. 

The only writer, except Hooker, who gives an American habitat, is Loudon, 
in the Arboretum et Fruticetum Britannic um, Vol. II., p. 1085, as follows: — 

" The common Heath abounds in almost every part of Europe, more 
especially in the northern countries. It is found in Iceland, Greenland, and 
Kamtschatka, and in Nova Scolia and Newfoundland. [The italics are our 
own.] In Britain it flourishes best in the upland and moorland zones ; but it 
descends to the sea level in the south of England. In the north, and on the 
Grampian Mountains, it grows at the height of three thousand feet above the 
level of the sea. In deciduous copse woods it commonly gives place to 
Vaccineum myrtillus, but in open pine groves it maintains its ground. It 
covers extensive tracts in France and Germany, and it is common in all tem- 
perate parts of the Russian Empire, and probably also in Siberian Russia." 

So much for the assertion ; no authority is given, nor is any reference made 
to any botanist's opinion or researches, through the whole article, covering 
3 



34 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

some twenty pages ; it is but right, however, to state that much of this space 
is occupied by a treatise on the Cape Heaths. 

We have devoted much time 1o studying the botany of the Heather, and 
find by far the best, fullest and most concise description in Smith's English 
Flora, vol. 2, pp. 224, 225, which, for advantage of reference, we copy 
entire : 

"216. Calluna. Ling. 

Salisbury Tr. of Lin. Soc. v. 6, p. 317. 

Hull, v. 1, 112, 113. Hook. Scot. 110. Erica Goertn, t. 63. 

Lam. t.-287, f. 1. 

Nat. Ord. Bicornes, Linn. 18. Ericse Jus. 51. 

Ericenece. De Cand. 72, sect. 1. N. 217, the same. 

Cal. inferior, permanent, double ; outermost of 4 ovate-oblong, thick, blunt, 
fringed leaves; inner of 4 elliptic-lanceolate, concave, colored polished leaves, 
concealing the corolla. Cor. of one petal, bell shaped, deeply 4 cleft, erect, 
much shorter than the inner calyx. Filam. from the receptical, thread shaped, 
short curved. Anth. terminal, erect, lanceolate, acute, with two lateral oblong 
orifices, each combined, before the discharge of the pollen, with the similar 
orifice of its neighbor at each side ; the base bearing 2 deflexed bristles. 
Germ, superior, orbicular, depressed, furrowed. Style nearly erect, cylindri- 
cal, the length of the inner calyx. Stigma capitate, with 4 notches. Caps, 
concealed by the inflexed permanent inner calyx, orbicular, a little depressed, 
with 4 furrows, 4 simple valves and 4 cells ; the partitions simple, flat, alter- 
nate and unconnected with the valves, fixed vertically to a large ovate, pitted, 
permanent central column. Seeds numerous, small, elliptic-oblong, dotted, 
attached to the column. 

Shrubby, of humble growth, with little, opposite, imbricated, evergreen 
leaves, and small, elegant, clustered, drooping, rose-colored^owers. 

Although there is but one known species of this genus, the most common, 
if not perhaps the original, Erica of Dioscorides, Tournefort, or Linnaeus, its 
generic distinctions are so very important that I gladly concur with Mr. Salis- 
bury, who first pointed out these distinctions. (Vide Tr. of Linnean Socy. 
vol. 6, pp. 316, 317.) 

To avoid the inconvenience of giving a new generic appellation to the hun- 
dreds of plants familiar to everybody as Erica, or Heaths, he has judiciously 
called our common Ling, Calluna,' from ycaXkvvw ; which is doubly suitable, 
whether, with Mr. Salisbury and Dr. Hale, we take it to express a cleansing 
property, brooms being made of Ling ; or whether we adopt the more common 
sense of the word, to ornament or adorn, which is very applicable to the 
flowers. Gartner indeed was so struck with the peculiar construction of the 
capsule, that he adds a mark of admiration to his description. He takes the 
plant as the type of Erica, not aware, peihaps, that no other supposed Erica 
has been found to have such a capsule, or indeed such a calyx" 

It is proper to add, that the "Calluna" is the oldest "Erica," (if we may so 



CALLUNA VULGARIS, A NATIVE. 35 

speak,) and was the type of the genus of Linnaeus. When the many other 
Ericas were discovered, it was found that they differed slightly botanically 
from the Calluna, but all had been classed as Erica, and as the Calluna was 
but one, it was easier and productive of less confusion to change one than 
many, so the original Erica became Calluna. 

The distinction between Erica and Calluna is well preserved in the English 
words Heath and Heather. 

C. vulgaris. Common Ling. 

C. vulgaris. Hull, v. ], p. 114. Hook. Scot. 119. 

Erica vulgaris. Linn. Sp. PL 501. Willd. v. 2, 373. 

PI. Br. 417. Engl. Bot. v. 15, t. 1013. Curt. Lond. fasc. 5, t. 30. 

Raii Syn. 470. Bull Fr. t. 341. PL Dan. t. 677. Ger. Em. 1380, f. Ehrh. 
PL Off. 173. 

E. n. 1012. Hall. Hist. v. 1, 432. 

Erica Matth. Valgr. v. 1, 137, f. Camer. Epit. 75, f. 

Trag. Hist. 952, f. Fuchs. Hist. 254, f. 

B. E. vulgaris hirsuta. Ruii Syn. 471. Don. H. Br. 56. 

E. ciliaris. Huds. ed. 1, 114. Not of Linnaeus. 

Common everywhere on dry moors, heaths and open barren wastes; as well 
as in woods where the soil is sandy or turfy. 

Shrub. June, July. 

Stems bushy, repeatedly and irregularly branched. Leaves deep green, 
minute, sessile, acute, keeled, somewhat arrow-shaped, closely imbricated on 
the young branches, making a quadrangular figure, like a close-beaten chain ; 
they are generally smooth, but in B densely hoary all over. 

Fl. stalked, drooping in longish unilateral clusters, soon overtopped by leafy 
shoots. 

Inner calyx, which is the most conspicuous part of the flower, of a shining 
permanent rose color. 

Cor. paler and much shorter. 

Anth. not reaching beyond the corolla. Style longer. 

######### 

There is a white-flowered variety ; and a very beautiful double red one, 
cultivated in gardens, whose flowers, from a copious multiplication of the 
corolla, resemble little roses. 

In treating of the Calluna, Smith gives no geography ; but in the next sec- 
tion, when writing upon the Erica, he remarks, " No species is wild in 
America." 
I On Saturday, July 13th, the attention of the writer was first called to the ) 
plant exhibited at the weekly show of the Massachusetts Horticultural Soci- 
ety, by Jackson Dawson, a young gardener, of Cambridge. The plant was 
exhibited in a pot, and was apparently about six to ten years old, about half a 
foot in diameter, and the same in height; it was in full bloom, though the 
flowers were white rather than pink, caused by its having been kept from the 



36 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

light to prevent its drooping or dying from being transplanted at such an 
unfavorable season. The plant was labelled, " Native Heath, found growing 
wild within twenty miles of Boston." 

The writer, as Chairman of the Flower Committee, at once called the atten- 
tion of the Committee to the plant, and notified a special meeting, to examine 
the matter. The identity of the plant with the Scotch Heather was not for a 
moment to be doubted ; but the assertion of its being found wild within 
twenty miles of Boston, naturally met with no believers. 

This was so incredible that many good botanists were not slow to pronounce 
it impossible, and there were many who saw in it only an attempt to deceive 
and mislead the Committee. 

At the meeting of the Flower Committee the Chairman was instructed to 
address a note to Mr. Dawson, requesting him to appoint a time to lead the 
Committee to the locality of the Heather. More than a week having passed, 
and no answer being received, the Committee, now convinced that it was an 
attempt at imposition, passed a vote dismissing the subject from consideration. 

A day or two after, Mr. Dawson called upon the Chairman, and stated his 
reasons for his silence; it appeared the nurseryman in whose employ he 
chanced at the time to be, had forbidden his communicating with the Commit- 
tee, or conducting them to the spot, at the same time endeavoring himself to 
find out the habitat, trusting thus, doubtless, by throwing every obstacle in the 
way of the Committee, to avail himself of the whole merit of the discovery, 
and doubtless reap pecuniary advantage by securing the whole stock of the 
plant. The conduct of this person in thus attempting to control for private 
ends the scientific investigations of a Society of which he was himself a mem- 
ber, cannot be too strongly reprobated. It was also attempted at the exhibi- 
tion of the Society to suppress Mr. Dawson's name, his employer substituting 
his own, but it was voted unanimously by the Flower Committee that the 
whole credit of the discovery belonged to Mr. Dawson ; and the Committee, 
when at length convinced of the reality of the discovery, awarded to Mr. 
Jackson Dawson a gratuity of ten dollars and a silver medal. 

It is proper here to state that Mr. Dawson's course has throughout the whole 
affair been perfectly upright and straightforward, and that not a shadow of sus- 
picion attaches to him of having attempted to deceive the Committee, or of 
claiming that which did not belong to him. 

Mr. Dawson promptly appointed an early day to conduct the Committee to 
the habitat of the Heather, and on the morning of Monday, August 5th, the 
Committee took the cars for Tewksbury, (Mass.) 

It is well known to botanists that this region is very peculiar, and noted for 
producing many rare and beautiful plants. The locality of the Heather is 
about half a mile from the State Almshouse, on the farm of Mr. Charles H. 
Thwing. Leaving the Almshouse on our right, the Committee took a narrow 
y road, and in a short time came near the field ; a short walk brought 
them to the spot, turning into a lane on the left hand side of the road. The 



CALLUNA VULGARIS, A NATIVE. 37 

plants occur sprinkled over a surface of perhaps half an acre ; there may be 
in all about twenty or more old plants, some, allowing for the slow growth of 
the plant, from ten to twenty years old, others much younger. The surface of 
the ground is varied by little hummocks, and is covered with a short close 
grass, interspersed with numerous plants of Kalmia angustifolia, Spirea tomen- 
tosa, Andromeda calyculata, Azalea viscosa, Myrica Gale, &c. A rapid 
brook bounds one side of this field, its banks densely fringed with the com- 
mon Alder, (Alnus incana,) of which plants are sparingly scattered over the 
whole field ; in several cases the Heather was found overgrown and shaded by 
these shrubs. The common Cranberry ( Vaccinium macrocarpon) occurs some- 
what abundantly in the immediate vicinity of the Heather, usually most so in 
the depressions, while the Heather occurs on the hummocks. From appear- 
ances, overflows of the brook are not of unfrequent occurrence, when the 
greater part of the field would be submerged, and as the field is surrounded 
by low ground and ditches, a moderate freshet would convert it into an island. 
At the time of the visit of the Committee, owing to the continued drought of 
the past summer, the whole field was parched, and the brook very low. The 
soil is a sandy peat, just that in which one would expect to find such a plant, 
and admirably adapted for the growth of Ericas. The Committee explored 
the stream on both sides for some distance, but a heavy rain coming on pre- 
vented a more satisfactory examination. They also searched for young plants, 
and found a multitude of seedlings from one to two years old, and a few some- 
what larger. The plants were in full bloom, and presented a most pleasing 
sight. 

About, a week later a Sub-committee visited the spot, and made explorations 
for several miles up and down the stream, on both banks, but without finding 
any further traces of the existence of the Heather. 

The Committee, unable to believe the plant indigenous, started many theo- 
ries to account for its introduction. 

Of the existence of the plant in a wild state there was no doubt. A more 
unlikely place for it to have been planted could scarcely be found. The 
question was, Whence came it ? The first theory was, it was planted there. 
In support of this it was suggested that a Scotchman (Mr. Sutton) who lived 
near by might in some way have brought and sowed the seed ; but at an 
interview had with Mr. Sutton he denied all knowledge of the plant till within 
a ^ew years ; said he had never had any Heather seed in his possession, had 
never received any parcels from Scotland, or done anything in any way by 
which the plant could have been introduced ; that he was as much astonished 
as delighted when, some ten years before, he had discovered the plant, which 
he at once recognized as the " Scotch Heather," and each year since has 
gathered it, when in blossom, to adorn his house. On being further pressed 
by one of the Committee, as to the possibility of its being introduced by him, 
he indignantly replied, " Wuld' na I hae been a fool, man, to sow it on another 
man's land, when my own, as good, would hae' grown it as well ?" Mr, 



38 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

Sutton's land is on the same stream, but a few rods further down, adjoin- 
ing Mr. Th wing's, and in every respect as well adapted for the growth of the 
Heather, yet it occurs only on the land of Mr. Thwing. The next supposition 
was, it had been planted by Mr. Thwing, but upon questioning him we found 
he had only owned the farm for about three years, had found the Heather in 
its present locality, but though considering it a pretty flowering plant, and one 
not found elsewhere on his firm, he had known nothing of its rarity, nor given 
the matter a second thought. He had used the land for a peat meadow, and 
for pasturage, and had remarked the cattle would, not browse on the plant. 
He had purchased the farm of Caleb Livingston of Lowell, in whose family it 
had been for a long time. Mr. Thwing took great interest in the discovery, 
did everything in his power to aid the Committee, and has agreed to so pro- 
tect the plants as to preserve them from injury or removal by tyro botanists, or 
speculating nurserymen. 

Another ingenious theory was, that the seed of the Heather had been 
washed down by the storm, and, being deposited on a congenial soil, had vege- 
tated and thriven. It is well known that the seed of the Heather is very 
minute, and will preserve its vitality for years. The plant not unfrequently 
springs up in the earth in which imported plants are potted. But to meet this 
theory, it was ascertained that there is, or had been, no greenhouse or importer 
of foreign plants anywhere in the neighborhood, or on the course of the stream ; 
and the question at once arose, why should the plant occur in this one spot, 
when there are so many localities all along the stream, for miles, equally 
favorable for its development ? The neighbors, on being questioned, stated 
they had never observed it elsewhere, except Mr. Sutton, who remembered 
seeing, some years since, a plant on the other side of the brook, directly op- 
posite the present locality. Since the attention of the Society had been called 
to the Heather, he had searched for this plant, but unsuccessfully. As the 
opposite meadow is a mowing field, on which the meadow grass is cut in 
August, it is not surprising the plant has been destroyed. The evidence taken 
thus far proves only that the plant has existed in the same place for ten years 
or more, and the opinion of the Committee was adverse to its being considered 
indigenous. Upon inquiry it was ascertained that until within ten years or 
more the field has been used for mowing, but lately has been pastured ; this 
would account for the occurrence of no decaying clumps, and no old dead 
branches. Mr. Dawson's attention was first attracted to the plant through 
members of Mr. Sutton's family, some years ago ; its existence has also been 
known to parties in Salem, Mass., for some time, and plants, removed from 
Tewksbury, are flourishing in a garden in Salem. 

The next step in the investigation was to interrogate Mr. Livingston, the 
former owner of the farm. At first he could remember no such plant ; but 
upon being shown a sprig of the Heather he remembered the occurrence of 
such a plant in a place on the farm, which he designated, many years ago. 
His account is as follows : Many years ago, say fifty or more, when he was a 



CALLUNA VULGARIS, A NATIVE. 39 

boy, he remembers helping his father, who then owned the farm, plough up 
the field in question. It was then more hummocky, and with deeper depres- 
sions than now. They had great trouble in ploughing it, owing to large 
patches, " as big as a bushel basket," or larger, of a strange spreading plant 
which ran on the ground like " ground hemlock," and had long tough roots 
which caught the plough. (Mr. Livingston recognized the Heather shown 
him as the same plant.) After a great deal of trouble they got a heavy strong 
harrow, and tore up the plants, which were very old, strong, and tough, piled 
them in the hollows, and covered them up deep with soil. They then levelled 
and sowed the field, and, during his father's and his occupancy of the farm, the 
field was always, until recently, used for mowing. He cannot say how many 
plants there then were ; but knows they were large, and gave a great deal of 
trouble. He has never seen the plant elsewhere, and had forgotten the cir- 
cumstance, but it recurs vividly to his mind, and he is fully persuaded of the 
identity of the plant. During his occupancy of the farm he does not remem- 
ber the plant; it may have existed, but as the field was mowed each year he 
thinks the constant cutting would have killed them when they came to any 
size. In order to assure himself of the identity of the plant he showed a speci- 
men to His mother, who is still living, at a very advanced age ; she at once 
recognized the plant, told where it grew, said it had grown there for many 
years, and remembered the trouble it was to plough the field. Mr. Livingston 
then went to Tewksbury, and, undirected, went to the spot where the plant 
now grows. 

The vitality of the seeds of the Heather is well known; indeed experience 
has shown that it is difficult to keep land in pasture which has formerly been 
covered with it. 

It is well known that continual cutting will in time kill any bush or shrub, 
and there is nothing strange in supposing that the heather may, after its original 
destruction, have come up year after year among the grass, been mowed with 
the grass, and unnoticed; indeed it would have been strange if a farmer had 
noticed such a plant, unless its encroachment on his mowing, pasture, or arable 
land, called his attention to it. 

There is nothing improbable that the plants now well established in the 
locality, came from seed of the plants destroyed some fifty years ago. Allow 
the present plants are only ten years old, and that the original plants were de- 
stroyed fifty years ago, say in 1810; this only gives us forty years for the seed 
to have retained its vitality ; by no means an improbable time, and the proba- 
bility is, the plants have kept growing 1 , more or less, ever since. 

Or again, the present plants may have sprung from seed of seedlings from 
the original plants, as the Heather flowers very young, is a low-growing bush, 
and might have flowered year after year unnoticed ; indeed, to give the present 
number of plants from seed, it is only necessary for one low branch, close to 
the ground, to have escaped the scythe; this is not only not impossible, but 
very probable. The seed of the Heather is very minute, and the seed vessel 



40 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

is so constructed as to retain the seed in it a whole year. Loudon remarks, 
" When heathy ground has been subjected to the plough, it should never be 
kept in pasture for many years together unless it is richly manured, for, as the 
seeds retain their vitality for many years, plants never fail at the end of a few 
seasons to make their appearance among the grass. In the improvement of 
heath soils lime is always a principal ingredient, it being found necessary to 
neutralize the tannin and acid principles which exist in the mould formed by 
the decay of the heath." 

Now as jto the age of the plants. Fifty years ago, say in 1810, there were 
plants in existence "as large as a bushel basket, or larger;" the question arises 
how old were those plants ? Every botanist well knows that the growth of the 
Heather is very slow. Loudon remarks, " The plant is of slow growth, seldom 
making shoots longer than three or four inches in one season, even when 
young; and when of five or six years' growth, not more than half that length ; 
but it is of great duration." We may safely conclude that the plants, to attain 
so large a size and to have such tough roots as Mr. Livingston described, are 
likely to have been in existence for more than a century, which carries it back 
to about the year 1700. Beyond this we have no evidence, and can only assert 
the probability that the plant existing at so early a date in such an unlikely, 
out-of-the-way place, was indigenous to the locality. 

The town of Tewksbury is five miles south-east of Lowell, and twenty 
miles north-northwest from Boston. It was formerly a part of Billerica, and 
was an Indian village called Wamesitt. The town was set off from Billerica 
in 1734. Billerica was settled in 1753 but very sparsely, and its present popu- 
lation is, we believe, less than two thousand. 

Early in September the writer had the pleasure of accompanying Professor 
Gray to the locality of the Heather. The ground was carefully examined, and 
with the exception of the discovery of innumerable young plants, of all ages 
from one to five years, no new facts were obtained. 

From all the evidence adduced it seems much more probable that this is an 
original locality of the Heather, and that the plant is indigenous to the United 
States. In this opinion Professor Gray coincides, after a careful study of the 
facts. 

May not the Heather have once existed in profusion on this continent, and 
have gradually died out owing to some inexplicable, perhaps only slight, cli- 
matic changes ? May not this be the last vestige of one of the last of what 
was once an American heath ? And if the Heather exists in Nova Scotia and 
Newfoundland, may we not expect further discoveries of localities intermediate 
between those countries and the Heather-field in Tewksbury ? 

Every few years botanists are startled by the discovery, in what were con- 
sidered well gleaned localities, of new or very rare plants ; and we are forced 
to the conclusion that the botany even of New England and the Canadas is not 
yet wholly known. 



CLASSIFICATION OF THE ROSE. 



41 



The importance of this discovery we cannot well estimate. It is, as it were, 
a landmark in botany, and connects us by another floral link with the mother 
country. 

Although Mr. Dawson can hardly be said to have been the original dis- 
coverer, as the existence of the plant was known to others, yet to him belongs 
all the credit, great as it is, of appreciating the discovery, and of first directing 
the attention of botanists to the existence of the plant in this country. 



THE GARDEN CLASSIFICATION OF THE ROSE. 

BY FRANCIS PARKMAN. 

The botanical classification of the Rose is a perplexity to botanists. Its 
garden classification — quite another matter — is no less a source of embarrass- 
ment to its amateur, not to say professional, cultivator. To many, indeed, its 
entire nomenclature is a labyrinth of confusion, and some have gone to the 
length of proposing to abolish distinctions which in their eyes seem arbitrary 
or fanciful. These distinctions, however, are founded in nature, though the 
superstructure built upon her is sometimes flimsy enough to justify the impa- 
tience of its assailants. The chief difficulty arises from the extent to which 
the hybridization of the different varieties of the rose has been carried, and the 
vast entanglement of combinations which has resulted. Out of a propensity 
to classify where, in the nature of things, precise classification is impossible, 
has arisen the equivocal and shadowy character of many of the nominal dis- 
tinctions. 

Omitting less important divisions, the following are the groups into which 
cultivated roses are ordinarily divided : the *Provence, the *Moss, the ^French, 
the Hybrid China, the Hybrid Bourbon, the # Damask, the # Alba, the *Austrian 
Brier, the # Sweet Brier, the # Scotch, the # Double Yellow, the # Ayrshire, the 
*Sempervirens, the *Multiflora, the *Boursault, the *Banksia, the *Prairie. 
These bloom once in the season. The following are perpetual or remontant: 
the *China, the *Tea, the Bourbon, the Hybrid Perpetual, the Perpetual Moss, 
the *Damask Perpetual, the Noisette, the *Musk, the ^Macartney, the # Micro- 
phylla. 

Some of the above are marked with a star * ; these are roses of pure blood. 
The rest are roses of mixed or hybrid origin. By the former are meant those 
which have sprung, without intermixture, from the wild roses which grew 
naturally in various parts of the world, and which are the only roses of which 
the botanical classifier takes cognizance. Many of them are of great beauty, 
and would be highly prized for ornamental uses were they not eclipsed by the 
more splendid double varieties, which the industry of the florist has developed 



42 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

from thern. Each of these groups of unmixed roses, however modified in form, 
size, or color, retains distinctive features of the. native type from which it 
sprang. Yet it often happens that the name is misapplied. Thus a rose 
called Damask is not always a Damask, but a hybrid between a Damask and 
some other variety. The true distinctive features of the group are thus ren- 
dered, in some nominal members of it, so faint that they can scarcely be recog- 
nized. Leaving these bastards out of view, we will consider at present only 
the legitimate offspring of the various families of the rose. 

On Mount Caucasus grows a single wild rose, from the seeds of which have 
sprung the numerous family of the Provence or Cabbage roses, very double, 
very large, and very fragrant. This race is remarkable for its tendency to 
sport, from which have resulted some of the most singular and beautiful forms 
of the rose. For example, a rose-colored variety of the Provence produced a 
branch bearing striped flowers, and from that branch has been propagated the 
Striped Provence. The Crested Moss is the product of another of these 
freaks, being of the pure Provence race. The Common Moss, and all its prog- 
eny, owe the same origin, being derived, in all probability, from a sporting 
branch of one of the Provence roses. 

The family of the French rose, or Rosa Gallica, is of vast extent, and though 
including many diverse shades of color — some pale, some bright, others spotted, 
striped, or marbled — is commonly recognized without much difficulty by its 
family features. It is a native of southern Europe. 

The wild progenitor of the Damask or Damascus roses is a native of Syria. 
The name Damask, by the way, is popularly applied to deep-colored roses in 
general ; but its floral signification is very different., In this group, for the 
first time we meet with a feature which, desirable as it is, was not many years 
since regarded as rare and exceptional. June has always been regarded as 
the month of the rose, but some of the Damasks have the peculiarity of bloom- 
ing twice, or more than twice, during the season. These have been placed in 
a group by themselves, and christened Damask Perpetuate. The remontant 
character, however, is not confined to them ; for individual plants belonging to 
groups and varieties which usually bloom but once, will sometimes display an 
autumnal bloom. Thus, the common wild rose of New England is now 
and then to be seen covered with flowers in September, and there is little 
doubt that from the seeds of these twice-blooming individuals a new race of 
hardy remontant roses might be produced. It should be added that many of 
the so-called Damask Perpetuals are not pure Damask, but crossed with the 
blood of other families. 

Of the remaining races of pure blood, the Alba is remarkable for the delicate 
coloring of its flowers, the greater part being, as the name imports, white or 
nearly so. The original variety grows wild in central Europe. 

The Austrian Brier is another family of features very strongly marked. 
Yellow and copper are its prevailing colors, and from its habit of growth, and 
the color of its twigs, it is easily recognized under all its forms. Its original 



CLASSIFICATION OF THE ROSE. 43 

types are natives of the south of Europe, and probably of Persia, to which 
country we owe its finest development, the well-known Persian Yellow. 

The Double Yellow Rose, Rosa Sulphurea, remarkable for its beauty, and, 
in our climate, notorious for its intractable and uncertain character, is regarded 
by some botanists as belonging to a group distinct from the preceding. The 
single yellow, from which it must have sprung, has been found wild in the 
north of India. 

The Sweet Brier, found wild in various parts of the world, is too well 
known to need further notice. The American variety differs distinctly from 
the European. 

The Scotch roses owe their origin to the dwarf wild rose of Scotland. 
The Ayrshire is a family of climbing roses, originating from the wild trailing 
rose. Rosa Arvensis, common in the British Islands. The best of them are 
said, however, to be hybrids between this rose and other species. The Bour- 
sault roses are descendant of Rosa Alpina, a native of the Alps, and no family 
is more clearly marked by distinctive features. The Sempervirens and the 
Multi flora are, with us at least, less familiar. Both are climbers, like the 
former, the one orginating from a wild rose of Italy, the other from a wild rose 
of Japan. The Banksia, with its smooth, shining leaves, and slender, green 
stems, is well known in every greenhouse. Its progenitor is a native of China 
or Tartary, and the improved varieties are chiefly due to the labors of Chinese 
florists. 

There is another race of climbers, held in great scorn by foreign florists, 
but admirably adapted to our climate, under whose influences they put forth 
beauties by no means contemptible. These are the progeny of the wild 
Michigan or Prairie rose, rampant growers, and generally sturdy enough to 
outface our hardest winters. The best of them, however, the Baltimore Belle, 
is evidently the offspring of a foreign marriage, which, while contributing 
fragrance and beauty to the rugged race of the prairies, has detracted some- 
thing from its hardihood. The union, probably accidental, seems to have been 
with the Tea rose or the Noisette. 

Of the foregoing groups, all, except the Damask Perpetual, are once-bloom- 
ing. The following have, to a greater or less extent, the desirable character 
of a continued or successive bloom. 

The Macartney rose is a wild rose of China, from which a few improved 
varieties have been raised from seed. Its evergreen shining foliage is its 
most attractive feature. The Microphylla or small-leaved rose is closely akin 
to the Macartney, and, like the latter, is a native of the East. Neither will 
bear our climate without shelter. 

The Musk is a rose much more familiarly known. It descends from a 
Persian of Syrian progenitor, and its vigorous growth, rich clusters of bloom, 
and peculiar fragrance, have long made it a favorite. But by far the most in- 
teresting and valuable among the unmixed races of ever-blooming roses, are 
the numberless offspring of Rosa Indica, in its several varieties. To it we 



44 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

owe all the China and Tea-scented roses, while to its foreign alliances we are 
indebted for a vast and increasing host of brilliant hybrids. 

Thus, from the families of pure blood, we come at length to those in which 
is mingled that of two or more distinct races. Convey the pollen of a China 
rose to the stigmas of a French, Damask, or Provence rose, and from the re- 
sulting seed an offspring arises different from either parent. Hence a new 
group of roses known as the Hybrid Chinas. The parents are both of moderate 
growth. The offspring is usually of such vigor as to form with readiness a 
pillar eight feet high. Its foliage is distinct, its bloom often as profuse and 
brilliant as- that of the China, and its constitution as hardy, or nearly so, as 
that of the French rose. Unlike the former, it blooms but once in the year, 
or, only in a few exceptional instances, shows a straggling autumnal flower. 
By a vicious system of subdivision, the group has been separated into Hybrid 
China, Hybrid Bourbon, and Hybrid Noisette. The two latter are the same 
as the first, except, in the one case, a slight infusion of the Damask Perpetual 
and in the latter of the Musk rose. In many cases, no human discernment 
could detect the effects of the admixture. 

Again, convey the pollen of the China or Tea rose to the flowers of the 
Musk, or vice versa, and for a result we obtain the Noisette, inheriting from 
the former various sti iking characteristics of foliage and bloom, and from the 
latter its vigorous climbing habit and clustering inflorescence. But, by im- 
pregnation through several generations, some of the Noisettes retain so little of 
their Musk parent, that its traits are almost obliterated ; they no longer bloom 
in clusters, and can scarcely be distinguished from the pure Tea rose. 

Again, a union of a Damask Perpetual with a China rose has produced a 
distinct race, of vigorous habit and peculiar foliage, possessing in a high 
degree the ever-blooming character of both its parents. It is hardier than the 
China rose, though usually unable to bear a New England winter unpro- 
tected. This is the Bourbon rose, a brilliant and beautiful group, worth all 
the care which, in this latitude, its out-door culture requires. 

The Moss rose, impregnated with various ever-blooming varieties, has 
borne hybrids partially retaining the mossy stem and calyx, with a tendency 
more or less manifest to bloom in the autumn. Hence the group of the Per- 
petual Moss, a few only of whose members deserve the name. 

It is evident that by continuing the process of hybridizing, hybrids may be 
mixed with hybrids, till the blood of half a score of the original races are 
mingled in one plant. This, in some cases, is without doubt actually the case ; 
and this bastard progeny must of necessity be classified rather by its visible 
characteristics than by its parentage. Thus a host of ever-blooming hybrids, 
which are neither Noisette nor Bourbon, nor Perpetual Moss, have been cast 
into one grand group, under the comprehensive title of Hybrid Perpetuals. 
Whence have they sprung ? What have been their parents ? The question 
is easier asked than answered, for, as in a great nation of the West, one may 
discern the lineaments and hear the accents of diverse commingled races, so 



CULTURE OF TUBEKOSA. 45 

here we may trace the features of many and various families of Indian or 
Siberian, Chinese or European extraction. The Hybrid Perpetuals, however, 
inherit their remontant character chiefly from Rosa Indica, — the China or Tea 
rose, — and, in a far less degree, from the Damask Perpetual. An infusion of 
the former exists, in greater or less degree, in all of them ; while the blood of 
the Damask Perpetual shows its traces in comparatively few. Many of the 
group are the results of a union between the Hybrid China roses and some 
variety of the China or Tea. Others owe their origin to the Hybrid China 
and the Bourbon, both parents being hybrids of Rosa Indica. Others are off- 
spring of the Hybrid China crossed with the Damask Perpetual; while many 
spring from intermarriages within the group itself, Hybrid Perpetual with 
Hybrid Perpetual. 

By some over-zealous classifiers this group has been cut up into various sub- 
divisions, as Bourbon Perpetual, Rose de Rosomene, and the like, a procedure 
never sufficiently to be deprecated, as tending to produce no results but per- 
plexity and confusion. Where there can be no definite basis of division, it is 
well to divide as little as may be, and it is to be hoped that secession from the 
heterogeneous commonwealth of the Hybrid Perpetuals will be effectually 
repressed. And, in regard to roses in general, while a classification founded 
on evident natural affinities is certainly desirable, yet, in the name of common 
sense, let us avoid the multiplication of new hybrid groups, founded on flimsy 
distinctions, and christened with new names which begin with meaning little 
and end with meaning nothing. 



A FEW NOTES ON THE CULTURE OF POLIANTHES TUBEROSA. 

BY E. W. BCSWELL. 

Commonly called Tuberose probably from the almost universal propensity of 
the mass of humanity to call things by other than their right names. Especi- 
ally is this true in regard to the names of flowers ; and the ambitious learner 
too often finds himself pursuing knowledge under difficulties from which he 
would be spared if all were willing to grant to our friends, the flowers, the 
rights which we claim for ourselves — to be called by our Christian names. 

In the case of the plant under consideration, the popular name is no doubt 
a perversion of the last word of its true name. 

Polianthes is said to be the union of two Greek words, signifying " City 
flower," and so called because of its great desirableness causing it to be culti- 
vated extensively even in cities. The variety Jlore pleno is considered most 
desirable, and, in short, is almost universally the one cultivated. 

The single ones are not less fragrant or beautiful than the double, and are 
preferred by some persons for their more graceful foliage, a property for which 
I do not vouch. Flore pleno, wherever found, has a mighty potency at the 



46 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

present day. It has only to announce itself, and presto, our less pretending 
friends are " left out in the cold." 

The plant is tuberous rooted, and belongs to the order Hemerocallideae ; is 
said to be a native of the East Indies, but has been cultivated in Europe for 
two centuries or more. The tubers are largely grown in Italy for exportation, 
from whence ours are chiefly brought, yet florists in the vicinity of New York 
are said to be successful in raising good roots for flowering — more than can 
be said of florists in this vicinity. Why the difference? is a good question 
for the curious in such matters. 

It is a shy-growing plant, requiring treatment congenial to it, so that the 
careless gardener is sure to be mortified at the result if he give it only the 
ordinary treatment of bulbs and tubers. I have seen beds of them, numbering 
hundreds of roots, with less than a dozen spikes, with a few meagre blossoms 
on each. This is truly " love's labor lost," for it is just as easy to produce 
upon each a magnificent spike of from twenty-five to thirty-five splendid blos- 
soms, as to grow a hill of corn. Each operation involves the necessity of 
doing your duty, nothing more. 

It is the design of this article to show how it may be done, and, if the 
reader will 'bear with me, I will give him my mode of culture, which is the 
result of much experimenting, by one who looks upon flowers in general, 
and tuberoses in particular, as amongst the necessaries of life, and as such is 
•willing to labor for them. In this connection I would say, that I cultivate only 
a " small patch," and as it is for the small-patch gardeners that I write, so I 
attach the utmost importance to a hot-bed, as the best aid to him who wishes 
to accomplish the most with the least expenditure of time and labor. 

Now suppose the heat is up in my hot-bed, and I have selected my tubers 
as soon as opened by the importer, thus securing the strongest and best grown 
roots, known by the size and firmness even to the top, and the absence of offsets 
or their marks, being sure that there is no old blossom-stalk, evidence of ex- 
haustion. Time, about the first of April, I prepare seven-inch pots, with the 
usual drainage, (I prefer charcoal to anything else,) over this I place about 
four inches of old dry cow manure, picked up in the pasture and preserved for 
future use, (the older the better,) broken fine but not sifted. Then I fill the 
pot nearly full of a compost of nearly equal parts of sand, loam, peat, and 
last year's hot bed, with a slight admixture of charcoal dust ; I then prepare 
the roots by removing the outer scale or coating, so as to detect embryo offsets. 
These I carefully remove with a knife or the thumb nail, so as to lessen future 
operations of that kind. This done, plunge them in the compost, just covering 
them from sight, and then fill the pot with spent-bark or tan, and plunge the 
pot to the rim in the tan, which, by the way, I deem the very best material in 
which to plunge pots in the hot-bed, retaining well the heat and moisture, and 
withal, pleasant to work in. Soon, they begin to strike root and the foli- 
age to show its tips. I then give slight waterings until indications of "spin- 
ning up," appear ; then I increase the water so much as to solve, to some ex- 



CULTURE OF TUB EROS A. 47 

tent, the broken manure, and thereby allow of consolidation, by firm pressure 
upon the top surface ; I watch closely for offsets, and as they appear split them 
off by inserting my thumb between them and the parent, thus keeping the 
strength where it is wanted. My practice is to retain them in the pots, and 
keep the pots together in the hot-bed, unless they become so tall as to interfere 
with the sashes. Keeping them in pots is preferable to turning them out ; 
not only because I can control the supply of water, but because I can move 
them at pleasure. When blossoms begin to appear, I remove them to my 
grape-arbor, to secure shade to some extent, and thus preserve the natural 
delicacy of the flowers. On the approach of frosty weather, they can be 
housed without the shock they would suffer from "lifting and potting." If 
kept neatly tied to rods they are not unacceptable to the parlor. 

By a succession of plantings, a long season of bloom is secured. I find by 
my journal of garden operations, that I this year planted on the eighth and 
twenty-fifth of April, and the twelfth of May, and had an uninterrupted season 
of bloom from twentieth of July to tenth of November. 

Who shall say the end does not warrant the means ? If any one is unwil- 
ling to devote the amount of labor to the culture of so delightful an exotic, it 
is either because he knows of a better way, oris unworthy a better flower than 
a "tare," that will grow while the "husbandman sleeps." If any better mode 
of treatment for it in this climate can be given, I shall be most happy to know 
and adopt it. And if, on the other hand, these hints shall awaken any inter- 
est, or enable any one to reap from the sweet " City flower" a tithe of the 
pleasure I annually enjoy in its society, I am repaid and content. 



48 



MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 



PREMIUMS AND GRATUITIES AWARDED FOR FLOWERS. 



less than six, 



less than four, 



in pots 



in pots 



in pots 



in pots 



The Committee would award the following prizes : — 

Camellias. — For the best twelve named varieties of cut flowers 
with foliage, to Hovey & Co., 
For the next best, not awarded, . 
For the next best, do. 

Heaths — For the best named varieties, not 
not awarded, 
For the next best, not awarded, . 
For the next best, do. 
Epacris. — For the best named varieties, not 
not awarded, 
For the next best, not awarded, . 
For the next best, do. 
Greenhouse Azaleas. — For the best six named varieties 
not awarded, 
For the next best, not awarded, . 
For the next best, do. 
Pelargoniums. — For the best six named varieties, grown 
(not fancies,) not awarded, 
For the next best, do. 
For the next best, do. 
For the best six named fancy varieties, in 
a premium of . 
For the next best, not awarded, . 
For the next best, do. 
Fuchsias. — For the best six named varieties, 
For the next best, not awarded, . 
For the next best, do. 
Verbenas. — For the best six, not less than 
McTear, 
For the next best, to Jonathan French, 
For the next best, not awarded, . 
For the best single specimen, in pot or pan, to James McTear, 
Cinerarias. — For the best six named varieties, to Hovey & Co., 
For the next best, to James McTear, 
For the next best, not awarded, .... 
Greenhouse Plants. — For the best display, of not less than twelve, 
regard to be had to new and rare varieties, and well-grown 
specimens, of named plants, to Hovey & Co., . 



pots, to Hovey 



in pots, not awarded, 



8- inch pots, to James 



& Co. 



$6*00 

5 00 

3 00 

6 00 

4 00 

2 00 

4 00 

3 00 
1 00 

10 00 
6 00 

4 00 

8 00 

5 00 

4 00 

8 00 

5 00 
4 00 

6 00 
4 00 
3 00 



00 
00 
00 
00 
00 
00 
00 



15 00 



PREMIUMS ON FLOWERS. 



49 



named varieties, 



pots, to Martin 



For the next best, to Evers & Comley, . . - . 

For the next best, not awarded, . 

For the next best, do. ..... 

Pot Plants — regard being had to new and rare varieties. — For the 
best specimen plant, of a kind for which no special prize is 
offered, to Edward S. Rand, 

For the next best, to Hovey & Co., 

For the next best, to Gardiner G. Hubbard, 

For the next best, to Marshall P. Wilder, 
Cut Flowers. — For the best display, to Hovey & Co., 

For the next best, to George W. Pratt, . 

For the next best, to Thomas G. Whytal, 

For the next best, to James Nugent, 

For the next best, to James McTear, 
Hyacinths. — For the best display, not less than ten 
not awarded, .... 

For the next best, not awarded, . 
Pansies. — For the best twelve distinct varieties, in 
Trautman, .... 

For the next best, not awarded, . 

For the next best, do. 
Hardy Azaleas. — For the best display of named varieties, not 
awarded, .... 

For the next best, not awarded, . 

For the next best, do. 
Shrubby Pjeonies. — For the best six named varieties, not awarded 

For the next best, not awarded, . 

For the next best, to Marshall P. Wilder, 
Herbaceous Pjeonies. — For the best ten named 
awarded, .... 

For the next best, not awarded, . 

For the next best, do. 
Pinks. — For the best six distinct named varieties, not 

For the next best, not awarded, . 

For the next best, do. 
Hardy June Roses. — 

Class I. 

For the best thirty distinct named varieties, not awarded, 

For the next best, not awarded, .... 

For the nSxt best, do. . 

Class II. 

For the best twenty distinct named varieties, not awarded, 

For the next best, not awarded, .... 

For the next best, do. . » *-.'■» 

4 



varieties, not 



awarded, 



$12 00 
10 00 

8 00 



10 00 
8 00 
6 00 

4 00 
6 00 

5 00 
4 00 

3 00 
2 00 

4 00 

2 00 

4 00 

3 00 
2 00 

5 00 

4 00 

2 00 

5 00 

4 00 

3 00 

5 00 

4 00 

3 00 

4 00 
3 00 
2 00 



6 00 

4 00 
3 00 

5 CO 
3 00 
2 00 



50 



MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 



Class III. 
For the best twelve distinct named varieties, to G. G. Hubbard, 
For the next best, to William C. Strong, 
For the next best, to James Nugent, . 

Class IV. 
Ha rot Perpetual Roses. — For the best twenty five named va- 
rieties, to John Hogan, ..... 
For the next best, to Hovey & Co., .... 
For the next best, to Warren Heustis, .... 
For the next best, to Barnes & Washburn, 

Class V. 

For the best fifteen named varieties, to Francis Parkman 7 
For the next best, to Charles Copeland, . 
For the next best, to William C. Strong, 

Class VI. 
For the best ten named varieties, to James McTear, 
For the next best, not awarded, . . . . . 

For the next best, do. 

Class VII. 
Moss Roses. — For the best display of named varieties, to 
Hovey & Co., ....... 

For the next best, to Charles Copeland, . 

Class VIII. 
La rge Bouquets of Roses. — For the best three, to Evers & Comley, 
For the next best, to Hovey &. Co., .... 

Class IX. 
Tender Roses. — For the best display of named varieties, not less 
than ten, to Charles Copeland, 
For the next best, to Evers & Comley, . 
For the next best, to James Nugent, 
Summer Phloxes. — For the best ten distinct named varieties, not 
awarded, 
For the next best, to Hovey & Co , 
For the next best, to Francis Parkman, . 
Carnations. — For the best ten named varieties, not awarded. 
For the next best, to Hovey & Co , 
For the next best, not awarded, . 
Picotees. — For the best ten named varieties, not awarded, . 
For the next best, to Hovey & Co., 
For the next best, not awarded, .... 
Hardy Rhododendrons — For the best display of the season, of 
named varieties, to Hovey & Co., 
For the next best, not awarded, . 



$4 00 
2 00 
1 00 



6 00 



00 
00 
00 

00 
00 
00 



3 00 
2 00 
1 00 



4 00 

2 00 

4 00 

3 00 



4 00 

3 00 

2 00 

5 00 

4 00 

3 00 

4 00 
3 00 

2 00 

3 00 
2 00 

1 00 

4 00 

2 00 



PREMIUMS ON FLOWERS. 



51 



Hollyhocks. — For the best twelve named varieties, to Oliver Bennett, 

For the next best, not awarded, .... 

For the next best, do. ... . 

Phloxes. — For the best ten distinct named varieties, to Hovey & Co. 

For the next best, to Evers & Comley, . 

For the next best, to Barnes & Washburn, 
Gloxineas. — For the best six pots, to William C. Strong-, 

For the next best, to Evers & Comley, . 

For the best new seedling-, Society's silver medal. Not awarded 
Petunias. — For the best collection, to James McTear, 

For the next best, to Hovey & Co., 

For the next best, to Martin Trautman, . 
German Asters. — For the best thirty flowers, not less than ten va- 
rieties, to Hovey & Co., .... 

For the next best, to Barnes & Washburn, 

For the next best, to Thomas Walsh, 

For the next best, to John Kelley, 
Verbenas. — For the best named collection, of twenty-four varieties 
a single truss of each, to Barnes & Washburn, 

For the next best, to James Nugent, 

For the next best, to Herman Grundell, . 

For the best new seedling, with foliage, the Society's silver 
medal, to James F. C. Hyde. 
Gladiolus, Gandavensis and Floribundus varieties. — For the 
best ten varieties, in spikes, to William H. Spooner, Jr., 

For the next best, to Hovey & Co., .... 

For the next best, to Barnes & Washburn, 
Dahlias. — Specimen Bloom. — For the best named flower, to 
Hovey & Co., ....... 

Class I. 

For the best eighteen named dissimilar blooms, to Hovey & Co., 
For the next best, to Edward Flynn, .... 

Class II. 

For the best twelve named dissimilar blooms, to Edward Flynn, 

Class III. 
For the best six named dissimilar blooms, to Hovey & Co., 
For the next best, to Edward Flynn, .... 

Chrysanthemums. — For the best six large varieties in pots, not 
awarded, ....... 

For the next best, not awarded, ..... 

For the best six pompones, in pots, not awarded, 

For the next best, to Hovey & Co., .... 



tt, $3 00 


2 00 


1 00 


, 5 00 


4 00 


3 00 


6 00 


4 00 


3 00 


2 00 


1 00 


5 00 


4 00 


3 00 


. 2 00 


4 00 


3 00 


2 00 



5 00 
4 00 
3 00 

2 00 

6 00 

3 00 

4 00 



2 00 


1 00 


5 00 


4 00 


5 00 


3 00 



52 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

Saturday, June )st. 

For the best display of Pot Plants, not less than six, not awarded, $5 00 

For the next best, not awarded, . . . . 4 00 

For the next best, do. . . . . . 3 00 

For the best Specimen Plant, not awarded, . . . 3 00 

For the next best, not awarded, . . . . . 2 00 

For the best display of Cut Flowers, filling not less than 150 bottles, 

not awarded, . . . . . . 5 00 

For the next best, not awarded, . . . . 4 00 

For the next best, to James Nugent, . . . 3 00 

Saturday, June 8th. 

For the best display of Pot Plants, not less than six, to Evers & 
Comley, 

For the next best, not awarded, . 

For the next best, do. .... 

For the best Specimen Plant, to James McTear, . 

For the next best, not awarded, .... 
For the best display of Cut Flowers, filling not less than 150 bottles, 
to Evers & Comley, ..... 

For the next best, to James Nugent, 

For the next best, to Franklin Winship, . 

Saturday. June 15th. 

For the best display of Pot Plants, not less than six, to Hovey & Co., 

For the next best, to Evers & Comley, . 

For the next best, to James McTear, 
For the best Specimen Plant, to Hovey & Co., 

For the next best, to Evers & Comley, . 
For the best display of Cut Flowers, filling not less than 150 bottles, 
to Franklin Winship, ..... 

For the next best, to William C. Strong, . 

For the next best, to Hovey & Co., 

Saturday, June 22d. 
Pot Plants. — For the best display, not less than six, not awarded, 

For the next best, not awarded, .... 

For the next best, do. ... 

Specimen Plant. — For the best, not awarded, 

For the next best, not awarded, .... 
Cot Flowers. — For the best display, &c, to Hovey & Co., 

For the next best, to Win. H. Spooner, Jr., 

For the next best, to Barnes & Washburn, 



5 00 


. 4 00 


3 00 


. 3 00 


2 00 


5 00 


4 00 


3 00 


5 00 


4 00 


3 00 


3 00 


2 00 


» 

5 OCT 


4 00 


3 CO 


5 00 


4 00 


3 00 


3 00 


2 00 


5 00 


4 00 


3 00 



PREMIUMS ON FLOWERS. 



53 



Saturday, June 29th. 
Pot Plants. — For the best display, not less than six, not awarded, 

For the next best, not awarded, .... 

For the next best, do. ... 

Specimen Plant. — For the best, to Evers & Comley, 

For the next best, not awarded, 
Cut Flowers. — For the best display, &c, to Hovey & Co., 

For the next best, to Wm. H. Spooner, Jr., 

For the next best, to Evers & Comley, . 

Saturday, July 6th. 
Pot Plants. — For the best display, not less than six, to Evers & 
Comley, ...... 

For the next best, not awarded, .... 

For the next best, do. ... . 

Specimen Plant. — For the best, to Hovey & Co., . 

For the next best, to James Nugent, 
Cut Flowers. — For the best display, &c., to Hovey & Co., 

For the next best, to Evers & Comley, . 

For the next best, to Spooner & Co., 

Saturday, July ISih. 
Pot Plants. — For the best display, not less than six, to Evers & 
Comley, ...... 

For the next best, not awarded, .... 

For the next best, do. ... . 

Specimen Plant. — For the best, to Evers & Comley, 

For the next best, not awarded, .... 
Cut Flowers. — For the best display, &c, to Hovey & Co. 

For the next best, to Evers & Comley, . 

For the next best, to Wm. H. Spooner, Jr., 

Saturday, July 20th. 
Pot Plants. — For the best display, not less than six, not awarded, 

For the next best, not awarded, .... 

For the next best, do. ... . 

Specimen Plant. — For the best, to Wm. C. Strong, 

For the next best, not awarded, .... 
Cut Flowers. — For the best display, &c, to Hovey & Co., 

For the next best, to Evers & Comley, . 

For the next best, to Spooner & Co., 

Saturday, July 27th. 
Pot Plants. — For the best display, not less than six, not awarded, 
For the next best, to Evers & Comley, . 
For the next best, not awarded, .... 



$5 00 



4 00 


3 00 


3 00 


2 00 


5 00 


4 00 


3 00 



5 00 


4 00 


3 00 


3 00 


2 00 


5 00 


4 00 


3 00 



5 00 


4 00 


3 00 


3 00 


2 00 


5 00 


4 00 


3 00 


5 00 


4 00 


3 00 


3 00 


2 00 


5 00 


4 00 


3 00 


5 00 


4 00 


3 00 



54 



MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 



Specimen Plant. — For the best, not awarded, 

For the next best, to Hovey & Co., 
Cut Flowers. — For the best display, &c, to Hovey & Co., 

For the next best, to Evers & Comley, . 

For the next best, to F. Winship, 

Saturday, August 3d. 
Cut Flowers. — For the best display, &c, to Evers & Comley, 
For the next best, to Hovey & Co., 
For the next best, not awarded, .... 

Saturday, August 10th. 
Cut Flowers. — For the best display, &c, to Hovey & Co., 
For the next best, to Evers & Comley, . 
For the next best, to Spooner & Co., 

Saturday, August \7th. 
Cut Flowers. — For the best display, &c, to Hovey & Co., 
For the next best, to Barnes & Washburn, 
For the next best, to Evers & Comley, . 

Saturday, August '24th. 
Cut Flowers. — For the best display, &c, to Hovey & Co.. 
For the next best, to Evers & Comley, . 
For the next best, to Barnes & Washburn, 

Saturday, August 3]st. 
Cut Flowers. — For the best display, &c, to Hovey & Co., 
For the next best, to Barnes & Washburn, 
For the next best, to Spooner & Co., 

Saturday, September 7th. 
Cut Flowers. — For the best display, &c, to Hovey & Co., 
For the next best, to Spooner & Co., 
For the next best, to Barnes & Washburn, 

The following prizes were awarded at the Annual Exhibition: — 

For the best collection of ten Plants, in ten distinct named species, 
to Edward S. Rand, ..... 

For the next best, to Hovey & Co., 

For the next best, to Martin Trautman, . 
Single Specimens. — For the best, to Edward S. Rand, 

For the next best, to Hovey & Co., 

For the next best, to Edward S. Rand, . 

For the next best, to Edward S. Rand, . 
Begonias. — For the ten best named varieties, to Edward S. Rand, 

For the next ten best named varieties, to Hovey & Co., 



. $3 00 


2 00 


5 00 


4 00 


. 3 00 


5 00 


4 00 


3 00 


5 00 


4 00 


3 00 


5 00 


4 00 


3 00 


5 CO 


4 00 


3 00 


5 00 


4 CO 


3 00 


5 00 


4 00 


3 00 



. $25 CO 


. 20 


00 


. 15 


00 


. 10 


00 


8 


00 


() 00 


4 


00 


. 10 


00 


8 


00 



PREMIUMS ON FLOWERS. 



55 



Variegated Leaved Plants. — For the best specimen, to Edward 
S. Rand, ..... 

For the next best, to Hovey & Co., 

For the next best, to Martin Tmutman, . 

For the next best, to James Nugent, 
Ferns and Lycopodia. — For the best collection of twelve named 
species or varieties, to Hovey & Co., . 

For the next best, to Gardiner G. Hubbard, 

For the next best, to Martin Trautman, . 

For the next best, to James McTear, 
Parlor Bouquets. — For the best pair, to Hovey & Co., 

For the next best, to Marshall P. Wilder, 

For the next best, to James Nugent, 

For the next best, to Thomas Walsh, 

For the next best, to James McTear, 

For the next best, to Martin Trautman, . 
Mantel Bouquets. — For the best pair, to James Comley, 

For the next best, to William E. Carter, 
Hand Bouquets. — For the best four, to Martin Trautman, 

For the next best, not awarded, . 

For the next best, do. ... 

Cut Flowers. — For the best display, and best kept during 
bition, to Hovey & Co., 

For the next best, to Barnes & Washburn, 

For the next best, to James McTear, 

For the next best, to Spooner & Co., 

For the next best, to Gardiner G. Hubbard, 



do. 


do. 


do. 


do. 


do. 


do. 


do. 


do. 


do. 


do. 



The following Gratuities were awarded during the 

To Evers & Comley, for Epacris, 
for Azaleas, 

for Eucharis Amazonica, 
for Grevillea robusta, 
for Gloxineas, 
for displays, 
To Barnes & Washburn, for Ericas, . 

do. do. for Pimelia Nieppergiana, 

do. do. for Erica, 

do. do. for displays, 

To Hovey & Co., for Cyclamen, 
do. do. for Azaleas, 
do. do. for new Ixias, 
do. do. for Acacia Drummondii, 
do. do. for Cineraria Brilliant, 



season 





#10 00 




8 00 




6 00 




4 00 


e namec 


I 




10 00 




8 00 




6 00 




4 00 




7 00 




6 00 




5 00 




4 00 




3 00 




2 00 




5 00 




3 00 




5 00 




4 00 




3 00 


the exhi- 






. 15 00 




. 12 00 




. 10 00 




8 00 




6 00 


: — 

. $1 00 




4 00 




3 00 




2 00 




1 00 




7 00 




I 00 




1 CO 




2 00 




14 00 




1 00 




8 00 




3 00 




1 00 




1 00 



56 



MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 



do. 


do. 


do. 


do. 


do. 


do. 


do. 


do. 



do. 


do. 


do. 


do. 


do. 


do. 


do. 


do. 


do. 


do. 


do. 


do. 


do. 


do. 


do. 


do. 



To Hovey & Co., for Cineraria Wonderful, 
do. do. for Cinerarias, 

for Hardy Azaleas, 
for Paeonies, 
for Gladiolus, 
for displays, 
To Jonathan French, for Epacris, 

do. do. for Seedling Chorizema, 

do. do. for Azaleas, 

do. do. for displays, 

To Wm. Wales, for Azalea, . 
do. do. for displays, 
To Edward S. Rand, for Cypripedium barbatum, 
for Caladia, 
for Begonias, 
for Latania rubra, 
for Tillandsia acaulis zebrina, 
for Campylobotrys discolor, 
for fine display of rare stove plants, 
for Alocassia metalJica, 
for displays, 
To James McTear, for Sarracenea purpurea, 
do. do. for bouquet, 

do. do. for displays, 

To Azell Bowditch, for roses, 
" Azell C. Bowditch, for pressed flowers, 
" Curtis & Cobb, for Hyacinths, 
" Mrs. Benjamin Bruce, for hardy plants, 
do. do. for cut flowers, 

To Wm. E. Carter, for hardy plants, . 
do. do. for bouquets, 
do. do. for seedling Dodocatheon 
do. do. for displays, 
To R. McCleary Copeland, for Hyacinths, 
" Martin Trautman, for bouquet, 

do. do. for seedling Ipomea, 

do. do. for displays, 

To Marshall P. Wilder, for Pseony Elizabeth, 
do. do. for Paeonies, 

do. do. for roses, 

do. do. for display, 

To Dennis Murray, for displays of rare native plants 

do. do. for new species of Salicornea, 

To Cambridge Botanic Garden, for fine pot plants, 



$1 00 

1 00 

2 00 
5 00 
1 00 

11 00 

4 00 
1 00 

JO 00 

5 00 
1 00 
5 00 

1 00 
5 00 
5 00 

2 00 
2 00 

2 00 
J4 00 

3 00 
10 00 

1 00 

1 00 

19 00 

4 00 

5 00 
1 00 
4 00 

6 00 

1 00 

2 00 
2 00 

4 00 
2 00 

2 00 

1 00 
10 00 

5 00 

3 00 

2 00 
5 00 

10 00 

3 00 
8 00 



PREMIUMS ON FLOWERS 

To Gardiner G. Hubbard, for fine ferns, 

do. do. for Dianthus Dunettii, 

do. do. for display, 

To Thomas Walsh, for displays of cut flowers, 
11 George W. Pratt, for Nepenthes distillatorius, 

dv. do. for Stanhopea tigrina, the Society's Silver Medal 

To James Nugent, for bouquet, 

do. do. for climbing roses, 

do. do. for bouquets, 

do. do. for displays, 

To Joseph Breck, for fine cut flowers, 

do. do. for Paeony Elizabeth, 

To Madam Miel, for fine wax flowers, the Society's Silver Medal. 
" E. A. Story, for cut flowers, 
44 Miss Story, for floral decorations, . 
" Miss S. D. Story, for floral decorations, 
44 Miss S. A. Russell, for floral decorations, 
41 Franklin Winship, for cut flowers, 
" William C. Strong, do. do. 
" Walker & Co., do. do. 

" John A. Kenrick, for Magnolias, 
44 Spooner & Co., for Iris, 
do. do. for Lilies, 

do. do. for displays, 

To J. Cruikshanks, do. 
" Warren Heustis, for roses, 
44 Eliphalet Stone, for very fine roses 
44 Mrs. Kenrick, for display, 
44 Francis Parkman, for roses, 

do. do. for Delphineums, 

do. do. for bouquet, 

do. do. for cut flowers, 

To Charles Copeland, for cut flowers, 
44 Mrs. J. W. Wolcott, for cut flowers, 
44 Miss Eliza Lynde, for floral paintings, 
44 Miss Annie C. Kenrick, for decorations, 
4 * S. Sweetser, for display, . 
44 J. F. C. Hyde, for display, 

The following Gratuities were awarded at the Annual Exhibition 

To Hovey &, Co., for pot plants, .... 

44 Edward S. Rand, for stove plants, 

44 James McTear, for plants, .... 

44 Azell Bowditch, for decoration, .... 



57 

#6 00 

1 00 

2 00 
15 00 

1 00 

1 00 

1 00 

2 00 

6 00 

5 00 

3 00 

7 00 

6 00 
1 00 

7 00 
11 00 

8 00 
5 00 
1 00 

3 00 

1 00 

2 00 
2 00 

4 00 
13 00 

1 00 

2 00 
2 00 

1 00 

5 00 

2 00 

1 00 

2 00 

3 00 
1 00 
1 00 



$10 00 
10 00 

1 00 

2 00 



58 



MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 



To Azell Bowditch, for cut flowers, . 
To Martin Trautman, for pot plants, . 
do. do. for Wardian Cases, 

do. do. for cut flowers, 

To Cambridge Botanic Garden, for fine display of cut flowers and 

plants, .... 
To Gardiner G. Hubbard, for collection 

" Thomas Walsh, for display, 

" E. A. Story, do. 

" Mrs. E. A. Story, for decoration, 

" Miss Story, do. 

" Miss Russell, do. 

" Franklin Winship, for cut flowers, 

« Wm. C. Strong, do. do. 

" Warren Heustis, for roses, 

" Mrs. Kenrick. for decoration, 

" Charles Copeland, for roses, 

" Miss Annie C. Kenrick, for decoration, 

" John Kelley, for cut flowers, 

" Mrs. A. Perkins, for pressed flowers, 

" Miss E. M. Harris, for decoration, 

" Frederick Lawson, for floral basket, 

" Mrs. G. F. Stone, for display, 

" Mrs. T. W. Ward, for Allamanda, 

" Edward Flynn, for Dahlias, 

" B. B. Davis, for Vallota purpurea, 

" Mrs. Wm. Whiting, for bouquets, 

" Miss Carrie Brackett, for floral basket, 

" Mrs. Abner Pierce, for decoration, 

" Miss E. S. West, for pressed flowers, 

" Mrs. Grenville, do. do. 

" R. S. Rogers, for Maranta zebrina, 

" Miss Lizzie Baxter, for bouquets, . 

" David Lane, for cut flowers, 

The following Gratuities were awarded for parlor and hand bouquets at the 
Annual Exhibition : — 



$2 00 


5 00 


5 00 


3 00 


10 00 


5 00 


3 00 


2 00 


2 00 


5 00 


5 00 


4 00 


3 00 


1 00 


5 00 


10 00 


2 00 


3 00 


2 00 


6 00 


1 00 


1 00 


1 00 


5 00 


1 00 


3 00 


1 00 


4 00 


2 00 


2 00 


2 00 


1 00 


1 00 



To James Comley, .... 


. $3 00 


" James Nugent, .... 


3 00 


" Hovey &, Co., .... 


3 00 


" Charles Copeland, 


2 00 


" James Nugent, .... 


2 00 


" Miss Whiting, .... 


1 00 


" Hovey & Co., .... 


2 00 


" Miss Whiting, .... 


I 00 



PREMIUMS ON FLOWERS. 59 

The following Gratuities were awarded at the Annual Meeting of the 
Flower Committee at the close of the season : — 

To Jackson Dawson, for exhibition and introduction of native Calluna 

vulgaris, the Society's Silver Medal, and . . . #10 00 

To Joseph Breck, for fine displays of cut flowers during the season, 25 00 

To Evers & Comley, for introduction of fine tender rose, . 2 00 

After awarding the above prizes and gratuities, there remains a balance of 
sixty-nine dollars to the credit of the Committee, which, by vote of the Com- 
mittee, is returned to the treasury of the Society. 

Edward S. Rand, Jr., Chairman. 

George W. Pratt, > 
Wm. H. Spooner, Jr., 

James McTear, 

A . > Committee. 

Antone Apple, 

E. W. Buswell, I 

Chas. H. B. Breck, J 



60 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

REPORT OF THE COMMITTEE ON FRUITS, 

For the Year 1861. 
BY J. S. CABOT, CHAIRMAN. 

The Standing Committee on Fruits, of the Massachusetts Horticultural 
Society, present the subjoined as their Report for 1861. Before commencing 
the announcement to the Society of their award of its premiums, the Committee 
will, as has-been customary, present such of the results of their observations 
and conclusions as may seem to them applicable to the occasion. In so doing 
they intend to be brief. The number of new fruits submitted to their inspec- 
tion has been but few — hence they are in a great measure spared from the 
necessity of attempts at descriptions, and having in previous reports expressed 
somewhat at length their views with respect to many subjects connected with 
fruit culture, at this time refrain from any extended remarks in reference to it 
— that which would but probably lead to a repetition of opinions already 
expressed. 

Exercising a powerful, if not controlling, influence upon its horticultural 
product, a recapitulation of the more marked meteorological phenomena of 
the year seems an appropriate introduction to the work in hand. On the 
last day of September, 1860, after a continuance of mild weather, and when 
vegetation was yet vigorous, there was a frost so severe as to kill or seriously 
injure tender plants and fruits exposed to its influence, and was, in the opinion 
of some, one of the causes that contributed to the loss of the fruit crop of the 
succeeding season. 

During the following and closing months of 1860, and the first of 1861, the 
weather again became mild, continued to be of a favorable character, without 
the occurrence of any marked event, unless it be that of a fall in the mer- 
cury to 10° below on January 13th, the ground during the whole of this 
month having been covered with snow, until February 8th. On the morning 
of February 8th, the thermometer marked 21° below 0, having stood, at 12 M,. 
on the day previous, at 40°, and this too in a somewhat sheltered situation in a 
town, while in some places in the open country it was reported as having 
fallen several degrees lower. This was probably as great, if not the greatest, 
degree of cold ever experienced in the vicinity of Boston, and productive of 
very injurious consequences, some of which will not be immediately obliter- 
ated. This extreme cold was not of long duration, and the weather soon 
became mild and genial. The 3d of March was as remarkable for unseason- 
able heat as February 8th was for intense cold, the thermometer on the former 
day rising to 75° in the shade. Like the severe cold, this unseasonable 
heat was but of short continuance; it very soon became cool, and on the 18th 
of March the thermometer was at about 0. From this time forward the season 
was of a peculiar favorable character. During the spring the rains were 
copious and abundant, so as to well water the ground ; and the summer and 






FRUIT COMMITTEE'S REPORT. 61 

autumn one almost uninterrupted succession of clear bright days, with but 
few of extreme heat, yet of sufficient warmth to ripen crops and fruit ; and 
though dry, yet with showers and rains so seasonable and well-timed that only 
in a few cases was much injury caused by drought. There was no frost suffi- 
cient to kill tender plants until the 25th of October, and the ground remained 
unfrozen, and in a condition favorable to out-of-door operation, down to a 
much later period. 

But favorable as was the summer and autumn, there has not been for a long 
period a season so unpropitious to the cultivators of fruit as the past, the crops 
of some of the more important varieties having proved almost total failures, — 
its results, as it respects the different varieties, will be referred to hereafter 
under the head of the several sorts. And it is not only in the loss of a crop 
that fruit-growers have suffered, but also in the injury, often severe, that has 
been done to their trees. In many cases this injury has been confined to the 
killing of the later growth — the more tender shoots at the ends of limbs, in 
others to the destruction of flower or leaf buds, while in still others it has 
extended to the whole tree, causing its death, or rendering it worthless or of 
little value. This injury was much more severe and complete in some varie- 
ties than in others, showing a difference of vigor and degrees of hardihood in 
different sorts of the same kind, — a difference not sufficiently attended to 
when profit is'the object of the cultivator ; as, for example, in pears, the Bart- 
lett and Beurre Bosc suffered greatly, the trees of both having been almost 
universally severally injured, and in many instances wholly killed ; while, on 
the contrary, the Marie Louise, Belle Lucrative, the Urbaniste and Louise 
Bonne de Jersey, seemed to escape wholly unharmed ; the two first of these 
last-named having been, the past season, superior in quantity and quality to 
any season now remembered. What was the cause of this wide-spread 
destruction ? To this question perhaps no perfectly satisfactory and conclu- 
sive answer can be returned, and it may seem hardly worth while to pursue 
the inquiry; but yet to do so, or at least to bestow some consideration upon 
the subject, may not be wholly useless, and the expression at least of some 
opinion concerning it, may, in a paper of the character of the present, be 
expected. If the attention of fruit-growers should be drawn to a considera- 
tion of the matter, and, by collating of facts and comparing of opinions, some 
definite conclusion, as it might be, should be reached, it might induce a mode 
of cultivation that should measurably guard against a recurrence of the evil. 
On a previous occasion, similar to that of the present, the opinion was 
expressed that shelter to some extent, to be obtained either in the selection of 
a site or by artificial means, was an important element to success in the culti- 
vation of some varieties of fruits, if not absolutely essential thereto ; and this 
opinion has been strengthened and confirmed by observation the past season, 
when injury has been almost universal, and exemption from it exception, it 
has been noticed that gardens or orchards that were in some way sheltered 
have almost wholly escaped injury. 



62 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

In answer to the question proposed, then, it may be said that different 
observers and cultivators have attributed to different causes the destruction of 
the fruit crop the past season, though such causes are all of the same general 
character. Some have been disposed to assign as the primary cause of the 
destruction of the fruit crop, the heavy frost of September, 1860; but this, it 
is believed, is an opinion hardly sustained by facts. How is it, if this is so, 
that grape vines, wholly exposed to this frost, but subsequently protected, bore 
full crops the succeeding summer, showing no signs of injury ; and that in two 
cases, — in one of a peach and the other of a cherry, — branches growing near 
the ground, and covered with snow, blossomed at the appropriate time, as 
usual, while all the rest of the trees show marks of severe injury. The effects 
of this frost might have been to render fruit trees less able to resist other 
adverse influences, and thus contributed to this result; but its agency, if any, 
must, it is believed, be considered as remote and secondary, rather than imme- 
diate. Others, — and, it is thought, with more reason, — have been disposed to 
attribute the injury to the cold succeeding to the unseasonable heat of March 
3d; but this seems hardly probable, for this heat was but of short continuance, 
— indeed, in its greatest degree, of only a few hours' duration, — not suffi- 
ciently long to excite the sap, and produce a condition in the tree that would 
render it apt to receive injury from the cold. Besides, although so great a 
degree of heat as 75°, at this season, is rarely noted, yet very warm weather 
for a succession of days, followed subsequently by cold, is not in early spring 
of very rare occurrence, and yet seldom followed by such sad effects. If 
neither of these causes is accepted, there only remains of meteorological 
influences the great cold of February 8th, and to this it is thought all the 
mischief may be attributed. Certain species of fruit trees, as the peach, &c, 
are, it is generally supposed, incapable of resisting the influence of a certain 
degree of cold; in case of the peach 10° below has sometimes been arbitra- 
rily assigned as this limit. It is doubtless a mistake to fix upon any degree as 
a certain limit, for this must depend on the previous condition of the tree, and 
state of its wood ; but that there is a degree of cold that such are incapable 
of undergoing, without harm, can hardly be controverted. 

And what is true of the more tender species may be also equally so of the 
more hardy, as the apple and pear; only, that these last are capable of resist- 
ing the effects of a lower temperature, and escaping unharmed when the 
former are seriously injured. It seems then not unreasonable to assign as a 
cause for the injury to fruit trees and loss of their crop, the past season, — the 
more tender suffering the most, — the severe cold of February 8, 1861. It is 
not unusual to hear of the loss of apple or other trees, at the West, in conse- 
quence of severe cold, the mercury having fallen to 25° or 30° below ; and 
some years since, in 1835, in New England, owing to the severity of the win- 
ter, of great numbers of the Baldwin apple trees having been destroyed. If 
such accounts are to be relied upon, they serve to prove that fruit trees are 
unable to resist the effects of a certain temperature, whatever that may be, 



FRUIT COMMITTEE'S REPORT. 63 

depending somewhat on the condition of the tree, and tend to establish the fact 
that to this, as a cause, the loss experienced may properly be attributed. This 
being so, as the cold of February 8th was as intense as ever experienced, or 
certainly for many years, it might well be expected to leave behind marks and 
traces of its effects in the loss of fruit crops and injury of trees that has 
occurred to cultivators the past season. And this is confirmed by the fact 
that trees protected by some shelter, that grape vines laid down and covered, 
and so guarded against the effects of the severity of the weather, escaped 
uninjured and bore full crops, while those around them without such protec- 
tion were seriously harmed. With some confidence, therefore, the severe cold 
of February 8th may be given as the cause of the loss and damage expe- 
rienced. 

If this conclusion is well founded, one of the lessons taught by the unfortu- 
nate experience of the past year is plain and palpable; it is, that, in a climate 
such as ours, fruit trees and vines, occasionally at least, if not always, require 
a certain amount of protection against its severity. This may be obtained by 
selecting a sheltered site for the garden or orchard ; and where that cannot be 
done, by the erection of a high close fence around it. If any question arises 
as to the efficacy of this last method, it needs but a visit to the garden of Mr. 
Tudor, at Nahant, to dispel the doubt, where, protected only by a high paling, 
fruit trees of all varieties may be seen flourishing luxuriantly, while outside of 
such enclosure the hardiest trees cannot resist the influence of the fierce 
winds that blow over that peninsula. And there is no ostensible cause for the 
exemption from injury of the trees of Mr. Bacon, of Roxbury, and Mr. Van- 
dine, of Cambridge, and that these bore full crops of fine pears in a year so 
unpropitious as the past, but the shelter they receive. It further inculcates 
the importance, or the necessity, where profit is the object of culture, in a 
choice of varieties, of selecting the most hardy, keeping in view the quality of 
the fruit. There seems to be as much difference in the vigor and hardihood 
of different varieties of trees of the same species, as in the different races of 
animals of the same class ; and it is only upon the more vigorous and hardy 
that a reliance should be placed. 

The Annual Exhibition was held in the Hall of the Society. Although the 
number of exhibitors and of dishes of fruit was much less than on some pre- 
vious occasions, yet was it, from the superior character of the specimens 
shown, and the absence of those of inferior kinds and of ordinary appearance, 
by no means one of the least attractive displays. The show of grapes was 
thought to be one of the best, if not the best, ever made by the Society. And 
there was no very noticeable deficiency, unless it was of apples. 

The exhibitions of forced fruits have not been equal the past season to 
what they have been on some former years, unless it be of grapes, that have been 
shown uninterruptedly through the season, frequently of very fine quality, and 
among them some new varieties. The display of peaches was meagre. There 
was about the usual show of strawberries, some as early as on March 23d. 



64 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

On two different occasions Mr. Allen exhibited a large basket of May Duke 
cherries that were very fine and very beautiful ; it was the largest quantity 
and most attractive exhibition of forced cherries that had ever been made at 
one time, and was the only one of this fruit through the season. There is no 
reason to be given to account for the supposed falling off; very probably it 
was accidental. It is not to be supposed that this mode of cultivation will for 
a long time, if ever, be very general ; and the raising of forced fruits, unless 
it be to a limited extent of grapes, will most likely be confined to amateurs 
and those who make of it an object of interest rather than of profit. 

In compensation for any deficiency in forced fruits, there were some very 
interesting exhibitions of orchard house culture. Mr. Hubbard showed some 
very fine peaches and other fruits, raised in this mode, and also some trees in 
pots still in fruit. Some remarks concerning orchard house cultivation were 
made in the Report of the Committee of 1859, and no additional observations 
are felt to be now necessary ; like that of forced fruits, it will most probably 
continue to be confined to those who make of cultivation an object of interest, 
and who may in this way procure for themselves a supply of some kinds of 
fruit, as peaches and plums, of which the enjoyment is otherwise exceedingly 
precarious. The following extract from a private letter from a gentleman who 
was one of the first to introduce orchard houses into this part of the country, 
though he has modified the mode of constructing them, recommended by Mr. 
Rivers, by the introduction of a strong heating apparatus, will show the advan- 
tages of this method of culture. He says, " My trees, peaches, nectarines 
and plums, mostly in fourteen-inch pots, set their fruit uniformly and well, 
and ripened a large crop of well-grown specimens, — the peach trees averaging, 
for full grown trees, forty or fifty, and the nectarines double that quantity. 
We began to gather the fruit in July, and had it in the greatest abundance for 
two months, with a more moderate supply for a month longer." 

STRAWBERRIES. 

The crop of Strawberries promised well, but was seriously diminished by the 
dry weather that occurred at the time of its ripening. Considering the advance 
that has been made in various branches of Horticulture, the exhibitions of this 
fruit has not shown the improvement that was reasonably to have been ex- 
pected. In order to encourage its cultivation, and induce the exhibition of the 
best specimens, two special premiums were placed at the disposition of the > 
Committee by the liberality of two members of the Society. This led to the 
display of some very fine berries, by eight different competitors, of six different 
varieties; among them the new kind, La Constante, and the old favorite, 
Hovey's Seedling, were most conspicuous. The La Constante, introduced by 
Messrs. Hovey, is a magnificent fruit, of great size and beauty, of a fine color, 
and good quality. The Messrs H., who alone have cultivated it to any extent, 
are of opinion that it is hardy, free from the objections that apply to most va- 
rieties of this fruit, of foreign origin, and adapted to general cultivation. 



FRUIT COMMITTEE'S REPORT. 65 

Mr. Scott, of Brighton, brought forward his new seedling, Lady of the Lake, 
in considerable quantities. The Committee visited the grounds of Mr. S. t 
who is one of the best and most extensive cultivators of the Strawberry, and 
saw large beds of this seedling. It is a staminate variety, and seemed to be a 
good bearer ; but Mr. S. said the dry weather had affected the crop. 

Different cultivators have exhibited the past season several Strawberries of 
recent origin ; among others, Downer's Prolific, Cremont's Perpetual, Bunce's 
Seedling, Bonte de St. Julien, Oscar, Austen Seedling, etc., of which for the 
present, the Committee, feeling doubts as to their adaptation to general cul- 
tivation, refrain from expressing an opinion. 

In Belmont, where the Strawberry is more extensively cultivated, perhaps, 
than anywhere else, the growers confine themselves mainly to a few established 
sorts, depending for their crops upon Hovey's Seedling, with the Jenny Lind, 
Boston Pine, or Brighton Pine, as a fertilizer; planting them in the proportion 
of about six of the former to one of the latter, and setting them in single rows 
about four feet apart, and taking but one crop from the same vines, have new 
beds every year. It is believed that this is the most economical method of 
cultivating the Strawberry. The practice of so skilful cultivators as those of 
Belmont is surely entitled to great consideration. Strawberries were first 
shown on June 22d. 

CURRANTS. 

In an experience of about forty years, the last was, as now remembered, the 
first and only season in which this fruit seemed to have met with severe injury ; 
but the past, the blossom-buds seemed to have been in a great measure de- 
stroyed. Still there were some very fine specimens exhibited ; among these, 
La Versaillaise and Dana's Transparent were conspicuous. Mr. Dana's Currant 
is very large, of fine flavor, and is, as stated, a great bearer. Those shown 
were certainly superior. 

There is some confusion in the nomenclature of this fruit, and from the great 
similarity of the different varieties it is not always easy to distinguish the 
different sorts, one fiom the other. The Versaillaise has now been cultivated 
for some years ; it seems to be a distinct variety, and among the most valuable. 
In Europe it is esteemed one of the best, if not the best sort, grown. 

RASPBERRIES. 

So far as the number of exhibitors is concerned, the exhibitions of Rasp- 
berries were infeiior the past season ; no entirely new kinds were shown. The 
Catawissa is now somewhat familiar to cultivators, but does not, judging from 
the number of exhibitors, seem to have acquired much favor ; hardly as much 
as it deserves. It was shown by Mr. Strong the past season, in considerable 
quantities, as late as October 18th. To those desirous of prolonging the season 
for the enjoyment of this fruit, it is thought that the cultivation of this variety 
may be safely recommended. 
5 



66 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

BLACKBERRIES 

4 

Suffered severely the past season, and were only exhibited in comparatively 
small quantities. The canes, when grown luxuriantly, are apt to be killed in 
winter, and need protection. 

•CHERRIES. 

A single Cherry from Randolph, and a small branch with half a dozen black 
mazards from Newburyport, were the only cherries, grown in the open air, ex- 
hibited. The crop was entirely destroyed. Early in the spring the fruit-buds 
looked well, but when the blossoms expanded it was found that the germ of 
the fruit was wholly destroyed, and that only the petals of the flowers opened. 
The injury was not confined to the flower-buds, but extended to those of the 
leaf also, trees showing in most cases no foliage till late in the season, and 
then scantily. For some years the Cherry appears to have been failing, and 
will not probably immediately recover from the effects of the past winter. 

PEACHES. 

There were no Peaches the past year. The trees suffered severely; in 
many instances old trees were killed entirely, and younger ones in their new 
growth. 

PEARS. 

The crop of Pears was very far below an average, but this was to some 
extent compensated by the quality of the fruit produced; that, with respect to 
some varieties, was superior to any before noticed. In the later exhibitions of 
this fruit, especially, the specimens were exceedingly fine and beautiful. The 
character of the past season, measurably free from great and sudden alterna- 
tions of heat and cold ; exemption from severe drought, with a long succession 
of genial warm weather; has betn favorable to the production of this fruit, in 
its highest perfection. The Urbaniste, Marie Louise, Belle Lucrative, Beurre 
d'Anjou, Beurre Langelier, Glout Morceau, Josephine de Malines, with some 
others, have been peculiarly large, fine, and beautiful. 

The fall, too, was of a very favorable character to the trees, warm, dry, and 
free from early frosts, ripening the new wood thoroughly. It was noticeable 
that there was little or no second growth on the Pears the past year, that which, 
from its immature state, is most apt to be injured. As has been previously 
stated, Pear trees were very much injured the past winter, in many instances 
of some kinds particularly, killed or seriously hurt. No new varieties, or such 
as have not previously been reported on, have been submitted to the Com- 
mittee. 



FRUIT COMMITTEE'S REPORT. 67 

GRAPES. 

Grape Vines, when wholly exposed, even in favorable situations, to the in- 
fluences of the last winter, and even when partially protected therefrom, were, 
in most instances, greatly injured; in some, killed to the ground; in others, 
having the leaf and fruit-buds destroyed. Some varieties escaped with less 
injury than others, and among those that the most successfully resisted the 
effects of the weather may be named the Delaware and Hartford Prolific. Out 
of a collection of eight or nine different hardy varieties, these, with the Clinton, 
were the only varieties that escaped serious harm. 

But although the winter was so destructive, the past summer and autumn 
were the most favorable for grapes of any now remembered. The mildew, 
and not the severity of the climate, is the most serious obstacle to the raising 
of grapes. Last season there was no mildew, and varieties thoroughly ripened 
and attained perfect maturity in this vicinity, that rarely, if ever before, were 
produced in the open air, in this condition, even when grown under peculiarly 
favorable circumstances. 

For the first time, in a somewhat lengthened experience, the Isabella seemed 
to attain perfect maturity. It is true that this variety is often shown well 
colored and apparently ripe, but this ripeness has been apparent only, for there 
was a want of the sweetness that belongs to perfectly ripe berries, and even 
this was only attained when grown in favorable situations in cities, where 
shelter was afforded, and the severity of the climate somewhat tempered, while 
this year they have appeared perfectly ripe, even when grown in open ex- 
posures; so that it is felt that the assertion that for the first time this variety 
thoroughly ripened the past season, is warranted. 

From its peculiarly favorable character, opportunity has been afforded the 
past season to form an opinion of the quality of some varieties, when grown in 
favorable climates, and in a state of, or approaching to, perfection; but this 
exceptional character of the year should deter the formation of a favorable 
opinion of the adaptation of such to cultivation; that should be confined to 
those sorts that ripen their fruit in ordinary years, and under a less advan- 
tageous combination of circumstances. 

There have been some new grapes exhibited the past year. Of such, among 
foreign varieties, the Muscat Hamburg, a black grape, with berries of medium 
size, oval shape, rich Muscat flavor, and large bunches, made a very favorable 
impression, and was thought a very fine grape. And the Golden Hamburg, a 
new white grape, with large oval berries, was also considered of good flavor; 
the vines of both varieties being of a vigorous habit. 

Of hardy varieties, for out-door culture, the Committee have had an oppor- 
tunity of tasting of a new seedling of Mr. E. A. Brackett. It was a large round 
black grape, heavy bloom, large bunches, thin skin, little or no pulp, very 
juicy, sweet, and very vinous. Mr. Brackett stated that it was ripe on 10th 
September. This has never been publicly exhibited; a few berries of it were 



68 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

shown by Mr. B. to some of his friends in 1858, the first year of its bearing", 
about the middle of September, who were then very favorably impressed with 
it. This year, when it bore many bunches, Mr. Brackett presented a bunch 
to the Committee; those of them who tasted of it formed the highest opinion 
of its value, and it seemed to them the best and by. far the most promising new 
hardy grape that had been brought to their notice. 

The Committee have also the past season had an opportunity of tasting some 
new seedling hybrids, from Mr. Edward C. Rogers of Salem, produced by 
impregnation of the native grape by the Black Hamburg, Sweetwater, etc. 
It has for some time been generally known that Mr. Rogers had been engaged 
in raising new seedling grapes by means of hybridization. Several of them 
were exhibited by him at the Exhibition of the Essex County Agricultural 
Society, at Newburyport, a few years since, and were mentioned in the Reports 
of that Society of that year, and thus for the first time had attention been 
called to them ; but although this was some time since, they have never been 
submitted to the Committee of the Horticultural Society until this year, and 
thus must be considered new so far as this Society is concerned. These grapes 
were shown by Mr. Rogers at the Annual Exhibition, and presented to the 
Committee on 28th September, distinguished by numbers 1, 4, and 15; and 
again on October 4, when they were in better condition and riper than on the 
former occasion. No. 1 is a large oval white grape, with a slight amber tinge, 
juice somewhat watery, of a peculiar flavor, with a stringy pulp. Tt was pro- 
bably not ripe, and in an unfit condition to be properly judged of. 

No. 4 is a large dark purple, or black, oval grape, with considerable pulp, 
but with a sprightly or vinous juice. 

No. 15 is a large round red or dark amber-colored grape, juicy, with a thin 
skin, tolerably sweet, and very slightly musky, perhaps not quite as vinous as 
No. 4. 

Both Nos. 4 and 15 were, in the opinion of the Committee, good grapes, 
though there was some difference of opinion as to which was entitled to the 
preference. The bunches of all the varieties were of good size. 

No. 15 is very productive; a vine in the garden of Mr. Wm. H. Harrington, 
of Salem, three years planted, ripened the past year two hundred good sized 
bunches. Having seen them but once, and that in a year so exceptional as 
the past, the expression of any further opinion of the merit of these grapes, 
and their suitableness for general cultivation, would be hardly warranted. 

Considered as a purely scientific experiment, that of Mr. Rogers must be 
deemed an eminent success ; his seedlings of the first generation have parted 
with much of the distinctive character of the native variety, and show plainly 
traces of their foreign parentage. Whether he has met with equal success in 
originating varieties that shall, from early ripening and hardiness, be suited to 
the general wants, is yet to be established. It is earnestly hoped that he has. 
He has many sorts other than these named, some, it is believed, that have not 
yet fruited. 



FRUIT COMMITTEE'S REPORT. 69 

Although Dr. Van Mons has taught, and apparently established, a contrary- 
theory — that of improving varieties by raising successive generations of seed- 
lings — and that it may be thought presumptuous to call in question the 
teachings in Pomology from such a source, yet some doubt cannot but be 
entertained that hybridization is in the pursuit of this object, viz., the produc- 
tion of improved varieties, essential to success, and that the raising of suc- 
cessive generations of seedling grapes from a native or wild variety under 
circumstance where admixture of other sorts was impossible, might be pursued 
not for eleven generations, when, according to Van Mons, all the seedlings 
would be good; when the naming of varieties would become unnecessary, and 
propagation by grafting and budding cease, but for double thct number, with- 
out showing any very marked improvement. 

In a climate so austere as that of Massachusetts, it is believed all varieties 
of grapes require protection; that even if some may occasionally escape injury 
when this has been neglected, it cannot be wholly omitted with safety. Much 
attention of late years has been given to the production of new varieties from 
seed, and a hope, if not a belief, indulged, that such attempts would eventuate 
in the production of hardy varieties of good quality, not subject to mildew, 
that would, in ordinary years, attain maturity in free exposures. And some 
persons have, it is believed, even gone so far as to anticipate that grapes 
would become the object of extensive cultivation, and the making of wine a 
regular branch of industry. This may be so, and all their hopes may not be 
destined to prove fallacious. There is certainly reason to think that the list 
of varieties to be recommended for cultivation may soon be enlarged, probably 
by Mr. Brackelt's seedling, Mr. Allen's hybrid ; perhaps by some of those of Mr. 
Rogers, and some others. Beyond this, however, at present, whatever it may 
be hereafter, no great and acknowledged advance has been made. Those old 
favorites, the Isabella, the Diana, and the Delaware, neither of recent, and the 
last of uncertain origin, still seem to maintain their wonted supremacy. x\nd 
other than this, the expectations indulged do not seem, as yet, to have a more 
substantial basis than a hope. That the rocky hill-sides of Massachusetts are 
some day to be covered with vineyards, rivalling in their rich luxuriance of 
foliage and fruit those of France, demands a faith in her capabilities almost 
equal to that necessary to remove mountains, and is a belief not very soon, at 
least as it is thought, to be realized. At all events, for this at present, there 
is none other than an imaginary foundation, and the business of the day is 
with the realities of the time, and not its imaginings. 

It but remains to announce to the Society the award of its premiums. 

JOSEPH S. CABOT, Chairman. 
December 2\st, 1861. 



70 



MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 



PRIZES AWARDED FOR FRUITS DURING THE SEASON. 



For the best and most interesting exhibitions of Fruits during the 

season, the Lowell plate, to Henry Vandine, valued at, 

For the next best, to J. F. Allen, 

For the next best, not awarded, 

For the next best, do. 

Apples. — For the best twelve summer apples, on or before the third 

Saturday in August, not awarded, . 

For the next best, to Frederick Clapp, 

For the next best, to Evers &. Comley, 

For the best twelve autumn apples, on or before the third Saturday 

in November, to Frederick Clapp, . 

For the next best, to Henry Vandine, . 

For the next best, not awarded, 

For the best twelve winter apples, on or before the first Saturday in 

December, not awarded, 

For the next best, to Frederick Clapp, 

For the next best, to James Eustis, 

Apricots. — For the best twelve, on or before the third Saturday in 

August, not awarded, .... 

x For the next best, not awarded, 
Blackberries. — For the best specimens, not less than two boxes, to 
Galen Merriam, ..... 

For the next best, to Bowen Harrington, 

For the next best, not awarded, 

For the next best, do. .... 

Cherries. — For the best specimens, not less than two boxes, not 
awarded, ...... 

For the next best, not awarded, 
For the next best, do. . 

Currants. — For the best specimens, not less than two boxes, to 
J. W. Foster, ...... 

For the next best, to Josiah Stickney, . 
For the next best, to Francis Dana, 
Figs. — For the best twelve specimens, not awarded, 

For the next best, not awarded, 
Gooseberries. — For the best specimens, not less than two boxes 
to A. D. Webber, . . 

For the next best, not awarded, 
For the next best, do. . 



$15 


00 


10 


00 


7 


00 


5 


00 


6 


00 


4 


00 


3 


00 


6 


00 


4 


00 


3 


00 


6 00 


4 


00 


3 00 


3 


00 


2 


00 


5 


00 


4 


00 


3 00 


2 


00 


4 


00 


3 00 


2 00 


3 


00 


2 


00 


1 


00 


3 00 


2 


00 



3 00 
2 00 
1 00 



FRUIT COMMITTER'S REPORT. 



71 






Grapes. — For the best specimens, grown under glass, on or before 

the third Saturday in July, not less than two bunches, to 

R. W. Turner, 

. For the next best, to Mrs. F. B. Durfee, 

For the next best, to G. G. Hubbard, . 

For the best specimens grown under glass, subsequently to th 

third Saturday in July, to R. W. Turner, 

For the next best, to C. E. Grant, 

For the next best, to G. G. Hubbard, . 

For the best specimens of native grapes, not less than six bunches 

to J. V. Wellington, 

For the next best, to George Davenport, 

For the next best, to Ira Cleveland, 

For the next best, to Kendall Bailey, . 

For the next best, to J. Eaton, 

Melons. — For the best Muskmelons, grown under glass, on or before 

the third Saturday in July, to E. M. Richards, 

For the best Muskmelon, open culture, on or before the third 

Saturday in September, to A. D. Webber, 
For the best Watermelon, on or before the third Saturday in Sep 
tember, to Thomas Walsh, . 
Nectarines. — For the best twelve specimens, not awarded 

For the next best, not awarded, 

Peaches. — For the best twelve specimens, grown under glass, on or 

before the third Saturday in July, not awarded, 

For the next best, not awarded, 

For the next best, do. 

For the next best, do. 

For the best collection during the season, not awarded. 

For the best twelve specimens, grown in open culture, not awarded 

For the next best, not awarded, 

For the next best, do. 

For the next best, do. 

Pears. — For the best twelve summer Pears, on or before the third 

Saturday in August, to G. B. Loomis, 

For the next best, to Hovey & Co., 

For the next best, to H. Vandine, 

For the best twelve autumn pears, on or before the third Saturday 

in November, to R. W. Ames, 

For the next best, to J. F. Allen, 

For the next best, to Augustus Parker, 

For the next best, to J. A. Stetson, 

For the best twelve winter pears, on or before the first Saturday in 

December, to Wm. R. Austin, .... 



$8 00 


6 00 


4 CO 


8 00 


6 00 


4 00 


8 00 


6 00 


5 00 


4 CO 



3 00 



3 00 



2 00 



2 00 


3 CO 


2 00 


G 00 


5 00 


4 00 


3 00 


8 00 


6 00 


5 00 


4 00 


3 00 


6 00 


4 00 


3 00 


8 00 


6 00 


4 00 


3 00 



00 



72 



MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 



For the next best, to J. B. Loomis, 
For the next best, to A. J. Dean, 
For the next best, to Warren Heustis, 
Plums. — For the best twelve specimens, not awarded, 
For the next best, not awarded, 
For the next best, do. 
Quinces. — For the best twelve specimens, not awarded, 

For the next best, not awarded, 
Raspberries. — For the best specimens, not less than three boxes 
to J. W. Foster, ..... 

For the next best, not awarded, 

For the next best, do. ... 

For the next best, do. ... 

Strawberries. — For the best display, during the season, to Hovey 
& Co., ...... 

For the best collection, shown at one time, to Hovey & Co., 
For the best specimen, not less than two boxes, to Thomas 
Walsh, ...... 

For the next best, to Wm. H. Barnes, 

For the next best, not awarded, 

For the next Best, do. ... 



$6 00 



00 
00 
00 
00 
00 
00 
00 



4 00 
3^00 

2 00 

1 00 

10 00 
6 00 

5 00 
4 00 

3 00 

2 00 



PRIZES FOR FRUITS AWARDED DURING THE ANNUAL 

EXHIBITION. 

Apples. — For the best twenty varieties, of twelve specimens each, 
the Lyman Plate, to Fredk. Clapp, valued at 
For the next best, not awarded, 
For the next best, do. 
For the best fifteen varieties, of twelve specimens each, not 
awarded, ..... 
For the next best, not awarded, 
For the next best, do. 
For the best ten varieties, of twelve specimens each, not awarded 
For the next best, not awarded, 
For the next best, do. 
For the best five varieties, of twelve specimens each, to A. D 
Williams, ..... 
For the next best, to Bowen Harrington, 
For the next best, to Thos. Walsh, 
For the best dish of apples, twelve specimens of one variety, to 
Fredk. Clapp, .... 

For the next best, to Thos. Heustis, . 
For the next best, to H. Vandine, 
For the next best, to L. J. Livermore, . 



$20 00 


15 00 


12 00 


12 00 


10 00 


8 00 


8 00 


6 00 


5 00 


6 00 


5 00 


4 00 


5 00 


4 00 


3 00 


2 00 



FRUIT COMMITTEE'S REPORT. 



73 



four varieties , to 



pecimens each, to 



each, to W. R 



Peaches. — For the best collection of not more than four varieties, 
not awarded, 
For the next best, not awarded, 
For the next best, do. 
For the next best, do. 
Plums. — For the best collection of not more than 
G. G. Hubbard, 
For the next best, not awarded, 
For the next best, do. 
For the next best, do. 
Pears. — For the best twenty varieties, of twelve s 
Henry Vandine, 
For the next best, to Wm. Bacon, 
For the next best, to Thos. Walsh, 
For the best fifteen varieties, of twelve specimens each, to J 
Haley, .... 
For the next best, to J. Stickney, 
For the next best, to A. D. Williams, . 
For the best ten varieties, of twelve specimens 
Austin, .... 
For the next best, to Jacob Eaton, 
For the next best, to P. R. L. Stone, . 
For the best five varieties, of twelve specimens each, to F. Dana, 
For the next best, to W. P. Butterfield, 
For the next best, to G. A. Mudge, 
For the best dish of pears, twelve specimens of 
D. Williams, 
For the next best, to John Savage, Jr., 
For the next best, to Jacob Eaton, 
For the next best, to Wm. Bacon, 
Grapes, Foreign. — For the best five varieties, two 
Mrs. T. W. Ward, . 
For the next best, not awarded, 
For the next best, to E. S. Rand, 
For the next best, to G. G. Hubbard, . 
For the best two varieties, two bunches each, to W. H. Barnes, 
For the next best, to Hovey & Co., 
For the next best, to C. E. Grant, 
For the next best, not awarded, 
For the best collection, not less than six varieties 
For the next best, to H. S. Mansfield, . 
For the next best, to J. C. Potter, 
For the next best, to J. F. Allen, 



one variety, to A 



bunches each, to 



, to Mrs. Durfee 



#5 00 

4 00 

3 00 

2 00 

5 00 

4 00 

3 00 

2 00 

25 00 
20 00 
16 00 

15 00 
12 00 
10 00 

10 00 

8 00 

6 00 
6 00 

5 00 

4 00 

5 00 
4 00 

3 00 

2 00 

10 00 
8 00 

6 00 

4 00 

5 00 
4 00 

3 CO 
2 00 

10 00 
8 00 

6 00 

4 00 



74 



MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 



Grapes, Native. — For the best specimens, to Geo. Davenport, 
For the next best, to K. Bailey, 
For the next best, to W. C. Strong, 
For the next best, to E A. Brackett, . 
For the next best, to A. Clement, 



. $6 00 


5 00 


. 4 00 


3 00 


2 00 



GRATUITIES AWARDED AT THE WEEKLY EXHIBITIONS. 



To 

a 
u 
a 
u 
a 
a 
u 
a 
u 
tt 
a 
a 
u 
a 
a 
u 
u 
u 
<c 
a 



B. K. Bliss, for seedling gooseberry, 
J. C. Whiton, for native grapes, 
Asa Bullard, grapes, 
J. F. Allen, for nectarines, 

do., for forced peaches, 
G. G. Hubbard, do., 

do., for orchard house fruits 

J. French, for pears, 
J. A. Stetson, for quinces, 
J. F. Allen, for forced cherries, 
Mrs. S. Poole, for figs, 
Wra. Bacon, for pears, 
George Walsh, do., . 
Hovey & Co., do., . 
Francis Dana, do., . 
G. A. Mudge, do., . 
A. Chamberlain, do., . 
Hervey Davis, for grapes, 
Newell Harding, do., . 
Wm. H. Harrington, do., 
W. C. Strong, for raspberries, . 



a Bronze 



$1 00 


3 00 


3 00 


2 00 


2 00 


2 00 


5 00 


2 00 


2 00 


3 00 


Medal. 


4 00 


2 00 


2 00 


2 00 


2 00 


3 00 


2 00 


1 00 


2 00 



2 00 



GRATUITIES AWARDED AT THE ANNUAL EXHIBITION. 



To Hovey & Co., for apples, 








#3 CO 


" S. A. Bemis, do.. . 








2 00 


" Hovey & Co., for pears, 








10 00 


" M. P. Wilder, do., . 








10 00 


" S. Walker, do., . 








. 10 00 


« N. R. Child, do., . 








5 00 


" John Savage, Jr., do., . 








4 00 


" A. C. Thacher, do., . 








5 00 


" S. S. Bucklin, do., . 








3 00 


" M. C. Mason, do., . 








3 00 


" A. J. Dean, do., . 








1 00 


" J. M. Moore, do., . 








1 00 



FRUIT COMMITTEE S REPORT. 



75 



To John Parker, for pears, 
Amos Smith, do., . 

Wm. H. Hunnewell, for peaches, 
James Codman, do., 

Henry Vandine, for plums, 
J. Breck, for grapes, 

J. N. Wellington, do., . 
R. S. Rogers, do., . 



" E. C. Rogers, 


do., . 


< J. C. Whiton, 


do., . 


' B. B. Davis, 


do., . 


' Jacob Eaton, 


do., . 


1 J. B. Clark, 


do., . 


' G. G. Hubbard, 


do., . 


' Francis Dana, 


do., . 



' George Newhall, do., . 



$1 00 

1 00 

2 00 



00 
00 



3 00 
2 00 
2 00 
2 00 
2 00 



00 
00 
00 
00 
00 
00 



76 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 



REPORT OF THE COMMITTEE ON VEGETABLES, 

For the Year 1861. 
BY DANIEL T. CURTIS, CHAIRMAN. 

The present season has been singularly unfavorable to vegetable growth, 
and especially to that department embraced in this report. Early and long- 
continued drouth and an uncommonly cold season tended to keep back the 
growth of early vegetables; the unhappy state of the country, too, distracted 
the cultivator's mind with an uncertainty as to the value of his products, 
which lessened the aggregate labor of the farm and the garden ; and to this 
must be added, the appointment of premiums for the weekly exhibitions came 
a week too early for the peculiarity of the time and season. 

Taking, however, all these untoward circumstances into consideration, our 
contributors deserve more than usual praise for their continued exertions and 
remarkable success, considering the obstacles. 

The new Tree Tomato, for the first time placed on the tables at the weekly 
exhibitions by G. G. Hubbard, Esq., is one that seems to possess the following 
superior qualities : the color is bright clear scarlet, shape very perfect, flesh 
solid and of excellent flavor, fruit growing in rich heavy clusters on a tree- 
like form. It must naturally be earlier, and much more ornamental to the 
kitchen garden if well cultivated and strongly staked, than the older varieties. 
Your Committee must truly commend it for cultivation. 

The new Scarlet Egg Plant, introduced from France, grown by Mr. James 
McTear, and placed on the tables for the first time this season, was indeed a 
beautiful and ornamental variety ; though possessing no merit for culinary 
purposes, (except perhaps for garnishing dishes,) it ripened some of the most 
brilliant and rich scarlet fruit we ever have seen. It should find a place wher- 
ever an ornameni; in the kitchen garden is desired, as we know nothing that 
can surpass it in color and attraction. It being new, and but little known of 
the beauty and durability of its fruit, it did not receive the attention it merited ; 
consequently the fruits exhibited were not so large and fair as we may expect 
to see another season. 

We have reason to feel well satisfied with the general quality of the speci- 
mens exhibited, which was considerably better than was anticipated during 
the early part of the season. 

The money appropriated has been, we hope, judiciously awarded in prem- 
iums and gratuities. 

The Annual Exhibition has rarely, if it has ever, been exceeded for supe- 
riority of the esculent roots placed on our tables. Those who had the satis- 
faction of seeing the products offered, must have felt assured that the interest 
in the vegetable department has not diminished. 



VEGETABLE COMMITTEE'S REPORT. 



77 



The space being limited in a smaller hall than usual, it was impossible to 
make the usual imposing show as to numbers of specimens ; there were fewer 
contributors than in former years ; but what was wanting in quantity was more 
than made up in quality. 

The fine varieties and well-grown specimens of tomatoes exhibited bore 
witness to the estimation in which this vegetable is held by our members. The 
Messrs. Hovey exhibited the Tree tomatoes, well fruited in pots, giving a very 
brilliant effect to their valuable collection ; other contributors exhibited the 
same variety in dishes ; and all were equally attractive, as compared with the 
older varieties. 

The interest taken on these occasions by S. A. Merrill, of the Derby Farms, 
Salem, is very commendable ; and the collection exhibited by him is always 
of great and general interest. 

Messrs. Stone, Harrington, Crosby, Pierce, and many others offered large 
collections and of very many varieties, of great excellence. 

The collection of Peppers grown by F. Burr, Esq., for ornament, presented 
a new feature in this family of plants, and excited much admiration as well as 
curiosity to know how their color and peculiar forms and fruit were produced. 

We cannot conclude this report without returning our thanks to those who 
have contributed so much for our interest and instruction during the past sea- 
son, conferring an equal favor on the Society and the public, and meriting a 
most favorable mention as developing new sources of prosperity and pleasing 
occupation in the community. 

PREMIUMS AWARDED AT THE WEEKLY EXHIBITIONS. 



Asparagus. — For the best, to J. B. Moore, 

For the next best, to James Nugent, . 
Beets. — For the best, to Josiah Crosby, for Turnip Blood, . 

For the next best, to G. W. Pierce, for Turnip Blood, . 

For the next best, to Thomas Walsh, for Bassano, turnip-rooted 
Beans. — For the best Early Shelled, to J. Nugent, 

For the next best, to Abner Pierce, 

For the best Large Lima, to George Leland, . 

For the next best, to Thomas Walsh, 
Cabbages. — For the best, to G. W. Pierce, for Early Ox Heart, 

For the next best, to G. A. Mudge, for Early Wakefield, 
Carrots. — For the best, to J. Crosby, for Short Scarlet, 

For the next best, to G. W. Pierce, for Short Scarlet, . 
Celery. — For the best, to J. Crosby, 

For the next best, to Bowen Harrington, 
Cucumbers. — For the best, under glass, to R. W. Turner, 

For the best, open culture, to Bowen Harrington, 

For the next best, to George W. Pierce, 



#4 00 
3 00 



00 
00 
00 
00 
00 
00 
00 



3 00 

2 00 

3 00 

2 00 

3 00 
2 00 



00 
00 
00 



78 



MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 



Egg Plants — For the best, to J. McTear, for Large Round Purple, 
Lettuce. — For the best, to Thomas Walsh, for Tenuis Ball, 

For the next best, to Bowen Harrington, 
Onions. — For the best, to J. Crosby, 

For the next best, to G. W. Pierce, 
Potatoes. — For the best, to J. Crosby, for Nichols' Early, 

For the next best, to Thomas Walsh, for Dikeman, 

For the next best, to Jonas Gammell, for Dikeman, 

Peas. — For the best, to Thomas Walsh, for Early Dan. O'Rourke, a 

level peck weighing 9 lbs. .... 

For the best Late, to Bowen Harrington, for Victoria Marrow, 
Rhubarb.— For the best, to Barnes & Washburn, for Early Prince 
Imperial, Red Cooking, ..... 

For the next best, to A. D. Webber, for Victoria, 
Squashes. — For the best, to Thomas Walsh, for Early Bush, 

For the next best, to Bowen Harrington, for Early Long warted, 

For the best Late, to Abner Pierce, for Marrow, 
Tomatoes. — For the best, to Thomas Walsh, 

For the next best, to G. W. Pierce, . 

For the next best, to George Leland, . 
Turnips. — For the best, to Jonas Gammell, 

GRATUITIES PREVIOUS TO THE OPENING OF THE HALL. 

To Jonathan French, for forced rhubarb, 
James Bean, for tomatoes, 
Thomas Walsh, for lettuce, 
Josiah Crosby, for lettuce, 
A. Hatch, for asparagus, 
J. B. Moore, for asparagus, 



GRATUITIES FOR THE WEEKLY EXHIBITIONS. 

To Evers & Comley, for fine mushrooms, exhibited at the opening 
of the Hall, 
J. B. Moore, for asparagus, 
Josiah Crosby, for cucumbers, . 
George Leland, for Dan. O'Rourke peas, 
J. B. Moore, for rhubarb, Victoria, 

Bowen Harrington, for do. Seedling, 
W. H. Barnes, for do. Victoria, 

James Nugent, for do. Cahoon, 
G. W. Pierce, for do. Victoria, 

Anthony Hatch, do. Victoria, 

Abner Pierce, for Japan beans, new, . 
E. S. Rand, Jr., for String beans, 



$3 00 



3 00 


2 00 


3 00 


2 00 


4 00 


3 00 


2 00 


4 00 


3 00 


3 00 


2 00 


3 00 


2 00 


3 00 


4 00 


3 00 


2 00 


3 00 


2 00 


2 00 


1 60 


1 00 


2 00 


1 00 



3 00 
1 00 
1 00 

1 00 

2 00 
2 00 
2 00 
2 00 
2 00 
2 00 
1 00 
1 00 



VEGETABLE COMMITTEE S REPORT. 



79 



To Abner Pierce, for Cranberry String beans, 

u Samuel Sweetser, for Stringless bean, 

" E. A. Story, for Early Manley potatoes, 

" Wm. Bacon, for Shelled beans, 

" Josiah Crosby, for Sweet corn, 

" Jonas Gammell, for beets and tomatoes, 

" I. P. Rand, for tomatoes, 

" Bo wen Harrington, for beans and tomatoes, 

" J. J. White, for Large Purple-top turnips, 

" Bo wen Harrington, for Darling's Early Sweet corn, 

" A. D. Webber, for Webber's Hybrid Sweet corn, 

" Abner Pierce, for Sweet corn, 

" Abner Pierce, for Large Lima beans, . 

" Josiah Crosby, for Large Lima beans, . 

" J. B. Moore, for cauliflowers, . 

" G. G. Hubbard, for the first dozen tomatoes of the new Tree va 

riety, very fine, 

" A. W. Spencer, for perfected tomato, . 

" Bowen Harrington, for Burr's Sweet corn, very late in the season 

" Eliphalet Stone, for Garnet Chili potatoes, new, 

" Abner Pierce, for fine Yellow Field corn, 

" James McTear, for Scarlet Egg Plants, one of the deepest scar 

let ornamental vegetables known, new, 



$1 00 



00 
00 



1 00 



00 
00 



1 00 



2 00 

1 00 

2 00 
2 00 

2 00 
1 00 
1 00 
1 00 

3 00 

1 00 

2 00 

2 00 

3 00 

1 00 



PREMIUMS AWARDED AT THE ANNUAL EXHIBITION. 

Beets. — For the best, to J. Crosby, for Long Blood, 

For the next best, to George W. Pierce, for Turnip Blood, 

For the next best, to S. A. Merrill, for Long Blood, 
Carrots. — For the best, to George W. Pierce, for Long Orange, 

For the next best, to D. & Geo. F. Stone, for Long Orange, 
Sweet Corn. — For the best, to Tho's Walsh, for Burr's Improved, 

For the next best, to S. A. Merrill, for Burr's Improved, 

For the next best, to Bowen Harrington, for Burr's Improved, 
Potatoes. — For the best collection, to Bowen Harrington, 

For the next best, to S. A. Merrill, 

For the next best, to E. A. Story, 

For the next best, to Hovey & Co. 
Parsnips. — For the best, to Thomas Walsh, for Long Dutch, 

For the next best, to James Nugent, for Long Dutch, . 

For the next best, to D. & Geo. F. Stone, for Long Dutch, 
SquASHES. — For the best, to S. A. Merrill, for Hubbard, . 

For the next best, to 1). & George F. Stone, for Marrow, 

For the next best, to Bowen Hairington, for Canada, . 

For the next best, to Jcs'uh Crosby, for Marrow, 



00 
00 
00 
00 
00 
00 
00 
00 
00 
00 
00 
00 
00 
00 



2 00 



00 
00 
00 



2 00 



80 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

Turnips. — For the best, to Jonas Gammell, for Purple-top Flat, . $4 00 

For the next best, to Josiah Newhall, for Purple top Flat, . 3 00 

For the next best, to Abner Pierce, for Purple-top Flat, . 2 00 

Tomatoes. — For the best, to Warren Heustis, for Smooth Flat Red, 3 00 

For the next best, to Geo. W. Pierce, for Smooth Round Red, 2 00 

Cauliflowers. — For the best, to George W. Pierce, . 4 00 

For the next best, to S. A. Merrill, . . . . 3 00 

Cabbages. — For the best Drumhead, to S. A. Merrill, . 4 00 

For the next best, to S. W. Hatheway, . . 3 00 

For the next best, to D. & Geo. F. Stone, . . 2 00 

For the best single specimen, to S. A. Merrill, (weight 41 lbs.) 2 00 

Musk Melons. — For the best, to Josiah Crosby, for Green-flesh, . 4 00 
For the next best, to A. D. Webber, for Webber's Golden 

Beechwood, . . . . . 3 00 

For the next best, to Bowen Harrington, for French Nutmeg, . 2 00 

Water Melons. — For the best, to Thomas Walsh, for Mountain 

Sweet, . . . . . . 4 00 

Mammoth Squash. — For the best, to A. D. Webber, weight 151 

pounds, ..... Society's Silver medal. 

For the next best, to C. N. Bracket, 112£ pounds, . . 3 00 

Pumpkins. — For the best, to Anthony Hatch, . Society's Silver medal. 

For the next best, to Bowen Harrington, . . 3 00 

GRATUITIES AWARDED AT THE ANNUAL EXHIBITION. 

To George W. Pierce, for extra fine Curled Endive, . 2 00 

" Bowen Harrington, for collection, . . . 5 00 

" R. S. Rogers, for fine cauliflowers, . . . 2 00 

" D. & George F. Stone, for collection, . . . 5 00 

" G. G. Hubbard, for collection, . . . 3 00 

" John Ruggles, for Large Lima beans, . . 1 00 

" George Newhall, for Perfected tomatoes, . . 1 00 

" S. S. Bucklin, for three varieties of Egg Plants in pots, . 3 00 

" James Comley, for collection of squashes, . . 2 00 

" Samuel Kneeland, 3d, for collection, . . . 2 00 

" J, C. Potter, for celery, . . . . 1 00 

" Josiah Crosby, for collection, . . . . 4 00 

" I. P. Clark, for tomatoes, . . . . - 1 00 
" Darius GotT, Pawtucket, for superior cultivated cranberries, 

the ..... Society's Silver medal. 

" Joseph Palmer, for Mammoth tomatoes, . . 1 00 

" F. Stimson, for Tobacco plant, . . . 2 00 

" Frederick Clapp, for Indian corn, . . . 1 00 

" James Nugent, for beets and tomatoes, . . 1 00 

" James McTear, for collection, . . . 2 00 



VEGETABLE COMMITTEE'S REPORT. 



81 



To 



S. A. Merrill, for collection, . 

C. N. Brackett, for collection, 

John Wright, for squashes, (grown on Warren Bridge, 

Francis Dana, for squashes, 

Jonas Gammell, for Hubbard and Marrow squashes, 

W. H. Barnes, for Mammoth squash, . 

Hovey & Co., for Tree tomatoes in pots, (new,) 

Hovey & Co., for colled ion, 

Abner Pierce, for collection, . 

Isaac Pratt, for squashes, 

A. D. Webber, for splendid exhibition of six Mammoth squashes 

grown on one vine, aggregate weight of the six, 695^ lbs. 
Thomas Walsh, for collection, 
Anthony Hatch, for collection, 
Josiah Newhall, for collection, 
J. T. Beal, for fine pumpkin, . 
David Lane, for collection, 
George A. Mudge, for collection, 
I. P. Rand, for collection, 
Fearing Burr, for Pepper plants, 





. $5 00 




4 00 




3 00 




2 00 




2 00 




1 00 




3 00 




5 00 




2 00 




1 00 


squashes 


3 


i lbs, 


4 00 




3 00 




4 00 




3 00 




1 00 




2 00 




2 00 




2 00 




2 00 



82 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

REPORT OF THE COMMITTEE ON THE LIBRARY, 

For the Year ending Dec. 31, 1861. 
BY EDWARD S. RAND, JR., CHAIRMAN". 

The past year, though unfavorable for horticulture, has shown an increasing 
interest in the Library of the Society. The reading room has been in constant 
use, and the members have freely exercised their privilege of taking books 
from the Library. 

Meetings of the Committee have been regularly held at the Library Room 
on the second Wednesday of each month, in which much interest has been 
taken by the members of the Committee, and much business conducive to the 
prosperity and increase of the Library been transacted. Early in January the 
annual examination of the Library showed no discouraging feature, the books 
being all in good condition, with the exception of a few which needed re- 
binding. 

The increase of books has only been limited by the expenditure of the ap- 
propriation, which has all been devoted to the purchase of new books or to 
completing imperfect sets. The money has been judiciously expended, and 
by availing ourselves of favorable opportunities for purchasing, the Society is 
now in possession of valuable works worth far more than the cost. 

The Committee regret to say, there seems to be, with many members of the 
Society, a want of appreciation of the value of a large and well selected hor- 
ticultural library. Many grudge the money appropriated for this purpose, los- 
ing sight of the fact, now well established, that one of the best investments 
which can be made is in valuable and well- selected books. The thousands of 
dollars annually expended in prizes for fruits, flowers and vegetables, are pro- 
ductive of far less real benefit to the members of the Society than the five 
hundred dollars annually devoted to the increase of the Library. 

The fund available for the purchase of books has, during the past two years, 
been much reduced by the large bills for binding, which have of necessity 
been incurred. When your Committee, some two years since, took charge of 
the Library they found matters in anything but a promising condition ; for six- 
teen years there had been few, if any, meetings of the Library Committee ; 
there was no oversight of the Library save that bestowed by the faithful libra- 
rian, to whose care alone the Society owes the preservation of the many valu- 
able books with which the generosity and forethought of former members had 
endowed it. The Library was in fact a dead thing; an appropriation of about 
one hundred dollars was annually made, but it was never devoted to the in- 
crease of the Library, and but few books were added, and those mostly the 
gradual increase caused by binding up magazines. Your Committee find that 
in former days some foreign horticultural periodicals were taken by the Society, 



LIBRARY COMMITTEE'S REPORT. 83 

but the sets were incomplete and it will require much diligence to render them 
perfect ; this your Committee are endeavoring to do. If the appropriation 
during the twenty years anterior to 1860 had been devoted to the increase and 
improvement of the Library, we should now have a collection of horticultural 
books unsurpassed in value and number ; as it is, there are private libraries 
which excel us in this respect. The renovation of the Library, and bringing 
it to a position of usefulness, was not to be done in a year, but during the past 
two years it has been gradually improving, until now your Committee are able 
to say it has reached a position of great usefulness, from which we trust it will 
never be allowed to fall. The reading room, which a year since could only 
be considered an experiment, has been of great advantage, and we recommend 
it be considered a permanent institution. Some of the periodicals taken dur- 
ing the year 1860 have been discontinued the present year, as your Committee 
deemed them of little value or found they were not read; others which seemed 
desirable have been added, but these changes have been few, and the list of 
domestic periodicals remains very much the same with that given in the Libra- 
ry Report for 1860, to be found on the sixty eighth page of the Transactions 
of the Society for that year. 

But few foreign periodicals have been added to the list given last year, 
owing to a want of funds ; but all then taken have been continued, and un- 
bound volumes have been placed upon the shelves in handsome, substantial, 
and serviceable binding. 

It was deemed unnecessary to bind all the domestic periodicals ; many are 
of fleeting interest, and some not worth the expense of binding. It is, how- 
ever, believed that all of permanent value have been bound ; others remain on 
file, open to the examination of members on application to the librarian. The 
many rare and valuable books in the possession of the Society have all been 
added to the "List of Books not to be taken from the Library Room." This 
list has thus been greatly increased ; the wisdom of this step is evident; there 
are many works which, if lost or injured, no money could replace, and the 
chances of loss or damage are greatly increased by allowing them to be in 
general circulation ; others are too bulky to be taken from the room, and others 
are sets or portions of sets, of which the loss of one volume would irreparably 
injure the whole set. These volumes may at any time be taken out by special 
vote of the Library Committee, application being made in writing at any regu- 
lar monthly meeting. The rules of the Library have, during the past year, 
been revised and some important changes made. The fines imposed for re- 
taining books beyond the specified time have been collected, and may amount 
to a considerable sum ; this money will be devoted to the increase of the 
Library. 

Your Committee are glad to state that the Second Volume of Audubon's 
Birds, supposed to be lost, has been returned ; a new copy of Volume II. of 
Illustration Horticole, of Vol. 15 of The Cottage Gardener, and of Bigelow's 
Plants of Boston, have been procured, so that thus two imperfect sets are ren- 



84 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

dered complete. In this connection it may not be inappropriate to refer to 
what is, perhaps, the greatest addition made to the Library during the past 
year. The set of Curtis's Botanical Magazine was incomplete by the whole 
of the second series and several odd volumes, and, on account of the rarity of 
the volumes wanting, it was deemed impossible ever to complete the set. 

Through the exertions of a member of the Committee, and by means of that 
gentleman's foreign correspondence, all the missing volumes have been ob- 
tained, and are now in suitable binding upon the Library shelves. The value 
of this addition cannot well be over-estimated ; in addition to procuring a 
series of rare and valuable works, we complete our set, thus more than doubl- 
ing the value of those volumes we already possessed. 

During the past year two vacancies have occurred in the Committee ; one 
caused by the expulsion of Mr. Wm. A. Harris from the Society, the other by 
the resignation of Mr. J. Otis Williams, who had acted most acceptably as 
Secretary of the Committee, he having received a military appointment. 
These vacancies were filled at the quarterly meeting of the Society, in July, 
by the choice of George W. Pratt, Esq., in place of Mr. Harris, and of John 
Lothrop, Esq., in place of Mr. Williams ; Mr. Lothrop was also elected Secre- 
tary of the Committee, which post he now fills. 

As there may be many books which should be in the Society's Library, but 
which may not come under the notice of the Committee, notices of such 
books may be handed to the Librarian, and they will be added to the Library 
as the funds may permit, at the discretion of the Committee. Your Committee 
would again call the attention of the Society to the importance of providing a 
fire-proof library room. Should our Library be destroyed by fire the loss 
would be irreparable ; and no insurance could make good our loss. During 
the last summer, by the burning of a neighboring building, we were in some 
danger. This end can only be obtained by the erection of a neAv hall by the 
Society, for which your Committee trust early measures will be taken by the 
Society. Your Committee would also suggest to the Society, the inexpedien- 
cy of confining the purchase of books to those solely treating on Horticulture, 
but would recommend that the Library be so extended as to embrace other 
branches of Natural History, connected with botanical research, such as Zool- 
ogy, Ornithology, Entomology, &c. 

The following works have been added to the Library during the past year, 
from the Library fund, many of them works of rarity and value and elegantly 
illustrated : — 

Volumes 1, 2, and 3, of the Natural History of the United States, by Louis 
Agassiz ; presented by George W. Pratt, Esq. 

American Cyclopaedia, Vol. II. 

Transactions of the Royal Agricultural Society, Vol. 20. 

Address before the Essex Agricultural Society, by J. Lewis Russell. 

Transactions of the New York State Agricultural Society, for 1859. 

Transactions of the Linnsean Society; 2J vols., quarto, beautifully illustrated. 

Andrews' Heaths; fine colored plates, 6 vols. 



LIBRARY COMMITTEE'S REPORT. 85 

Bacon's Sylva Sylvarum. 

Henderson's Illustrated Bouquet, 2 vols. ; superb plates of new flowers. 

Loudon's Suburban Gardens. 

Langstroth on Bees. 

Johnson's Agricultural Chemistry. 

Sibson's Agricultural Chemistry. 

How to Farm Profitably. 

Book of the Exhibition of the Maryland Institute, for 1860; presented. 

Discourse before the Sons of Liberty in New York ; presented. 

Proceedings of the American Pomological Society, for the year 1860 ; pre- 
sented by Marshall P. Wilder, Esq. 

Bigelow's Plants of Boston. 

Wood's Practical Botany. 

New American Cyclopaedia, Vol. 12. 

Hortus Lindenianus, 1859 and 1860. 

Lessons in Botany, by Asa Gray. 

Manual of Botany, by Asa Gray. 

Gray's Structural and Systematic Botany. 

How Plants Grow, by Asa Gray. N 

New American Cyclopaedia, Vol. 13. 

Patent Office Report, Agriculture, 1860; presented. 

Curtis's Botanical Magazine, from 1823 to 1852; completing the set. 

Report of the Survey for the Pacific Railroad ; 13 volumes large quarto, a 
full set; beautifully illustrated and of great value. 

Piscatorea Iconographie des Orchidees ; one of the most superb works ever 
published ; beautifully illustrated ; Vol. 1, large folio. 

Explorations in Valley of Salt Lake, by Stansbury. 

Illustration Horticole, Vol. 2. 

Volume 4th, Jardin Frutier. 

Birds of America, by Baird and Cassin ; 2 vols, quarto, with fine colored plates. 

Flint's Milch Cows and Dairy Farming. 

Classification of the Coleoptera of North America, by John Le Conte ; part 
I. ; presented. 

Your Committee, in conclusion, are able to report the condition of the 
Library as highly satisfactory, and, pleased and encouraged by the interest 
taken, they enter upon another year with new interest and renewed zeal, trust- 
ing in time to make the Library of the Society creditable to and co-extensive 
with the high position and reputation of the Society. 

Edward S. Rand, Jr., Chairman. 
Geo. W. Pratt, 
Wm. H. Spooner, Jr., 
R. M. Copeland, 
John Lathrop. 



86 



MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 



REPORT OF THE FINANCE COMMITTEE. 



Receipts for 1861 
By cash in treasury, Dec. 31, 1860, 



" Dividends from stocks, 

" Assessments collected, 

" Receipts from Mount Auburn, 

" Rents collected and items, 

" Receipts from Annual Exhibition, 

" Interest from Parker's note, . 



$940 83 



INCOME. 

1,544 00 

912 30 

5,022 54 

221 04 

241 75 

3,600 00 



" Spring Exhibition, 63.50; donation from members, 132.00, 
" Legacy from the late Hon. B. V. French, (invested,) . 



Payments for 1861. 

expenses. 

To premiums and gratuities, . . . 2,765 00 

" Salaries, $650 ; Chairmen of Committees, #200, 850 00 

" Printing and advertising, . . . 455 05 

" Portraits and frames, ... 869 70 

" Library, ($419.84 belonging to last year,) . 1,019 88 

" Special awards and compensation, (Kenrick) . 485 00 

" Expenses of Annual Exhibition . -. 614 64 

" Rents, ..... 1,550 00 

u Mechanics' and miscellaneous bills, . . 971 94 

" Mount Auburn Catacombs, $500; Water- works, $1500, (extra 
expenditure), ...... 

" Donation to Soldiers' fund, ..... 

" Five shares Western Railroad stock, ($500 of it French fund, 
investment), ...... 

" Cash in treasury, Dec. 31, 1861, .... 



11,541 63 
195 50 
500 00 

,i3,177 96 



9,581 21 

2,000 00 
195 50 

564 50 
836 75 



$13,177 96 



Property of the Society. 

Amount invested in the Massachusetts Hospital Life Insurance 
Company, (permanent), ..... 
Being the donations of 



4,000 00 



FINANCE COMMITTEE S REPORT. 



87 



Josiah Bradlee, Esq., 
Theodore Lyman, Esq., 
Samuel Appleton, Esq., 
John A. Lowell, Esq., 



1,000 00 
1,000 00 
1,000 00 
1,000 00 

4,000 00 






Amount of the legacy of the late Hon. Benj. V. French, of $500, 
in A. D. 1860, invested in five shares of Western Railroad, cost 

Amount of the legacy of the Hon. Theodore Lyman, invested in 
1st Mortgage Bonds of the Connecticut and Passumpsic Rivers 
Railroad, $4,500 ; 6 shares of Boston and Maine Railroad, and 
53 shares of the Boston and Worcester Railroad, 

20 shares of Saco and Portsmouth Railroad, 

10 shares Boston and Maine Railroad, ? 

65 shares Fitchburg Railroad, ) 

Library, $2500 ; furniture and glass, $2500, 

H. D. Parker's note, secured by mortgage, 

Cash on hand, December 31, 1861, 



Boston, Dec. 31, 1861. 



564 50 



10,000 00 
2,000 00 

7,500 00 

5,000 00 

60,000 00 

836 75 



Josiah Sticknet, 
C. O. Whitmore, 
Marshall P. Wilder, 



#89,901 25 



Finance Com. 



88 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 



ADDRESS OF JOSEPH BRECK, ESQ., 

PRESIDENT OE MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY, 

January 4, 1862. 

Gentlemen : 

I enter upon the duties of the Presidency of the Massachusetts Horticul- 
tural Society for a fourth term, contrary to my expectations and wishes, as 
expressed a year since, and up to the time of my nomination in September. 

It was the opinion of the committee of nomination and other influential 
members that the interests of the Society would be promoted by my continu- 
ance in office another year. 

The interests of the Society and not my personal feelings induced me to 
accept the nomination, which resulted in my election ; and now I come before 
you once more on the commencement of a new year, to thank you for this re- 
newed expression of your confidence, wishing you at the same time happiness 
and prosperity in our mutual labors and efforts to promote the objects for which 
we are associated together. 

The past year will long be remembered, not only on account of the dark 
political aspects of the country, and the horrors of civil war, which has raged 
with such fearful violence in some sections of our land ; but particularly by 
horticulturists, in the strange and sudden changes of the weather, which have 
been the causes of almost a total failure of nearly every variety of fruit. 

Consequently, with one of the most favorable seasons ever known for the 
perfection of the pear, peach, grape and othei fruits, we have to record a year 
of barrenness and deficiency unparalleled in our horticultural experience. 

The peculiarities of the season, and its effect upon fruit and fruit trees, have 
been so ably discussed in the report of the Fruit committee, which will soon 
she published and placed in your hands, that it will not be necessary for me to 
make any further allusions to it. It will add much to the value of future 
publications of this committee, if this practice should be continued, and, if 
; possible, enter more minutely into all the details of the season, which, as such 
reports are generally read with much interest by members of the Society, will 
be important documents for reference in future years. 

It appears from the records of the Society that we have not made any prog- 
ress as to the increase of its members the past year, but the number has 
diminished. Eight life and fourteen annual members have been added, while 
six life and six annual members have deceased, and twenty-two have discon- 
tinued their membership, a diminution of twelve. The present number is 245 
life and 326 annual members. Total 571. 



PRESIDENT BRECK's ADDRESS. 89 

Most of the discontinued members are those who have failed to pay their 
subscriptions, in consequence of change of place, inability, or indifference, 
and in some instances, perhaps, those who have enlisted in defence of the 
country, and are now at the seat of war. If there be any of this last class, I 
trust the Society will continue them members, notwithstanding the non-pay- 
ment of their subscriptions. 

The only case of expulsion, on record, occurred the last year. It is to be 
hoped that no case will ever occur again in our Society, where such severity 
will be necessary ; but acts of such flagrant immorality and crime as were 
committed by the individual expelled, cannot be passed over in silence. 

The Executive committee have been authorized to make inquiries in rela- 
tion to any lot of land or estate that may be in market, that can be purchased 
on favorable terms, which may be suitable for a site to erect a convenient 
building for the accommodation of the Society. As real estate is somewhat 
depressed at the present time and may further recede in value, it is thought 
advisable to be upon the look out for any favorable opportunity for investment 
that may occur. But as we are at present well accommodated, there is no 
necessity for any movement, unless there is a prospect of great advantage to 
the Society. 

The committee on the publication of the History and Transactions of the 
Society are making progress in that work. They have appointed the Rev. 
Luther Farnham editor, with whom they have had numerous meetings ; fur- 
nishing him with much material for the work. The introductory part, with 
the history of the formation of the Society, is already written ; subject, how- 
ever, to some revision by the committee. The committee have been some- 
what embarrassed by the loss of the first volume of the Records of the Society, 
which has mysteriously disappeared and cannot be found. The loss may not 
materially impede the progress of the work, as the records of the early trans- 
actions of the Society were published in the New England Farmer, by Mr. 
John B. Russell, and afterwards by Mr. Hovey, in his Magazine of Horticul- 
ture. It is, however, very desirable to have the original records ; and the 
committee are confident they will yet be found, as they have authorized the 
Recording Secretary to advertise the loss. 

The importance of this history is more and more apparent to the committee 
as they look back to the origin of the Society thirty-three years since, and 
note the small number of persons now living who took part in the formation of 
the Society, who are able to furnish such facts as are desirable to embody in 
the work, which, if it had been much longer delayed, would have been lost. 
The amount appropriated for this object was $1000; not any of it has yet 
been drawn from the treasury. 

The Society appropriated the liberal sum of $1000 to be expended by a 
committee in procuring the portraits of all the past presidents of the Society, 
including the present incumbent. The committee discharged that duty to the 
satisfaction of the Society, within the amount granted, including the framing. 



90 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

The portraits of those living, speak for themselves, and do great credit to the 
artists employed. Those who were acquainted with Gen. Dearborn are unan- 
imous in their expressions of satisfaction as to the perfect correctness of his 
likeness. It was copied from a painting belonging to the family. It is very 
gratifying to the members of the Society to be able to look upon the face of 
one who did more than any other individual in laying the foundation of the 
Society, and in giving it its first great impulse. 

The artist who executed the portrait of our beloved Walker was equally 
successful. When it is considered that he had nothing for a guide but a 
coarse photograph, it is a marvel that he should have produced such a life-like 
picture, that almost appears ready to speak as we gaze upon it. The portrait 
of Mr. Cook does not give so good satisfaction to the few who knew him, 
although it is a correct copy of a family picture. The painting of Mr. Vose 
may be considered pretty good. It was copied from a small miniature on 
ivory, and to some who were well acquainted with him is not judged to be a 
very striking likeness. 

The amount appropriated for the various committees, to be expended in their 
several departments for the present year, is very liberal, amounting to the sum 
of $3200. The Executive committee in recommending, and the Society in 
voting this amount, have confidence that the committees will make a judicious 
disposition of the several sums placed to their credit, and not feel it to be their 
duty to expend the whole amount, unless in their judgment the interest of the 
Society demands it. We are spending a little too freely, notwithstanding the 
large income we receive, and possibly, instead of increasing our capital, we 
may find it to be diminishing. I hope the report of the Finance committee 
will not show this to be a fact. The income from Mount Auburn ought to be 
sufficient to meet our current expenses, while the income from other sources 
should be added to the capital, that we may be fully prepared for the erection 
of a new hall when the proper time arrives. 

The accumulation of our funds has been checked the present year by the 
amount appropriated for the improvements at Mount Auburn, consisting of a 
number of beautiful fountains, supplied from a reservoir on the hill, to which 
the water is forced from one of the ponds by a steam engine. A large space 
of land formerly unavailable for lots has been filled with gravel ; a circular 
reservoir has been made, surrounded by a beautiful lawn, and from this reser- 
voir springs the principal fountain. These improvements add much to the 
interest and value of this part of the Cemetery. The amount voted by our 
Society was $1500, which will all be returned to us again, with interest, at 
some future time ; for the increased value of the lots contiguous will much 
more than balance the outlay. 

In addition to the water works, appendages, and their improvements, the 
Trustees of Mount Auburn have in progress the construction of ranges of cat- 
acombs, which will involve considerable expense before they are completed. 
Five hundred dollars has already been paid out by our treasurer toward this 



PRESIDENT BRECK's ADDRESS. 91 

improvement, and as we shall receive our proportion of the amount of sales 
from the catacombs, the same as in the lots, we shall have to pay our propor- 
tional part of the cost, whatever that may be. No further sum has yet been 
called for, from the Trustees of Mount Auburn, for this purpose, and perhaps 
no more will be wanted this season. 

By deducting the $2000 from the receipts from Mount Auburn of the income 
of 1860 for these improvements; the sum expended for portraits; the expense 
of keeping an open library; and two years' bills of the Library committee, 
which will be found in the Treasurer's account of last year, it will appear 
that no addition has been made to our available funds. But by adding the 
French fund of five hundred dollars, and by estimating the library at an ad- 
vanced value of 500 dollars more, as it will appear in the report of the Finance 
committee, it will be perceived that our property of all descriptions has ad- 
vanced in value, short of $1000. But for two years we have not invested a 
single dollar, unless the expenditures at Mount Auburn may be considered as 
such. 

A motion has been made, to alter the day of our Weekly Exhibitions from 
Saturday to Wednesday, and from 2 o'clock to 4 P. M., instead of the usual 
hours. I hope no such alteration will be made, for in case this were done 
the By-laws of the Society must necessarily be altered, so that our meetings 
for business may take place on the same day, or we shall be obliged to meet 
occasionally twice a week. The course we have pursued from the foundation 
of the Society without any inconvenience, I think may be safely continued for 
another third of a century, unless the Society are to be greatly benefited by 
the change. I believe it will be for the interest and convenience of the Soci- 
ety to continue to have our exhibitions on Saturday. 

Among other objects of interest which were brought to the notice of the 
public at our Weekly Exhibitions, during the summer season, were the exten- 
sive collections of native plants, correctly labelled with their scientific names. 
This class of plants belong more appropriately to the province of the Natural 
History Society, but a knowledge of botany is important, if not necessary, to 
the horticulturist. Although not very attractive to a majority of visitors, others 
duly appreciate their value and importance, and would be much gratified to 
have a continuance of such exhibitions, which should receive suitable encour- 
agement. 

In consequence of the scarcity of fruit and other considerations, the Annual 
Exhibition was held in our own hall, with the addition of a large room below 
for vegetables, and a portion of the library room for grapes. The unrivalled 
display of vegetables, and magnificent show of grapes ; the collection of 
beautiful, rare, and curious plants arranged in the centre of the hall ; together 
with the large masses of cut flowers, compensated in some measure for the 
profusion of pears, apples, peaches, and other fruits which have on former 
similar occasions been so prominent. 



92 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

The exhibition was very interesting, much better than was anticipated, and 
gave general satisfaction to the members, as well as to others who witnessed it. 

In resuming the duties of the chair, I have no important suggestions to make 
in relation to the future operations of the Society, except that we must exer- 
cise greater economy in our expenditures, be faithful in all the trusts committed 
to us, and wait with patience for the return of more prosperous times. A dark 
cloud hangs over our country; a furious storm is raging; we are convulsed 
with a fearful civil war. It has already deranged the business of individuals 
and corporations ; it seriously affects all ranks and conditions of men. 

We do not yet see the fury of the tempest abating. But we trust the storm 
will speedily pass away, followed by the glorious dawning of a peaceful day, 
more brilliant than the world has ever witnessed. This is our hope; and we 
confidently believe that the over-ruling Providence of God will bring it to 
pass. 



MEMBERS FOR LIFE. 



93 



MEMBERS 



OF THE 



MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 



A # DENOTES THE MEMBER AS DECEASED. 



MEMBERS FOR LIFE. 






ft- 



*Adams, Daniel, Newbury. 
\ Adams, George E., Medford. 

Allen, John Fisk, Salem. 

Amory, Charles, Boston. 

Amory, James S., " 

Andrews, Frank W. " 

Andrews, W. T., " 

Andros, Milton, Brookline. 
# Appleton, Nathan, Boston. 
* Armstrong, Samuel T., Boston. 
)( Aspinwall, Augustus, Brookline. 

Austin, William R., Dorchester. 

<r "Babbitt, Iaaile? — Bootom < 
■ Bailey, Edwin C. " 
X Bailey, John P., " 

Barnard, James M., " 
tf Barnard, Rev. C. F., " 

Barnes, William H., Roxbury. 
*Bartlett, E., Newburyport. 

Barrows, Thomas, Dedham. 

Bates, John D., Boston. 

Bemis, Amory, Cambridge. 
< Blagg, Samuel, Wallham. 

Blake, George B., Brookline. 
# Blodgett, J. W., Boston. 
•^ Bond, George W., Roxbury. 
y Bouve, Th. T., Boston. 

Bowditch, A. C, " 
X* Bowditch, J. Ingersoll, Roxbury. 



Brackett, C. N., Newton. 
Bradford, Samuel D., W. Roxbury. 
X Bradlee, J. B., Boston. 
*Bradlee, Joseph P., " 
# Bradlee, Josiah, " 
X Breed, Andrew, Lynn. 
X Breed, Henry A., " 

# Brewer, Eliab Stone, Roxbury. 
y Brewer, Gardner, Boston. 
X Brewer, John Reed, " 
X* Brewer, Otis, Roxbury. - 
*Brewer, Thomas, Boston. 
% Bright, Jona. B., Waltham. 
X Brown, Ebenezer, Lynn. 
X Brooks, J. W., Milton. 

Burr, Fearing, Jr., Hingham. 
Burr, M. H., " 

Cadness, John, New York. 
X; Carruth, Ch., Boston. -~ 
X Carruth, Nathan, Dorchester. 

*Chapman, Jona., Boston. 
X Chase, Hezekiah, Lynn. 
yc Chase, Hezekiah, South Boston. 

Chase, Wm. M., Worcester. 
X Childs, N. R.. Dorchester. 
X, Chruickshank, James, Maiden. 

# Clapp, Thaddeus, Dorchester. 
K Clark, W. L., Neponset. 
X, Clapp, Frederick, Dorchester. 









94 



MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 



\ 

K 



Clement, Asa, Dracut. Foster, J. W., Dorchester. 

Cleveland, Ira, Dedham. # French, Benj. V., " 

# Codman, John, Dorchester. VC French, Jonathan, Roxbury. 

Coffin, G. Winthrop, West RoxbuKy^-FYothmghaLm. S. C, Boston. — 
Collamore, G. W., Boston. X" Fuller, Henry Weld, Roxbury. 



Comer, G. N., Newton. 
Comerais, Henry, Dedham. 
Copeland, R. M'Cleary, Boston. 
Copeland, R. Morris, Lexington. )< 
% Courtis, William, Marblehead. 
X Crafts, Ebenezer, Roxbury. 
NC Crocker, Uriel, Boston. 

# Crowninshield, George C, Boston. 
«< Cummings, John, Jr., " 

-*t— Cushing, Thomas T., " 



# Gaffield, James, Gloucester. 

Gage, Addison, West Cambridge. 

Gardner, W. F., Salem. 
# Gibson, Kimball, Boston. 
# Gilmore, Addison, " 

Greig, George, Newton. 

Grinnell, Joseph, New Bedford. 
X Groom, Thomas, Dorchester. 

Grundell, H. — " 



X Daggett, H. L., Boston. 
K Dana, Ch. B., Brookline. 
X Dana, Nathaniel, " — 

# Decker, Louis, Boston. — 
X Dennie, Daniel, Dorchester. 

*Denny, George, Westborough. 
X Denny, R. S., Dorchester. -» 
X Dexter, G. M., Boston. 



# Hall, Adin, Boston. 

# Harris, William T., Cambridge. 

^Hastings, Edmund T., Boston. 

Hay den, A. W., Portsmouth. 
# Hedge, Isaac L., Plymouth. 
"< Hazeltine, H., Boston. 

Holbrook, C. S., E. Randolph. 

Hollis, J. W., Brighton. 



Dickinson, Alexander, Cambridgeport. Hooper, John, Jr., Marblehead. 



X Downer, Samuel, Dorchester. 
X Duncklee, John, Brighton. 

Durfee, Mrs. F. B., Fall River. 
# Durfee, Geo. B., " 

Durfee, Nathan, " 

*Ed wards, Elisha, Springfield. 
X Eldridge, E. H., Boston. 

.% Eliot, Samuel A., " 
VC Everett, Otis, " 



Hooper, Robert C, Boston. 

Hovey, C. M., Cambridge. 

Hovey, P. B., Cambridgeport. 
X Howe, George, Roxbury. 

*Howe, Hall J., South Boston. 
X Howe, Jabez C, Boston. 
>C Howe, John, Brookline. 
X Howland, Henry, Maiden. 

Howland, John, Jr., New Bedford. 
X' Hubbard, G. G., Cambridge. 
,X Hubbard, W. J., Boston. 

^Huckins, James W., Roxbwy. 
X Humphrey, F. J., Dorchester. 
Xf Hunnewell, H. H., West Needham. 



*Fairbanks, H. P., Charlestown. 
X Fairbanks, Stephen, Boston* 
X Fearing, Albert, " 

# Fenno, John, Chelsea. 
X Fisher, Daniel Simmons, Roxbury. # Jones, C. F., Roxbury. 
X Fisher, Warren, " # Jones, Thomas, Boston. 

*Fiske, Oliver, Worcester. X Johnson, Otis, Lynn. 

^ Foster, John H., Boston. 






/I 



MEMBERS FOR LIFE 



95 



Kendall, D. S., Boston. 

Kenney, John M., Wareham. 

Kimball, A. P., Boston. 
% King, Edward, Dorchester. 
X King, Franklin, " 
X King, William S., Roxbury. 
X Kingsbury, Wm. B., " 
X Kinsley, Lyman, Cambridgeport. 
fc Kittredge, E. A., Boston. 

*%> Lamb, Thomas, Boston. 
X Lawrence, James, " 
^ Lawson, Peter, Dracut. 
$ Leavens, S. Davis, Boston. 

Jjee, George, Watertown. 
X Leland, George, Waltham. 

Leuchars, R. B., Quincy. 

Lewis, A. S., Framingham. 

Lewis, Wra. G., " 

Lincoln, Levi, Worcester. 
*Lincoln,William, " 

Lincoln, D.Waldo, " 
# Loyd, James, Boston. 
>'■ Lodge, Giles H., " 

Lombard, I., " 
V Lothrop, Ed. W., Chelsea. 

Lovett, G. A., Beverly. 

Lowder, John, Watertown. 

Luke, Elijah H.. Cambridgeport. 
X Lyon, Henry, Charlestown. 

X Mann, Jonathan, Cambridge. 
X Manning, Joseph, Medford. 
Manning, Robert, Salem. 
Mansfield, H. S., Blackslone. 
X Marsh, Francis, Dedham. — 
Marland, A., Andover. -—~ 
*Marsh, Andrew S., Roxbury. 
X Martin, J. S., Boston. 

*Martin, Richard T., " — . 
*% May, Samuel, " 

H Merriam, Charles, West Newton 

Merrifield, W. T., Worcester. 
X Mills, Charles H., Boston. ■* 



X Milton, W. H., Roxbury. 
Minott, Charles, Somerville. 
Mixter, Charles, Boston. 
X Morse, S. B., " 

*Morse, Samuel F., " 
— y, .Motley, Thomas, Jr., W. Roxbury. 
X Mudge, George A., Boston. 
^ Mudge, E. R., Lynn. 
X Mudge, Geo.W., " 

X, Newhall, Cheever, Dorchester. — 
•^ Newhall, George, " 

X Newhall, John M., " 

Newhall, Josiah, Lynnfield. — 

*Newman, Henry, Roxbury. 
.XT Nourse, B. F., Boston. 

*Nuttall, Thomas, of England. 



X Page, Thomas, Cambridge. 
y^ Paige, James W., Boston. 
K Paine, Robert T., " 
K Palmer, J. P., " 

>^ Parker, Augustus, Roxbury. 

*Parker, Daniel P., Boston. 
X Parker, James " 

X Parker, William A., " 
X. Parkman, Francis, Roxbury. 
# Parkman, Rev. Francis, Boston. 
# Parsons, Gorham, Brighton. 
# Parsons, William, Boston. 
X Partridge, Henry, " 
X Peirce, S. B., Dorchester. 

Penniman, A. P., Waltham. 
X Perkins, Ed. N., Brookline. 
X Perkins, Wm. P,, " 

# Perry, John, Sherborn. 
X Pierce, George W., Maiden. 
X Poole, Benjamin C, Chelsea. 
X Poor, John R., Somerville. 
X Pope, Alexander, Dorchester. 
Pratt, George W., Boston. 
Prescott, C. H., Cornwallis f N. S. 
Preston, John, Dorchester. 



y^o 






96 



MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 



X 

n 



Rand, E. S., Dedham. 

Rand, E. S , Jr., " 

Reed, George W., Kingston. 

Reynoso, Bernard de, S. Boston. 

Richards, Edward M., Dedham. 

Richards, William B., Boston. 

Robinson, J. H., Dorchester. 
# Rotch, William, New Bedford. 

Russell, George R., Roxbury. 
X Russell, John Lewis, Salem. 
X Runey, John, Somerville. -— «. 



fThaxter, A.W., Jr., Boston. 
*Thayer, J. E., " 

# Thorndike, Israel, " 

X Thorndike, John H., " 
*Towle, Lyman, " 

# Tremlett, Thomas, Dorchester. 

HK Turner, J. M. — - 

Turner, R. W., Jr., Randolph. 

*K Upton, George B., Boston. 



j 



X Sampson, G. R., Brookline. 
Sanford, O. S., Cordaville. 
X Sargent, Ignatius, Brookline. 

*Seaver, Nathaniel, Roxbury. 
X Sever, J. W., Dorchester. 

# Shaw, Robert G., Boston, 
yc Sheafe, Ch. C, Newtonville. 
X Shimmin, Charles F., Boston. 

*Silsby, Enoch, Bradford. 
X Smith, Ch. A., Boston. 

*Smith, Stephen H., Providence. 
X Sparhawk, Edward C, Brighton. 
Springer, John, Sterling. 
Stetson, Nahum, Bridgewater. 
X Stevens, Paran, Boston. 
X Stickney, Josiah, Watertown. 
X Stickney, Rufus B., Somerville. 
X Stimpson, George, Charlestown. 
X Stone, G. F., Newton. 
y> Stone, Phineas J., Charlestown. 
X Stone, James W., Dorchester. 
X Story, E. A., Brighton. 
X Story, F. H., SWwh*. ^ashtt, 

# Story, Joseph, Cambridge. 



0( Wainwright, Peter, Boston. 

Wainwright, William L., Braintree. 
&< Wakefield, E. H., Chelsea. 
# Waldo, Daniel, Worcester. 
X Walker, Edward C. R., Roxbury. 

*Walker, Samuel, " 

X Walker, Samuel A., Brookline. 
% Walker, T. W., Waltham. 
. — x"~Ward, Mrs - T - W., Canton. 
^ Warren, G. W., Boston. 
b< Wason, E., Brookline. 
X* Webber, A. D., W. Needham. 
X Webster, Joshua, Lynn. 

Webster, Nathan, Haverhill. 
X. Weld, Richard H., Roxbury. 
X Welsh, J. H., Dorchester. 
# West, Thomas, Haverhill. 
Whitcomb, Levi, Boston. 
X White, B.C., 
y£ Whiting, Nathaniel, Brookline. 
X Whitmore, C. O., Boston. 
X Whytal, Thomas G., W. Roxbury. 
X; Wight, Eben., Dedham. 
• ^Wilder, Marshall P., Dorchester. 
*» Williams, Aaron D., Roxbury. 



Sturgis, William, W*hmn.>//6f£**-> X Williams, Aaron D., Jr., " 
Swain, Ch. D., Roxbury. X Williams, Moses B., Brookline. 

■ X Winship, Franklin, Brighton. 
)( Tappan, Charles, Boston. X^ Winship, F. Lyman, " 

X Taylor, Horace B., " JWolcott, Edward, Pawtucket. 

# Teschemacher, J. E., " *Worthington, William, Dorchester. 

X. Thacher, Alfred C, Dorchester. 






y\ 



ANNUAL MEMBERS. 



97 



ANNUAL MEMBERS. 



X 

tf 



X 
X 



*Adams, Benjamin, Boston. 
Adams, Charles F., Quincy. 

* Adams, Ch. Fred., Boston. 
*Adams, Joseph H., " 

Adams, Isaac, South Boston. 

* Adams, Z. B., Boston. 
Albree, John " X 
Allen, Calvin, Roxbury. y( 

.Ames, R. W., " 
*Andrew, John H., Salem. 
Andrews, Alfred A., Boston. 

* Andrews, Ebenezer T., " X, 
# Andrews, Ferdinand, " 

Andrews, James, Waltham. > 

* Andrews, Robert, Boston. 
Apple, Antone, Cambr iefge^ydj//^ 

# Appleton, Samuel A., Boston. 

* Arnold, John, Dorchester. 



Brackett, E. A., Winchester. 
# Bradbury, Charles, Boston. 

Bradford, Charles F., Roxbury. 

Bradlee, John D., Milton. 
# Bradlee } Joseph, Boston. 

Bradlee, J. T., " 

Bradley, Benjamin, " 

Bradstreet, Samuel, Dorchester. 

Breck, C. H. B., Brighton. 

Breck, Joseph, " 

*Bridge, Nathan, Charlestown. 

Briggs, Richard, Brookline. 
# Brimmer, Martin, Boston. 

Britton, S. A., Roxbury. - 
X Brown, Frederick, Boston. 
# Brown, James, Cambridge. 



X 



> 



Bachelder, Samuel, Cambridge. 
# Bachi, I. C, Dorchester. 

Bacon, William, Roxbury. 

Bailey, Dudley H., Boston. — 
y Bailey, Kendall, Charlestown. 
*Baker, Walter, Dorchester. 

Baker, W. P., Quincy. 
# Balch, Joseph, Roxbury. 

Barnes, Parker, Dorchester. 
*Barrett, George C, Boston. 

Bartlett, Levi, " 

Bean, James, Medford. 
*Belknap, A. E., Boston. 

Bennett, Oliver, Framingham. 
v Billings, Joseph H., West Roxbury, 

Binney, Amos, Boston. 

Blake, G. T., " 

Bliss, B. K., Springfield. 

Boott, William, Boston. 

Bowditch, Azell, Roxbury. 

Bowditch, W. I., Brookline. 
-f Boyd, Francis, Boston. 



•V Brown, Joseph T., Boston. 
Brown, Simon, Concord. 

V Bruce, Benjamin, Brookline. 
V Bryant, G. F. J., Boston. 

v Bucklin, S. S., Jamaica Plain. 
Buckman, Bowen, Woburn. 
Buckminster, W. J., Maiden. 
Bull, E. W., Concord, 
y Ballard, Calvin, Boston. 
%/Bullard, Lewis, Dedham. 
Burley, Edward, Salem. 
V^Burnett, Joseph, Southborough. 
Burr, Charles C, Newton. 
Buswell, E. W., Maiden. 
Butterfield, W. P., Cambridgeport. 

\ Cabot, Edward C, Brookline. 

Cabot, Joseph S., Salem. 

Caines, William, South Boston. 

Capen, F. L., " " 

V 4 Carey, Isaac, Boston. 

•^Carter, William E., Cambridge. 

V Chadwick, Joseph H., Roxbury. 
Chaffin, John C, JVewton. 
Chenery, Winthrop W., Belmont. 



98 



MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 



£ 
X 



>< 



|/Cheney, Arthur, Boston. 
v/Chickering, Horatio, Dedham. 
*Chickering, Jonas, Boston. 

Chilson, G., " 

Clapp, W. W., Jr., " 
<Clark, E. D., " 

*/ Clark, John J., Roxbury. 
\f Clark, Joseph W., Dedham. 

Clark, Randolph M., " 

Cobb, Edward W., Boston. 

Cobb, Jonathan H., Dedham. 
*Cole, S. W., Boston. 

Collamore, John, Jr., " 
v Comins, Linus B., Roxbury. 

Comley, James, Brighton. 

Converse, Joshua P., Woburn. 

Copeland, Charles, Wyoming. 
^ Cord well, G. B., Roxbury. 

Crafts, W. A., " 

Crocker, Fred. W., Barnstable. 

Crooker, Ralph, Roxbury. 

Crosby, Josiah, West Cambridge. 



Davis, Seth, West Newton. 
%/ Davis, W. H., Milton. 
^Dean, A. J., Roxbury. 
^Dearborn, Henry A. S., Roxbury. 
*\. Dennison, J. N., Boston. 
# Derby, John, Salem. 
v/ Dexter, Anson, Roxbury. 
I^Dillaway, Charles K., " 
# Dimmock, J. L., Boston. 
yC Dixwell, J. J., West Roxbury. 
# Downer, Samuel, Dorchester. 
# Dowse, Thomas, Cambridgeport. 

Driver, Stephen, Salem. 
*Dudley, David, Roxbury. 

Dutton, Henry W., Boston. 

yt Eastburn, John H., Boston. 

Eaton, Jacob, Cambridgeport. 
^ Edmonds, J. W., Boston. 
# Eldridge, Chas. H., " 
\/Ellicott, J. P., Jamaica Plain. 
Emerson, Benjamin D., Roxbury. 



# Crowninshield, Benjamin W., Boston\ Emerson, E. C, Boston. 

" Eustis, James, South Reading. 



K 



*Crowninshield, George C, " 

Cruickshank, J. T., Roxbury. 
Cummings, Amos, Jr., Reading. 
Curtiss, Charles F., West Roxbury. 
Curtis, D. T., Boston. 
Cutter, George B., Weston. 

Dana, Francis, Roxbury. 
Dana, Thomas, Cambridge. 
*Dane, John, Boston. 
V Daniel, Ellery C, Dedham. 
*Daniel, Josiah, " 

Davenport, Edward, Dorchester. 
yf Davenport, George, Dedham. 
Davenport, J., Brookline. 
Davenport, Lewis, Milton. 
Davis, Barnabas, Boston. 
Davis, Benjamin B., Roxbury. 
Davis, Harvey, Cambridgeport. 
*Davis, Isaac P., Boston. 



# Eveleth, Joseph, Boston. 
Everett, George, Concord. 
Evers, Gustave, Brighton. 

*Faxon, Nathaniel, Boston. 

Fay, Isaac, Cambridge. 
*Fessenden, Thomas G., Boston. 
Fisk, Robert T. P., Hingham. 
*Fitch, Jeremiah, Boston. 
Flynn, Edward, Lawrence. 
X Fontarive, J. J., Boston. 

Forbush, Jonathan, Bolton. 
j£ Ford, Elisha B., Boston. 
V' Fowle, Seth W., Brookline, 
*Francis, David, Boston. 
\f French, Asa, Braintree. 
Frost, Rufus S., Chelsea. 
X^ Frothingham, Samuel, Boston. 
^Fuller, Henry A., Cambridge. 



ANNUAL MEMBERS. 



99 



Galvin, John, Somerville. 
Gammell, Jonas, Lexington. 
V'Gardner, John, Dedham. 
)C Gibbens, Samuel H., Boston. 
^ Gilbert, John, ^r^ " 
^ Gilbert, Samuel, Jr., " 
\T Gilchrist, D. S., « 

Gilmore, Josiah, Jr., Newton Corner. 



% Healey, Mark, Lynn. 
*Heard, John, Boston. 
Heustis, Warren, Belmont. 
# Hewens, Whiting, Roxbury. 
i^Hewins, Charles A., " 
# Higginson, Henry, Boston. 
Hill, Henry Y., Belmont. 
Hill, James, Somerville. 



x 



*—*- 



Goddard, Thomas, Boston. 
Goodrich, Daniel O., " w 
Gordon, John, Brighton. 
Gould, Augustus A., Boston. 
Grant, Charles E., Roxbury. 
Grant, E. B., Watertown. 
Gray, James, Needham. 
Gray, John, Boston. 



}{, Hill, Jeremiah, Boston. 

Hogan, John, Belmont. 

# Holbrook, Amos, Milton. 

Y , Horton, Henry K., Boston. 

Hosmer, Z., Cambridge. 

*Hovey, John, Roxbury. 

Hovey, J. C, Cambridgeport. 
# Howard, John C, Brookline. 



Gray, John C, " Jf-\f**lh Howe, Estes, Cambridge. 



Gray, William, Jr., Dorchester. 
y^ Greenough, D. S., West Roxbury. 
f # Greenough, David S., " " 

Gregory, James J. H., Marblehead. 
^/jrew, Henry, Dorchester. 

Griggs, Charles, Boston. 
# Grosvenor, L. P., Pom/ret, Ct. 
*Guild, Benjamin, Boston. > 

Guild, Chester, Somerville. 

Gwynneth, William O. H., Boston. 

Haggerston, David, Roxbury. 
*Hall, C. J., Medford. 

Hall, Dudley, " 
*Hall, Jesse, East Cambridge. 
# Hallett, George, Boston. 

Haley, Jesse, Cambridgeport. 
% Harding, Newell, Boston. 

Harrington, Bowen, Lexington. 



Howe, Joseph N., East Cambridge. 

Howe, Rufus, Marlborough. 

Howe, S. G., South Boston. 
%/ Hunneman, J. J., Roxbury. 

Hyde, J. F. C, Newton. 
*Hysop, David, Brookline. 

Jenks, J. H., Boston. 

Jennings, Levi, Newton, L. F. 
# Johnson, Samuel R., Charlestown. 
*Johnston, William, South Boston. 

Jones, James L., Chelsea. 
*Joy, Joseph G., Boston. 

X Keith, W. W., Boston. 
^ Kelley, E. G., Newburyport. 

Kelly, John, Watertown. 
yKennard, M. P., Brookline. 
Kenrick, John A., Newton. 



Harris, Miss Ellen M., Jamaica Plain. Kenrick, William, " 
*Harris, Richard D., Boston. i Kimball, Charles, Winchester. 

Hastings, Thomas, Lechmere Point. <r Kittredge, Alvah, Roxbury. 



* 



Hatch, Anthony, Saugus. 
Hatch, Samuel, Boston. 
Hathaway, Seth W., Marblehead. 
* Hay den, John, Brookline. 
Hazelton, H. L., Newton. 



/ Knott, James, Boston. 

*Lamb, John A. W., Boston. 
Lamson, Rufus, Cambridgeport. 
Lathrop, John, Dedham. 



100 



MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 



* Lawrence, Abbott, Boston. 
*Lawrence, Amos, " 

Lawton, Walter, Brookline. 
Lee, Francis H., " 
Lee, Francis H., Salem. 
^ Lee, Thomas, Brookline. 
** Leeds, Samuel, South Boston. 
*Lemist, John, Roxbury. 
)£ Leonard, Joseph, Boston. 

Lerned, T. P., Cambridgeport. 
Lincoln, Calvin A., Hingham. 
Lincoln, F. W., Canton. 
v£ Lincoln, F. W., Jr., Boston. 
^ Little, C. C, *-> " 

Livermore, Isaac, Cambridgeport. 
J Lockwood, R. G., Charlestown. 
Lomis, Jason B., Chelsea. 
*Loring, Benjamin, Boston. 
^ Loring, C. G., 

* Loring, Wm. J., " 
# Lovett, Josiah, Bevetty. 

/ Low, Ariel, Roxbury. 
Low, John J., " 
*Lowell, John, " 
# Lowell, William B., Newton. 
^ Lynde, Stephen H., Winchester. . 

*Mackay, John, Boston. 

Manning, J. W., Reading. 
*Manning, Robert, Salem. 
>C Martin, D. U., Boston. 

Martin, Jeremiah, Melrose. 
*Mayhew, A. C, Boston. 

McDermott, Andrew, Roxbury. 
# McIntire, Daniel, Framingham. 

McLellan, Alexander, Watertown. 

McTear, James, Roxbury. 
*Mellar, William, " 

Merriam, Galen, West Newton. 

Merrill, S. A., Salem. 

Merrill, J. Warren, Cambridgeport 
y Millar, John L., Boston. 

Miller, David, South Boston. 
*Miller, Edward, Boston. 



v Mills, Lewis, Boston. 

# Minns, Thomas, " 
--* t — Minot, G. R., Roxbury. 
# Morgan, Thomas, Boston. 
Moore, J. B., Concord. 
Morse, O. S., Andover. 
# Munroe, James, Jr., Cambridge. 
Murray, Denis, Roxbury. 
Murray, James, " 

*Newell, Joseph W., Charlestown. 
v Nichols, W. S., Roxbury. 
^Nicholson, Com., (U. S. N.) 

Nudd, Jacob, Cambridgeport. 

Nugent, James, Roxbury. 

Oliver, Stephen, Lynn. 
# 01iver, William, Dorchester. 
# Otis, Harrison Gray, Boston. 

Owen, John, Cambridge. 

/ Page, Edward, Boston. 

Page, J. H. W., Dorchester. 
^ Parker, Harvey D., Boston. 
# Parker, Isaac, - - " — 
y Parker, M. S., " - *"' 

Parker, Theodore D., Brighton. 
# Parris, Alexander, Pembroke. 
Parsons, Theophilus, Cambridge. 
' ' Payson, Samuel R., Roxbury. 
^ Pearman, W. R., Chelsea. 
*Penniman, Elisha, Brookline. 
# Perkins, Thomas H., Boston. 
# Pettee, Otis, Newton. 
vPhillips, Nathaniel, Brighton. 
i/Phipps, Samuel, Dorchester. 
yj Pierce, Abner, West Cambridge. 
# Pond, Samuel, Cambridgeport. 
# Pope, Rev. A. R., Somerville. 
Porter, Andrew, South Danvers. 
Porter, Z. B., Cambridge. 
\ Potter, John C, Newton. 
# Pratt, William, Jr., Watertown. 
% Prescott, Eben. C, Boston. 



ANNUAL MEMBERS. 



101 



# Prescott, William, Boston. 
*Priest, John F., " 

V Prince, F. O., Winchester. 
*Prince, John, Roxbury. 

VRand, Edward S., Newbwyport. 

* Rand, I. P., Boston. 

>/ Rice, Edward E., Dorchester. 

V Rice, George \V., Roxbury, 

* Rice, Henry, Boston. 

Rice, Thomas, Jr., Newton, L. F. 
v Richardson, Horace, Framingham, 
# Richardson, Josiah, Cambridge. 
# Robbins, Charles, South Boston. 
# Robbins, Edward H., Boston. 

V Roberts, Edward, Roxbury. 
•/ Robinson, S., Brookline. 

*Rollins, Ebenezer, Boston. 
*Rowe, Joseph, Milton. 
v Ruggles, John, Brighton. 

*t Sanborn, John, Charlestown. 
•/ Sargent, Epes, Roxbury. 
^ Savage, John, Jr., Somerville. 
*Savage, William, Boston. 
*Sawyer, M. P., " 

7^ Sawyer, Nathl. C, " 

Sawyer, Timothy T., Charlestown. 
*Schimming, H., Watertown. 
V Schlegel, Adam, Boston. - 
Scott, J. C, Brighton. 
*Seaver, Benjamin, Boston. 
v Shaw, Charles B., Dedham. 
^ Shaw, Christopher C, Boston. 
*3haw, Lemuel, " 

*Simmons, D. A., Roxbury. 

Simpson, Michael H., Saxonville. 
*Skinner, John, Charlestown. 
^ Sleeper, J. S., Roxbury. 

Smallwood, Thomas, Newton. 
Smith, Amos, Cambridgeport. 
Smith, Edmund, Brighton. 
J Smith, J. M., Boston. 
v Southack, George, Roxbury. 



" Spooner, Wm. H., Jr., West Roxbury. 
X Sprague, Charles J., Boston. 

Stanwood, H. B., " 

v Stearns, George L., Medford. 
Stetson, James A., Quincy. 
*Stevens, Isaac, Boston. 
u * Stone, Eliphalet, Dedham. 
V Stone, Leonard, Watertown. 
Stone, P. R. L., Cambridge. 
v Strong, W. C, Brighton. 
*Sturtevant, Noah, Boston. 
*Sumner, William R., Dedham. 
v Swan, Daniel, Medford. 
Sweetser, Samuel, Woburn. 

^C Taft, John B., Boston. 

*Taylor, Charles, Dorchester. 
J Thatcher, Thomas, Jr., Roxbury. 
*Thaxter, Levi, Watertown. 
•^Ticknor, W. D., Roxbury. 
*Tidd, Marshall, Woburn. 
# Towne, Orr N., Boston. 

Trautman, Martin, Roxbury. 

Tucker, James, Jr., Dorchester. 

Tudor, Frederic, Boston. 

Turner, N. W., Newton. 

Turner, R. W., South Maiden. 

Tuttle, Hugh H., Boston. : 
# Tyler, John, « 



X 

x 






''^Underwood, William, Boston. 
Underwood, Wm. J., Belmont. 

Vandine, Henry, Cambridgeport. 
Vila, James, Boston. ) T%. c 

# Vose, Elijah, Dorchester. 

*Waldron, R. R. (U. S. N.) 
Wales, Williams, Dorchester. 
Walker, Joseph T., Roxbury. 
Walsh, George, Charlestown. 
Walsh, James, Cambridge. 
Walsh, Thomas, Brighton. 
Ward, Edward A., Cambridge. 



t(. 



102 



MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 



J^-Ward, Richard, Roxhury. 
*Ward, Samuel, " 
X Warren, Ira, Boston. 
*Warren, J. C, " 
a W-t ' ' Warren, Samuel D., Waltham. 

X Washburn, Alexander C, Boston. 
Washburn, Allen J., Dorchester. 
*Washburn, John, Plymouth. 
Weld, Aaron D., West Roxhury. 
<* Weld, Stephen M., " " 

* Wellington, Andrew, E. Lexington. 
k^, Wellington, Joseph V., Cambridge. 

Wells, Benjamin T., Boston. K 

* Went worth, James, Boston. 






Wetherell, John G., Dorchester. 
Wetherell, Leander, Boston. 
♦Wheelwright, Wm. W., " 
v Whieldon, Wm. W., Concord. 



<<y 



* White, Ferdinand E., Boston. 



White, Nathaniel, Quincy. 
White, Nathan H., " 

* White, Stephen, Boston. 
Whiting, William, Dedham. 

^"Whitney, Joel, Winchester. 

X Whitney, William F., Boston. i\ t< 

* Williams, Francis L., Roxhury. 
Williams, J. Otis, Winchester. 

^ Williams, Stephen, Roxhury. 
V Wilson, George W., Maiden. 

* Winchester, William P., Boston. 
*Winship, Jonathan, Brighton. 

^ Winslow, Reuben, Roxhury. 
Wolcott, J. W., " 

Worcester, Joseph E., Cambridge. 
Wood, Edmund W., West Needham. 
*Wyatt, Robert, Boston. 

Young, William, Fall River. 






OFFICERS AND STANDING COMMITTEES 

OK 'J'HIi 

KB8%thntiztt8 liortkttlinral Sfltutii 

FOR 1862. 

± vas tixcnt i 

JOSEPH BRECK of Brighton. 

Vice Presidents : 
EDWARD S. RAND of Boston, EBEN WIGHT of Dedhmn, 

J. F. C. HYDE of Newton, W. C. STRONG of Brighton. 

Treasurer; . 

WILLIAM R. AUSTIN of Dorchester. 

Corresponding Secretary: 
EBEN WIGHT of Dedham. 

Recording Secretary: 
F. LYMAN W1NSHIP of Brighton. 

Professor of Botany and Vegetable Physiology : 

ASA GRAY of Cambridge. 

Professor of Zoology : 
J. W. P. JENKS of Middleboro'. 

Professor of Horticultural Chemistry : 
A. A. HAYES of Boston. 

Executive Committee: 
f^ The President, Chairman ; J. S. Cabot, The Treasurer, M. P. Wilder, C. M. Hovey. ^ 

j For Establishing Premiums : | 

Chairman of Committee on Fruits, Chairman; Chairmen of Committees on Flow- j 
VJ,-) ers, Vegetables, and Gardens ; Parker Barnes. r\i 

On Finance : C 

Josiah Stieknev, Chairman ; M. P. Wilder, C. O. Whitmore. 

On the Library : 

E. S. Rand, Jr., Chairman; Wm. H. Spooner, Jr., G. W. Pratt, John Lathrop, 

R. MeCleary Copeland, Librarian. 

On Ornamental Gardening: 
yy) W. R. Austin, Chairman; W. C. Strong, H.Weld Fuller, Chairmen of Committees £ 
vJtj on Fruits, Flowers, and Vegetables, E. A. Story. 

JS On Fruits : 

1 J. S. Cabot, Chairman ; J. F. C. Hyde, A. C. Bowditeh, W. C Strong, P. B Hovey, 

Eiiphalet Stone, Fearing Burr. 

On Flotcers : 
<rp E. S. Rand, Jr., Chairman ; James McTear, E. W. Buswell, G. W. Pratt, C. H. B. 
J Breek, Wm. II, Spooner, A. Apple. 

(^ On Vegetables: Q 

kj^ J). T. Curtis, Chairman ; Franklin Winship, James Nugent, Azell Bowditeh, S. II. a 
x^ Gibbons, B. Harrington, J. C. Hovey. S*l 

On Synongms of Fruit : ( 

M. P. Wilder, Chairman; C. M. Hovey, Eben Wight, Josiah Stieknev, Chairman 

of the Committee on Fruits. 

POn Publication: i 

Eben Wight, Chairman ; F. Lyman Winship, G. W. Pratt, E. S. Rand, Jr., J. S. Jj 
Cabot, D. T. Curtis, W. R. Austin. 

* On Arrangements for the Annual Exhibition : f -|J 

vx P. B. Hovey, J. S. Cabot, J. F. C. Hyde, E. S. Rand, Jr., D. T. Curtis, W. C. 

] Strong, C. H. B. Breek, A. C. Bowditeh, E. A. Story, Parker Barnes, F. Lyman 
Y Winship, W. J. Underwood, R. MeCleary Copeland. 

H^The Annual Exhibition will be held September 16, 17, 18 and 19. 

>3>^^ ^^§3^ G^(t3»^ — ^^ 



8 




^^'^«5ft3^i^c9«3!0^^te«(R5^^35?Rj5c^K 



TRANSACTIONS 



OF THH 



' 



¥j 



s 




'assacjmsefe JMiatltral Sfocidjr, | 



FOR 



THE YEAR 1862. 




BOSTON: 

HENRY W. DUTTON & SON, PRINTERS, 
J Transcript Building, 

^ 18 6 3. 



TRANSACTIONS 



OF THE 




assacfrasefe Jjwrticitltaral Stocirig, 



FOR 



THE YEAR 1862. 




BOSTON: 

HENRY W. DUTTON & SON, PRINTERS, 
Tiunsckipt Buildiko, 

1863. 



CONTENTS. 



Report of the Committee on Ornamental Gardening, - 1 

Grounds of William J. Underwood, 1 

Visit to Cambridge, 2 

Gratuities and Premiums awarded, ..„---- 3 

Report of the Committee on Flowers, 4 

Premiums and Gratuities awarded, ..-.--.12 

Report of the Committee on Fruits, 25 

Premiums awarded, ---.-------. 36 

Report of the Committee on Vegetables, 43 

Premiums awarded, --_--- 46 

Report of the Committee on the Library, 50 

Report of the Finance Committee, ..-.----55 

Organization of the Government for the Year 1863, 57 

Valedictory Address of President Breck, 57 

Inaugural Address of President Hovey, -------61 

Life Members of the Society, 65 

Annual Members, --- --69 



REPORTS. 



REPORT OF THE COM. ON ORNAMENTAL GARDENING, 

For the Year 1862. 
BY DANIEL T. CURTIS, SECRETARY. 

The growing taste for horticulture as an art, and the extent to which 
ornamental gardening is now prosecuted in this section of the country, must 
in ordinary times render the functions of this Committee not only very pleasant 
but highly important. The late honored pioneer of the Massachusetts Horti- 
cultural Society, (Hon. Samuel Walker of Roxbury) the first Chairman of this 
Committee, did not overestimate the utility of this measure of bringing the 
public in communication with this Society, through its official boards ; thus 
enabling it to exert a wider influence beyond the immediate circle of its own 
members, and secure the cooperation of all lovers of rural art in its improve- 
ment and general diffusion. A liberal emulation in the effort to excel in this 
branch of horticulture has been visibly promoted in this neighborhood since 
the Committee has entered upon its system of personal inspection and award 
of premiums ; and though, owing to peculiar circumstances, relating to that 
condition of the country which has diverted the attention and means of our 
fellow-citizens from ornamental pursuits to considerations of patriotism and 
stern necessity, the visits of the Committee have been few the past season, 
yet their observations have been sufficiently extended to afford them much 
gratification at the abundant evidence of increasing taste and skill in garden- 
ing, as well as encouragement in the prosecution of their mission. 

GROUNDS OF WILLIAM J. UNDERWOOD. 

On the first of July, the Committee, by special invitation, visited the beauti- 
ful grounds of William J. Underwood, in Belmont. The mansion occupies 
a fine elevated site, overlooking a beautiful slope towards the main road, 
and consisting of two acres ; about one-half of which, after providing for a 
handsome lawn, is devoted to the cultivation of fruit, flowers, &c. The Com- 
mittee were most cordially received, and conducted over the premises. They 
found the arable portion of the grounds in a high state of cultivation ; the 
fruits and flowers rivalling each other in growth and beauty. The floral de- 
partment presented a particularly attractive feature in its rich array of pinks, 
which are his especial favorites. But the attention of the Committee was 
1 



I MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

especially directed to the Strawberry beds of Mr. Underwood, and to his mode 
of cultivating this fruit, which with the denizens of Belmont may be considered 
not merely a specialty but an institution. The varieties generally and most 
successfully grown are Hovey's Seedling and Biighlon Pine; and the Com- 
mittee were led to note the astonishing luxuriance of the crop, both as to 
quantity and quality ; indeed, wherever they lifted the dense foliage the earth 
was ruddy with delicious fruit. 

After an hour delightfully spent in Mr. Underwood's grounds, the Committee 
availed themselves of an invitation to visit the Hall appropriated to the Annual 
" Strawberry Festival," (held that day) which is also one of the pleasant social 
institutions of Belmont. It hardly need be said they were amply repaid for 
this visit in the magnificent display of specimens, unequalled, probably, in any 
other exhibition of the kind, for richness of flavor, size and perfection. The 
varieties shown were principally Hovey's Seedling, Jenny's Seedling, Brighton 
Pine, and the old Wood, or Alpine berry ; the latter grown, by improved 
culture, to nearly two inches in length. 

Their excursion was afterwards prolonged to examine the extensive fields 
devoted to strawberry cultivation by the market gardeners in this vicinity ; 
and they can hardly express the gratification afforded them by this opportunity 
to observe the thrift and success of this important culture, which must be seen 
in its full season to be appreciated. In a favorable summer, we are informed, 
from 3000 to 4000 boxes are the average yield of an acre in this great 
producing district. 

Your Comrnitee cannot dismiss this subject without expressing their hearty 
thanks to Mr. Underwood for his courteous attention during their visit; and 
they may add, that notwithstanding it was unexpectedly protracted, they left 
this charming locality with considerable reluctance, and not without profit and 
instruction ; being greatly impressed by the thorough preparation and thought- 
ful expenditure in advance, made to secure a bounteous yield in a coming 
year. 

VISIT TO CAMBRIDGE. 

On Monday, October 6th, in accordance with an invitation previously ex- 
tended, a Sub-Committee visited the premises of J. V. Wellington, Cam- 
bridgeport, for the purpose of inspecting his out-of-door grapery. This con- 
sisted of an arbor-trellis attached to the house, with a southern aspect, of 
the following dimensions: — length, 60 feet; span, 12 feet; height, 10 feet; 
length of running trellis, 90 feet. In addition to this principal one, there was 
also a stable trellis, 17 feet high and 14 feet wide, and several smaller ones on 
a short low fence, with an eastern aspect. 

The vines are all Isabella, and were profusely laden with fine clusters of 
fruit, from one-fourth to upwards of a pound in weight, giving an aggregate 
yield of about 600 pounds the present season, and 500 pounds in 186 J. The 
bunches well ripened, of good flavor, and colored with a fine bloom. The 



GARDEN COMMITTEE'S REPORT. 3 

mode of cultivation is simple, and substantially as follows: The vines are 
pruned late in the fall, disengaged from the trellis, covered with matting and 
tied closely on its lower arms ; at this same time a light dressing of manure is 
given to the roots of the vines upon the surface. In the spring, after the 
weather has become permanently mild, they are uncovered and put upon the 
trellis, after which they need no further attention, except to guard against a 
redundant growth of wood. Thus treated they yield annually an early, 
uniform, and invariably good crop. 

Mr. Wellington also cultivates a great variety of excellent pears, and has 
given especial attention to the proper arrangement of his cellars and fruit- 
rooms for the preservation and ripening of fruits designed for the market. 
Neatness, order, and a careful regard to scientific details, are evidently the 
maxims which have secured him such eminent success as a fruit grower. 
In glancing over his premises, the Committee were specially impressed, not 
only by the systematic arrangement of everything pertaining to them, but by 
the art displayed in the economy of space, by which so many practical con- 
veniences and such varied results are secured within the limits of a single 
acre, which is the whole area occupied by house, stable, and garden. The 
Committee should add, that the welcome which they received from their host 
upon this occasion, was most cordial and hospitable, and that every facility 
was extended them for acquiring information and promoting the interest and 
pleasure of their visit. 

GRATUITIES AND PREMIUMS AWARDED. 

To W. J. Underwood, for neatly-kept grounds, cultivation of flowers 

and fruits, a gratuity of $15 00 

FIRST PREMIUM ON GRAPES. 

To J. V. Wellington, for the best cultivated and best managed 

grapes of out-door culture, a premium of $15 00 

Respectfully submitted for the Committee, 

DANIEL T. CURTIS, Secretary. 



4 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

REPORT OF THE COMMITTEE ON FLOWERS, 

For the Year 1862. 

BY THE CHAIRMAN. 

The year just closed has been remarkably prolific in floral treasures. So 
well have the supplies of sun and shade, of cloud and sunshine, of rainy and 
clear weather, been meted out to us, that in every locality the gardens have 
prospered, and seldom has a greater portion of floral beauty fallen to our lot in 
a single year. Annuals, Herbaceous Perennials, Bedding-out Plants and 
Bulbs have all, in their season, done well. In Greenhouse Plants, which are 
generally more under our immediate control than those grown in the open air, 
the exhibitions have been usually good, and many new and rare species and 
varieties have graced our weekly shows. 

The following have been the most noticeable features of the season : — 

Saturday, February 1. 
From James McTear : Hakea acicularis — a new Australian plant, very 
properly named " acicularis," the leaves (so called) being sharp, stiff, needle- 
like thorns. The flowers are produced in twos or threes, in the axils of the 
leaves, and are very fragrant, though inconspicuous. The plant is symmetrical 
and ornamental. 

February 8. 
Marshall P. Wilder: Fine bloom of Tree Pseony Elizabeth, as highly 
colored as if grown in the open air, though inferior in size. 

March 1. 
Hovey & Co. : Acacia Drummondii — a fine showy variety. 

March 15. 
John Hogan : A fine new Azalea, marked " Adelhide von Nassau ;" color 
red, lighted with purple on the upper petals, form good, flower large. The 
plant shown was very weak ; it is likely to prove a valuable variety. 

March 29. 
Thomas F. Walsh: Clianthus puniceus — good specimens, but the variety 
is far inferior in brilliancy and contrasts of color to C. Dampierii; the black 
centre is wanting in this variety. 

April 5. 
James McTear: A fine pot of Ornothogalum Arabicum nigrum. This is 
one of the finest of the species, from the rich contrast of color presented by 
the pure white of the petals and the jet black of the ovary. 

Dennis Zirngible, Cambridge Botanic Garden: Collinsia verna — a beautiful 
variety — color sky blue and pure white; well worthy cultivation, and when 
obtainable it will be a general favorite ; as yet it is rare, being only in the 
possession of the exhibitor, who, we learn, however, has ripened seed. 



FLOWER COMMITTEE'S REPORT. 5 

From the same: Satyrium erectum; a rare and curious terrestrial orchid, 
native of Cape of Good Hope, more interesting than beautiful. Flowers in a 
many flowered spike ; colors, bronzy red and yellow ; erect, growing £ to 2 
feet high ; leaves, oblong obtuse, sheathing coriaceous. This class of orchids 
is of easy greenhouse culture. Also, a finely bloomed plant of the beautiful 
Amaryllis formosa. 

From William C. Strong: A fine show of cut Gloxinias. Mr. Strong excels 
in this beautiful flower, and continued through the season to make most 
extensive and attractive displays. 

April 12. 

From Martin Trautman: A fine white Camellia; petals arranged in a spiral 
manner. 

April 19. 

From E. A. Story : Pink and White Daphne mezereon in profusion. 

Mrs. Benjamin Bruce: A fine display of spring flowers; double-red Hepat- 
ica and single Hepatica, in variety ; Helleborus niger. 

April 26 

From James McTear : Erica Aitonia Turnbulli, good. 

May 3. 

John A. Kenrick : Magnolia conspicua, in profusion, in fine order. 

R. M. Copeland : A fine display of named Hyacinths. 

Madam Miel: A group of beautifully modelled wax flowers. 

May 24. 

From George W. Pratt : A very fine spike of Stanhopea tigrina. 

From Edward S. Rand, Jr. : A fine display of Cypripedium parviflorum. 
This is one of our finest native orchids, and succeeds admirably in cultivation. 

From Samuel Sweetser: A fine seedling Cactus; hybrid from Cereus 
speeiosissimus. 

Opening Exhibition, May 31. 

From Edward S. Rand : A very fine plant of Medinilla magnifica ; a fine 
orchid, Scuticaria Steelii ; a large specimen of the rare Alocasia metallica. 

From Ignatius Sargent : A very large plant of Azalea decora, in profuse 
bloom, and finely grown. 

June 14. 

From Spooner & Parkman: A display of Japanese Plants, the most notice- 
able of which was a variegated Salisburia adiantifolia, or Ghingo tree, the 
leaves of which are beautifully marked with white. 

From the same : A fine display of Tuberous Iris, and a good seedling. The 
collection of Iris was vastly superior to any shown, but as the flowers did not 
comply with the rule, being unnamed, as the exhibitor had unfortunately mis- 
laid his catalogue, the Committee were obliged to withhold the prize which 
the collection so richly merited. 

From Dennis Murray: A specimen of Penecitea arborescens. 



6 massachusetts horticultural society. 

June 21. 

From Spooner & Parkman : A fino display of Bulbous Iris, in 18 varieties. 

From James McTear: A plant of Hibiscus splendens. 

From John A. Kenrick: Fine Magnolias. 

From Eliphalet Stone : A splendid display of Roses. 

From Edward S. Rand, Jr. : A fine specimen of Cypripedium spectabile, 
the finest of the family indigenous to New England. 

June 28. 

From Herman Grundel: A fine display of Sweet Williams. 

From Dennis Zirngible : Double Sweet William, in great variety. 

From Spooner & Parkman : A fine display of Bulbous Iris. 

From T. Smallwood: Thirty varieties Antirrhinum, good. 

July 5. 

From Spooner & Parkman : A fine display of Roses. 

From Edward S. Rand: A plant in full bloom of the rare and beautiful 
orchid, Phalsenopsis grand iflora. 

From Spooner & Parkman: Twenty-five fine varieties of seedling Delphi- 
nium. Also, a fine seedling hybrid, between D. elatum and formosum; a 
very superior flower, of great value. 

July 12. 

From Spooner & Parkman: A beautiful display of cut flowers. Also, a 
magnificent new Lily, from Japan, of which the following is the history, as 
published by the writer in the Evening Transcript, July 15: — 

New and Rare Japan Lily. — On Saturday last, there was exhibited at the 
weekly show of the Massachusetts Horticultural Society, a rare and very beau- 
tiful Lily, recently brought from Japan. It is well known that we are indebted 
to that country for the very beautiful and showy plants commonly known as 
" Japan Lilies," and which during the months of August and September are 
favorites in every garden. 

The plant now under notice, though a lily from Japan, is by no means a 
" Japan Lily " in the common application of the term. The Japan Lilies are 
botanically known as " Lilium lancifolium and speciosum," the many fine 
seedling varieties being distinguished by the adjectives signifying the colors, 
or by the fancy names given by their originators. The present plant is evi- 
dently not a variety of L. lancifolium, but seems to be a new species ; we are 
at a loss what to call it, for as far as our researches have led us, it is wide- 
scribed. Whether it is a hybrid between any of the common Japan Lilies and 
Lilium longiflorum (which in some respects it resembles), is a question we can- 
not at present discuss, but the probabilities seem against its being a hybrid or 
variety. 

There were two flowers exhibited — the bud of the larger five days before 
expansion measured 6% inches, the corolla is 8 inches in diameter, and the 
petals straightened out exceed a foot. The color is white, with band of yellow 



FLOWER COMMITTEE'S REPORT. 7 

down the centre of each petal, the ontsides of the petal darker, and the insides 
covered with protuberances, as in the common Japan Lily ; the flower is pow- 
erfully fragrant, and continues in perfection about a week. The flowers ex- 
hibited bloomed in the open air, though started 'under glass. The history of 
the plants may not prove uninteresting. 

They were brought from Japan in 1861, by Gordon Dexter, Esq.; were 
given by him to Francis Lee, Esq., and by him to Messrs. Spooner and Park- 
man, of Jamaica Plain, by whom they were successfully bloomed and exhibited. 
This seems the greatest acquisition the Lily tribe has received for many years, 
and should it prove hardy, as there is good reason to hope, it will prove a wor- 
thy companion for our well known and always admired "Japan Lilies." We 
understand that the Lilies exhibited received the award of a silver medal from 
the Flower Committee of the Society, and that Mr. Parkman has had the 
Flowers photographed and painted. There are yet other bulbs not yet bloomed, 
from Avhich we may hope for further specimens. 

This lily has been shown in England, the past season, and was first flowered 
by Messrs. Veitch & Son of Chelsea and Exeter Nurseries, and exhibited by 
them, at the South Kensington Horticultural Exhibition, about the same time 
it was shown in the Hall of the Massachusetts Horticultural Society. Of the 
beauty of the plant we cannot say too much, and as there is ever}' probability 
of its proving hardy, the whole floricultural world owe a debt of gratitude to 
its introducers. It is especially gratifying that in the present case we have 
not to wait until the plant become* well-known in Europe, but we have it from 
its primal source. Were greater encouragement given this gratifying result 
might oftener be attained. For the gratification of those who were unfortunate 
enough to miss seeing the flower, we would state, that the exhibitors have a 
painting and photographs of the flower, and a colored figure is also given in 
"The Florist and Pomologist" for September, J8G2, and in Curtis's Botanical 
Magazine for October, which are in the Library of the Society ; the figure, 
however, does but little justice to the beauty of the original.* 

From William C. Strong: A fine display of cut Gloxinias. 

From Dennis Murray : A fine display of our native Rhododendron, (R. max- 
imum). During the past winter the flower buds of this plant were not killed, 
and the superb heads of bloom have been very abundant ; we have gathered a 
wagon load in the Med field locality. 

July 19. 

From Spooner & Parkman : Some nice plants of Cryptomeria japonica. 

August 2. 

From Spooner & Paikman: Lilium atrosanguineum, (good); Clematis 
Helene flore pleno; fine seedling Tropaeolums. 



* Full justice is done to the flower in the October number of L'lllustration Horticole, compared 
to which the representations in Curtis and the Florist are worthless. It is singular how wonder- 
fully the French excel the English in representations of flowers and fruits. 



8 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

From James Nugent: Fine Seedling Antirrhinums and Tropseolums. 

From James McTear: Seedling Antirrhinums. 

From Dennis Murray : Good specimens of the rare and pretty Chimaphila 
maculata. 

Saturday, August 9. 

From James McTear: Plant of Origanum tomentosum in pot; curious, but 
by no means beautiful. 

From Eliphalet Stone : A magnificent display of Roses. 

From Joseph Breck & Son: A fine show of Gladiolus. 

From WilHam C. Strong : Fine Fuchsias and Roses ; also Salix variegata, 
white and pink, very pretty. 

From Spooner & Parkman : Hypericum Japonicum, a beautiful shrubby 
species ; flower, golden yellow, of most symmetrical shape. Seedling Phlox, 
white, with delicate pink eye. Lobelia cardinalis alba; a variety but of little 
beauty and not likely to be popular with any who know the brilliant color of 
L. cardinalis. Echinops Bannaticus, a remarkable globular-headed, thistle- 
leaved plant, hardy perennial, very striking and ornamental; flowers of a 
peculiar spicy fragrance. 

August 16. 

Spooner & Parkman : A fine display of seedling Delphiniums, Also, a 
beautiful lot of Gladiolus, and large masses of G. Brenchleyensis, producing 
a gorgeous effect. Also, Gladiolus Cuvier — one of the new reddish-scarlet 
varieties — which did not seem to the Committee of remarkable beauty. 
Gladiolus Belle Gabriel ; ground color white, spotted and striped with rosy 
purple ; inferior petals marked with well defined parallel streaks of bright 
purple ; form, a perfect triangle, the apex pointing upwards. 

From Joseph Breck: A fine display of named Gladiolus. 

August 23. 

From Spooner & Parkman : A fine lot of Japan Lilies. 

From James McTear: A plant of Pitcairnia punicea. 

August 30. 

James McTear: Display of seedling Antirrhinums. 

From James Nugent: A collection of seedling Tropaeolums. 

From T. Bruce : A fine display of Double Zinnias. 

From Dr. Horace Richardson : A fine display of Dahlias and cut flowers. 

September 6. 

From Hovey & Co. : A fine display of Lilies. 

From Spooner & Parkman: A fine display of Lilies and Gladiolus. 

From George W. Pratt: A very fine specimen of Stanhopea insignis. 

From James Nugent : A fine display of Antirrhinums. 

Annual Exhibition. 

From Tsaac Buchanan, Astoria: A fine show of seedling Petunias. 

From George W. Pratt: A fine plant of Stanhopea eburnea with several 
spikes of bloom. 



FLOWER COMMITTEE'S REPORT. 9 

From Dennis Zirn^ible, Cambridge Botanic Garden : A fine collection of 
Perns and L 1 [ants were mostly small, but were well grown and 

of rare varieties. 

From the same : A small plant of Peristeria elata. or Dov? Plant of Panama, 
in bloom. 

After the Annua] Exhibition there was nothing exhibited meriting notice. 

The following lists have been handed to the Chairman, s: owing thee sp] ys 
at the weekly exhibitions: — 

Opening Exhibition. 

From Marshall P. Wilder: C'OO blooms Tree Premies. 6 pots Gloxinias, 1 
Ardisia undulata, (very fine . 1 Acanthus : ma elegans. 

From Edward S. Rami: 1 M :.:; gmrlca. 1 Alocasia metalica, 1 

Ifaranta regalis, 1 Caladiom Chantinii. 

From Spooner &: Parkman: New Japan : :n, Thujopsis dolabrata; 

a distinct variety of Euonymus variegata ; several new variegated Geranioms; 
a collection of hardy plants. 

From Hovev & Co.: V2 plants, viz: Aralia reticulata, Rhyncospermom 
jasnrinoides, Eri; lii, Erica Cavendishii. Yucca 

aloefolia variegata, Thyrsacanthus sp. Chorize na, Pimelea decus- 

Bata, Tetratheca verticillata, Azalea Osbornii, Pelargonium Perfection. Speci- 
men plant. R. iensis; (3 named fancy G ted large 
flowered Geranioms, 6 named Azaleas imed Ericas. Seedling Pelargo- 
nium, Dolly Button. 

June 14. 

From Spooner & Parkman: 20 named varieties of Iris ; seedling Iris; Salis- 
buria adiantifolia v Retinospora sp. Sciadopitrys variegata; new 

Japan plants now first exhibited; also, Digitalis ambigua ochroleuca; cut 
flowers in variety. 

June OS. 

From Spooner & Parkman: 8 varieties of Digitalis, i. e.. D. lutea, ambigua, 
ochroleuca, lilaeina, aba, purpurea, neradensis. lanata, punctata : a collection 
of seedling Tropjeolums, from T. Lobbiannm; seedling Delphiniums; collec- 
tion of English and Spanish Iris; display of Sweet Williams and Roses. 

June 21. 

Prom James MeTcar : 10 varieties named Tender Roses ; 10 varieties named 
Hardy Perpetual Roses ; cat flowers in variety. 

From Ramos & \Y " urieties nan:;.: Hardy P 

10 varieties named B rpetual Ros 

Prom John C. Chaffin : 25 varieties Ila-'v Perpetual Roses, vis: Gen. 

ueounot, Cardinal Patrizzi, Lion des Combats, Addoin de Lyon, Geant des 

Battailles, Mad. Hasson, Barronne Pre ' 

\ Raglan, La Reine, Triumphe de FExposition, Mistress Elliot, 

Duehesse de Cambaceres, Pie IX.. I . s i .Jules Margottin, 



10 



MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 



Mad. Lamoriciere, Prince Albert. Souvenir de la R. d'Angleterre, Wm. Griffith, 
L'Enfant du Mont Carmel, Mathurin Regnier. 

From William C. Strong: Collection of cut flowers; 15 named Hardy Per- 
petual Roses; 20 named Hardy June Roses; 10 varieties named Herbaceous 
Pffionies. 

From James Nugent: 11 varieties named Tender Roses; 12 varieties named 
June Roses ; 10 varieties named Hardy Perpetual Roses. 

July 5. 

From Spooner & Parkman: A collection of English Iris; a display of seed- 
ling Delphiniums, raised from D. formosum, delicatum, perfectum, novum, 
elatum, &c. ; also, cut flowers in variety. 

July 12. 

From William C. Strong: Cut flowers in variety ; collection of Gloxinias. 

From Spooner & Parkman: 2 new Japan Lilies — Lilium album striatum, 
L. album variegatum; Michauxia campanulata ; Clematis Helena flore plenae ; 
display of hardy herbaceous plants. 

July 19. 

From Samuel Sweetseir: 150 seedling Pinks. 

From Spooner & Parkman: Cryptomeria Japonica (Lobbii) variegata ; 
Juniperus sp. variegatus ; new plants from Japan; Seedling Verbenas and 
Tropseolums ; Tigridia speciosa; Digitalis ferruginea gigantea ; collection of 
Hollyhocks ; cut flowers in variety. 

July 26. 

From S. Sweetser: A display of Pinks. 

August 9. 

From Spooner & Parkman: Echinops Bannaticus ; Hypericum Japonicum ; 
Lobelia cardinalis alba; seedling Phlox ; a display of Gladiolus, Hollyhocks, 
Phlox, and cut flowers. 

August 16. 

From Spooner & Parkman: 10 named varieties Phlox; seedling Delphi- 
niums, double and semi-double ; Gladiolus Vicomtesse Belleval, Berenice, 
Madam de Vatry, Count de Morny, El Dorado, Brenchleyensis, Madam Vil- 
morin, Mazeppa, Le Poussin. Hebe, and many others. 

August 23. 

From Spooner & Parkman: A variety of Lilium lancifolium, brought from 
Japan in 1861, by F. Gordon Dexter, its distinctive feature consists in the 
depth of its color ; seedling Delphiniums ; fine Gladiolus ; cut flowers in va- 
riety. 

Annual Exhibition. 

From Dennis Zirngible, Cambridge Botanic Garden : A collection of 35 
varieties cultivated native plants; also, a collection of Ferns and Lycopods, 
as follows : — Myriopteris elegans, Adiantum trapeziforme, Gymnogramma 
chrysophylla, Lycopodiutn Schottii, apoda, lepidophyllum, Pteris argyrea, 
Nephrodium corymbiferum, Asplenium japonicum, Lycopodiutn formosum, 



FLOWER COMMITTEE'S REPORT. 11 

Wildenovii, circinatum ; also, Begonia Lord Clyde, grandi3, miranda, Duchess 
de Brabant, Makoyii and seedling; Caladium pictum, picturatum bicolor; 
Lycopodium densum cuspidatum ; Panicum sulcatum ; Begonia Fischerii 
Latania Bourbonica; Peristeria elata ; Erica hyemalis ; Geranium Lady 
Plymouth; Centaurea candidissima; Maranta pulchella; Hydrangea hortensis 
variegata; Vallota purpurea; Gesnerea zebrina; Dieffenbacbia picta; Dracaena 
ferrea fol. variegatis ; Strelitzia ovata; Angelonia salicariafolia (new); Fuch- 
sias and Gloxinias ; also, Lycopodium stonelifera ; Phormium tenax ; Begonia 
argentea splendens ; Nandena domestica ; Grevillea robusta; Aspedium falca- 
tum ; Phoenix dactylifera, and other plants in variety. 

From J. W. Danforth : A fine Cissus discolor. 

Fine displays have been made each Saturday by the President, who has 
uniformly declined being a competitor for prizes. 

The largest, best, most frequent, and finest displays, have been made by 
Messrs. Spooner & Parkman; the next by William C. Strong; the next by 
Washburn & Curtis. 

Excellence in the several departments will be best shown by reference to 
the following award of prizes. 



12 



MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 



PREMIUMS AND GRATUITIES AWARDED FOR FLOWERS. 



Camellias. — For the best twelve named varieties of cut flowers 
with foliage, not awarded, . 
For the next best, do. 
Heaths. — For the best named varieties, not less than six, in pots, to 
Hovey & Co., 
For the next best, not awarded, 
Epacris. — For the best named varieties, not less than four, in pots 
not awarded, 
For the next best, not awarded, 
Greenhouse Azaleas. — For the best six named varieties, in pots 
not awarded, .... 

For the next best, to Hovey & Co., 
For the next best, not awarded, 
Begonias. — For the best six varieties, in pots, not awarded 

For the next best, not awarded, 
Pelargoniums. — For the best six named varieties, grown in pots 
(not fancies), to Hovey & Co., 
For the next best, not awarded, 
For the best six named fancy varieties, in pots, to Hovey & Co., 
For the next best, not awarded, 
Fuchsias. — For the best six named varieties, in pots, not awarded, 
For the next best, not awarded, 

For the next best, do. .... 

Cinerarias. — For the best six named varieties, not awarded, 

For the next best, not awarded, 
Calceolarias. — For the best six varieties, not awarded, 

For the next best, not awarded, 
Greenhouse Plants. — For the best display of twelve, regard to be 
had to new and rare varieties, and well-grown specimens, 
of named plants, not awarded, 
For the next best, do. 
For the next best, to Hovey & Co., 
For the next best, not awarded, 
Cut Flowers. — For the best display, to Hovey & Co., 
For the next best, to Spooner & Parkman, 
For the next best, to James Nugent, . 
For the next best, to E. A. Story, 
For the next best, not awarded, 



$3 00 

2 00 

6 00 
4 00 

i 00 

3 00 

8 00 
6 00 

4 00 

4 00 
2 00 

8 00 

5 00 
8 00 

5 00 

6 00 
4 00 
2 00 
4 00 
2 00 
4 00 
2 00 



12 CO 
10 00 
8 00 
6 00 
6 00 
5 00 
4 00 
3 00 
2 00 



#4 00 


2 00 


4 00 


2 00 


6 00 


5 00 


4 00 


3 00 


4 00 


3 00 


,3 00 


2 00 


5 00 


3 00 


4 00 


2 00 



PREMIUMS ON FLOWERS. " 13 

Hyacinths. — For the best display, not less than ten named varieties, 
not awarded, ...... 

For the next best, not awarded, . 

Tulips. — For the best display, not less than twelve named varieties, 
not awarded, ...... 

For the next best, not awarded, .... 

Pot Plants — regard being had to.new and rare v varieties — 

For the best specimen plant, of a kind for which no special prize is 
offered, to Edward S. Rand, for Medinilla magnifica, 
For the next best, to Edward S. Rand, for Alocasia metallica, . 
For the next best, to Hovey & Co., for Rhopala Corcovadensis, 
For the next best, to Edward S. Rand, for Maranta regalis, 
Pansies. — For the best twelve distinct varieties, in pots, not awarded, 
For the next best, not awarded, .... 

Hardy Azaleas. — For the best display of named varieties, not awarded, 3 00 

For the next best, to William C. Strong, 
Shrubby Peonies. — For the best six named varieties, not awarded, 
For the next best, not awarded, .... 

Iris, (Tuberous varieties). — For the best twenty named varieties, to 
James McTear, ...... 

For the next best, to Barnes & Washburn, 
Bulbous varieties. For the best display of the season, to Spooner 

& Parkman, . . . . . 2 00 

Herbaceous Peonies. — For the best ten named varieties, not awarded, 5 00 

For the next best, not awarded, . . . 4 00 

Pinks. — For the best six distinct named varieties, to Hovey & Co., 3 00 

For the next best, not awarded, . . . 2 00 

Class I. 
Hardy June Roses. — For the best twenty distinct named varieties, 

to Hovey & Co., . . . . . 5 00 

For the next best, not awarded, . . . 3 00 

For the next best, do. . . . . 2 00 

Class II. 
For the best twelve distinct named varieties, not awarded, . 4 00 

For the next best, to James Nugent, . . . 2 00 

Class III. 
Hardy Perpetual Roses. — For the best twenty-five named varie- 
ties, to Hovey & Co., . . . . 6 00 

For the next best, to John C. Chaffin, . . 4 00 

For the next best, not awarded, . . . 3 00 

For the next best, do. . . . . 2 00 

Class IV. 
For the best fifteen named varieties, to Barnes & Washburn, . 4 00 
For the next best, not awarded, . • . 3 00 



14 



MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 



Class V. 

For the best ten named varieties, to James McTear, . . $3 00 

For the next best, to James Nugent, . . . 2 00 

Class VI. 

Moss Roses. — For the best display often named varieties, not awarded, 4 00 

For the next best, not awarded, . . . 2 00 

Class VII. 
Tender Roses. — For the best display of ten named varieties, to 

James Nugent, . . . . . 4 00 

For the next best, to James McTear, . . . 3 00 

For the next best, not awarded, . . . 2 00 

Sweet Williams. — For the best display, to Herman Grundel, Silver medal. 

For. the next best, to Spooner & Parkman, . . Bronze medal. 

Summer Phloxes. — For the best ten distinct named varieties, not 

awarded, . . . . . . 4 00 

For the next best, not awarded, . . . 3 00 

For the next best, do. . . . . . 2 00 

Hardy Rhododendrons. — For the best display of the season, of 

named varieties, not awarded, . . . 4 00 

For the next best, do. . . . 2 00 

Hollyhocks. — For the best twelve named varieties, not awarded, . 3 00 

For the next best, not awarded, . . . 2 00 
Phloxes. — For the best ten distinct named varieties, to James 

Comley, . . . . . . 5 00 

For the next best, to Hovey & Co., . . . 4 00 
For the next best, to Washburn & Curtis, . . . 3 00 
Petunias. — For the best collection, to James McTear, . 3 00 
For the next best, not awarded, . . . 2 00 
Balsams. — For the best twelve stalks, not awarded, . 3 00 
For the next best, not awarded, . . . 2 00 
German Asters. — For the best thirty flowers, not less than ten vari- 
eties, to Hovey & Co., . . . . 5 00 

For the next best, to George W. Pratt, . . 4 00 

For the next best, to Washburn & Curtis, . . 3 00 

For the next best, to James Nugent, . . . 2 00 
Verbenas. — For the best named collection of twenty-four varieties, 

a single truss of each, to Hovey & Co., . . 4 00 

Fcr the next best, to Washburn & Curtis, . . 3 00 

For the next best, to James McTear, . . . 2 00 

For the best new seedling, with foliage, the Society's Silver medal, 

to James McTear. 

Stocks. — For the best twelve varieties, not awarded, . . 3 00 

For the next best, not awarded, . . . 2 00 



PREMIUMS ON FLOWERS. 



15 



Double Zinnias. — For the best display in colors, to Dennis Zirn- 
gible, ...... 

For the next best, to Hovey & Co., 
Carnations. — For the best ten named varieties, not awarded, 

For the next best, to Hovey &l Co., 
Picotefs. — For the best ten named varieties, not awarded, 

For the next best, to Hovey & Co., 
Gloxinias. — For the best six pots, not awarded, 
For the next best, not awarded, 
For the best new seedling, the Society's Silver medal. Not awarded. 
Gladiolus, Gandavknsis and Floribundus varieties. — For the 
best ten varieties, in spikes, 1o Spooner & Parkman, 
For the next best, not awarded, 
For the next best, to Washburn & Curtis, 
Dahlias. — For the best eighteen named dissimilar blooms, not 
awarded, . . 

For the next best, not awarded, 
Chrysanthemums. — For the best six large varieties, in pots, not 
awarded, 
For the next best, not awarded, 
For the best six pompones, in pots, not awarded, 
For the next best, to James McTear, . 
Antirrhinums. — For the best display of the season, to James Nugent, 
For the next best to James McTear, .... 



$■3 00 


2 00 


4 00 


3 00 


3 00 


2 00 


4 00 


3 00 



5 00 
4 00 

3 00 

4 00 

2 00 

5 00 

4 00 

5 00 

3 00 
3 00 
2 00 

Bronze medal. 



For the best seedling, not awarded, 
Digitalis. — For the best display of the season, to Spooner & 

Parkman, . ..... Silver medal. 

For the next best, not awarded, . . . Bronze medal. 

Lilv. — For the best display of the season, to Spooner & Park- 
man, ...... Silver medal. 

For the next best, to Hovey & Co., . . . Bronze medal. 

AquiLEGiA. — For the best display of the season, not awarded, Silver medal. 
For the next best, not awarded, . . . Bronze medal. 

Delphiniums. — For the best display of the season, to Spooner 

& Parkman, ..... Silver medal. 

For the next best, not awarded, . . . Bronze medal. 

For the best seedling, to Spooner & Parkman, . . Silver medal. 

Trop^olums. — For the best display of the season, not awarded, Silver medal. 

For the next best, not awarded, . . . Bronze medal. 

For the best seedling, after one year's trial, to Joseph Breck, 

for Tropseolum Randii, .... Silver medal. 



16 



MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 



PRIZES FOR CUT FLOWERS, 

Awarded every Saturday, during the months of June, July and August, and the 

first Saturday in September. 



June 7. 
Cut Flowers. — For the best display, filling not less than 
ties, to Hovey & Co., 
For the next best, to Barnes & Washburn, 
For the next best, to Spooner & Parkman, ' 
For the next best, not awarded, 

June 14. 

For the best display, &c, to William C. Strong, 
For the next best, to Hovey & Co., 
For the next best, to Barnes & Washburn, 
For the next best, to James Nugent, . 

June 21. 
For the best display, &c, to William C. Strong, 
For the next best, to Barnes & Washburn, 
For the next best, to James McTear, . 
For the next best, to E. A. Story, 

June 28. 
For the best display, &c, to William C. Strong, 
For the next best, to Barnes & Washburn, 
For the next best, to Spooner & Parkman, 
For the next best, to James McTear, 

July 5. 

For the best display, &c., to William C. Strong, 
For the next best, to Spooner & Parkman, 
For the next best, to Barnes & Washburn, 
For the next best, to James McTear, . 

July 12. 
For the best display, &c, to William C. Strong, 
For the next best, to Spooner & Parkman, 
For the next best, to Barnes & Washburn, 
For the next best, to E. A. Story, 

July 19. 
For the best display, &c, to Spooner & Parkman, 
For the next best, to William C. Strong, 
For the next best, to Barnes & Washburn, 
For the next best, to James Nugent, . 



150 bot- 



. $4 00 


3 ©0 


2 00 


1 00 


4 00 


3 00 


2 00 


. 1 00 


4 00 


3 00 


2 00 


1 00 


4 00 


3 00 


2 00 


1 00 


4 00 


3 00 


2 00 


1 00 


4 00 


3 00 


2 00 


1 00 


4 00 


3 00 


2 00 


1 00 



PREMIUMS ON FLOWERS. 



17 



July 26. 
Cut Flowers. — For the best display, filling not less than 150 bot- 
tles, to Spooner & Parkman, 
For the next best, to William C. Strong, 
For the next best, to Barnes & Washburn, 
For the next best, to James Nugent, . 

August 2. 

For the best display, &c, to William C. Strong, 
For the next best, to Spooner & Parkman, 
For the next best, to Barnes & Washburn, 
For the next best, to James Nugent, . 

August 9. 

For the best display, &c, to Spooner & Parkman, 
For the next best, to William C. Strong, 
For the next best, to James Nugent, . 
For the next best, to James McTear, . 

August 16. 
For the best display, &c, to William C. Strong, 
For the next best, to Washburn & Curtis, 
For the next best, to Spooner & Parkman, 
For the next best, to James Nugent, . 

August 23. 
For the best display, &c, to Washburn & Curtis, 
For the next best, to Spooner & Parkman, 
For the next best, to James McTear, . 
For the next best, to James Nugent, . 

August 30. 

For the best display, &c, to Washburn & Curtis, 
For the next best, to Spooner & Parkman, 
For the next best, to James Nugent, . 
For the next best, to James McTear, 

September 6. 
For the best display, &c, to Spooner & Parkman, 
For the next best, to Washburn & Curtis, 
For the next best, to James Nugent, . 
For the next best, to E. Wason, 

The following prizes were awarded at the Annual Exhibition : — 

Plants. — For the best collection, of not less than twenty varieties, 
to Hovey & Co., ...... 

For the next best, to Dennis Zirngible, 

For the next best, not awarded, .... 

For the next best, do. 
2 



#4 00 

3 00 

2 00 

1 00 

4 00 

3 00 

2 00 

1 00 

4 00 

3 00 

2 00 

1 00 

4 00 

3 00 

2 00 

1 00 

4 00 

3 00 

2 00 
1 00 



00 
00 
00 
00 



4 00 
3 00 
2 00 

1 00 



$25 00 

20 oa 

15 00 

10 00 



18 



MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 



For the best twelve species, to William C. Strong, 
For the next best, to James McTear, . 
For the next best, not awarded, 
For the next best, do. ... 

Variegated Leaved Plants. — For the best collection, not less 

than ten varieties, not awarded, 

For the next best, do. 

For the next best, do. 

For the best single specimen of Variegated Leaved Plant, not 

awarded, .... 

For the next best, not awarded, 
Specimen Plants. — For the best, a kind for which no special prize 
is offered, to H. H. Hunnewell, for Pampas Grass, 
For the next best, to H. H. Hunnewell, for Cupressus Law 
sonea, .... 

For the next best, to H. H. Hunnewell, for Washingtonia gigantea, 
Begonias. — For the best six varieties, to Hovey & Co., 

For the next best, not awarded, 
Ferns or Ltcopods. — For the best six varieties, to Dennis Zern 
gible, ...... 

For the next best, to Hovey & Co., 
Dahlias. — For the best twenty-five varieties, and best kept durin 
the exhibition, to Hovey & Co., 
For the next best, to Washburn & Curtis, 
For the next best, to Washburn & Curtis, 
For the best specimen bloom, to Hovey & Co., . 
Parlor Bouquets. — For the best pair, to Hovey & Co., . 
For the next best, to William J. Underwood, 
For the next best, not awaided, 
For the next best, do. . 

For the next best, do. . 

Hand Bouquets. — For the best pair, to Hovey & Co., 

For the next best, to James Nugent, . 
Cut Flowers — not to exceed 200 bottles. — For the best display, 
and best kept during the exhibition, to Washburn & Curtis, 
For the next best, to Hovey & Co., 
For the next best, to Spooner & Parkman, 
For the next best, to James Nugent, . 
For the next best, to E. A. Story, 
For the next best, to James McTear, . 



$12 00 


10 00 


8 00 


6 00 


8 00 


5 00 


3 00 


5 00 


3 00 



4 00 



3 00 


2 00 


4 00 


3 00 


4 00 


3 00 


8 00 


6 00 


4 00 


3 00 


5 00 


4 00 


3 00 


2 00 


1 00 


3 00 


2 00 


15 00 


13 00 


11 00 


9 00 


7 00 


5 00 



PREMIUMS ON FLOWERS. 



19 



The following Gratuities were awarded d 

May 3. 
R. M. Copeland, for Hyacinths, 

Mat 24. 

S. Sweetser, for Seedling Cereus, 

May 31 

Marshall P. Wilder, for pot plants, 
do. do. for Paeonies, . 

Ignatius Sargent, for Azalea decora, 
Spooner & Parkman, for new plants, 
Mrs Benjamin Bruce, for cut flowers, 
Anne C. Kenrick, for basket, 
John A. Kenrick, for Magnolias, . 
Edward S. Rand, for Scuticaiia Steelii, 
Miss S. W. Story, 

E. G. Kelly, for Magnolias, 5 varieties, 
William E. Carter, for display, 
Dennis Murray, for dried plants, 
Walker & Co., fur tulips, 

Jujse 7. 

William C. Strong, for pot plants, 

James Comley, for Erica, 

James McTear, for Seedling Carnation, 

James Nugent, for display, 

James McTear, do. 

William C. Strong, do. 



urinsr the season : — 



Walker &. Co., 


do. 


Mrs. Benj. Bruce, 


do. 


A. Bowditch, 


do. 


E. A. Story, 


do. 



Spooner & Parkman, for Rhododendrons, 
William C. Strong, do. 

June 14 

Spooner & Parkman, for cut flowers, 

James McTear, 

E. A. Story, 

Azell Bowditch, 

Mrs. tienj. Bruce, 

Spooner & Parkman, for Salisburia, 

William E. Carter, 

Spooner & Parkman, for Seedling Iris, 

Anne C. Kenrick, for basket, 



#3 00 


1 00 


3 00 


2 00 


5 00 


1 00 


2 00 


1 00 


1 00 


1 00 


1 00 


2 00 


2 00 


2 00 


1 00 


2 00 


1 00 


1 00 


1 00 


1 00 


1 00 


1 00 


1 00 


1 00 


1 00 


2 00 


2 00 


1 00 


1 00 


1 00 


1 00 


1 00 


2 00 


1 00 


1 00 


1 00 



20 



MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 



June 21 

Dennis Murray, for natives, 
Walker & Co., for display of roses, 
Hovey & Co., do. do. 

Spooner & Parkman, do. do. 

Warren Heustis, do. do. 

Eben. Wight, for Amorpha, &c, . 
Spooner & Parkman, for fine Iris, 
James Nugent, for roses, 
Anne C. Kenrick, for floral basket, 
Eliphalet Stone, for very fine roses, 
John A. Kenrick, for Magnolias, . 
William E. Carter, for display, 
Herman Grundel, do. 

James McTear, for Hibiscus splendens, 
Barnes & Washburn, for display, . 

June 28 

E. A. Story, for cut flowers, 
Walker & Co., do. 
Hovey & Co., do. 
Herman Grundel, for cut flowers, . 
Barnes & Washburn, do. 
Dennis Zirngible, do. 

James Nugent, do. 

Samuel K. Spooner, do. 
Spooner & Parkman, for roses, 
William E. Carter, for display, 

July 5. 
Anne C. Kenrick, for basket, 
James Nugent, for cut flowers, 
E. A. Story, do. 

Hovey & Co., do. 

Dennis Murray, for rare natives and toadstools, 
Spooner & Parkman, for roses, 
Edward S. Rand, for Phalaenopsis grandiflora, 
William E. Carter, for bouquets, . 
Susan D. Story, for basket, 



July 12 



James McTear, for cut flowers, 
Dennis Murray, for natives, 
William C. Strong, for Gloxinias, 
Susan D. Story, for display, 
Sarah W. Story, do. 



$1 00 



1 00 


1 00 


1 00 


1 00 


1 00 


2 00 


1 00 


1 00 


3 00 


1 00 


1 00 


1 00 


1 00 


1 00 


1 00 


1 00 


1 00 


] 00 


1 00 


1 00 


1 00 


1 00 


1 00 


1 00 


1 00 


1 00 


1 00 


1 00 


1 00 


1 00 


3 00 



1 00 
1 00 

1 00 

2 00 
1 00 
1 00 
1 00 



PREMIUMS ON FLOWERS. 



21 



Anne C. Kenrick, for display, 

Lizzie F. Baxter, do. 

Spooner &Parkman, for new Japan Lily, L. auratum, 

July 19 
E. A. Story, for display, . 
James McTear, do. 
E. Wason, do. 

Leander Wetherell, for Rhododendrons, 
Anne C. Kenrick, for basket, 
Miss Susan D. Story, do. 
William E. Carter, for bouquet, 
James Nugent, for pot plants, 
Ilovey & Co., for Speigelia Marylandica, 
Spooner & Parkman, for Cryptomerias, 
John Falconer, for Seedling Hollyhocks, 
Herman Grundel, for display, 
George VV. Pratt, for Carnations and Picotees, 

July 26 

James McTear, for cut flowers, 
E. A. Story, do. 

William E. Carter, for bouquet, 
S. Sweetser, for display, . 
Miss Susan D. Story, for basket, 

" Anne C. Kenrick, do. 

" Sarah W. Story, do. 



A 



Eliphalet Stone, for roses, 
James McTear, for display, 
Dennis Murray, for natives, 
E. A. Story, for display, . 
Anne C. Kenrick, for basket, 
Sarah W. Story, do. 
Susan D. Story, do. 

Eliphalet Stone, for roses, 
E. A. Story, for display, 
Anne C. Kenrick, for basket, 
S. W. Story, do. . 

James McTear, for Antirrhinums, 
Dennis Murray, for natives, 



UGUST 2. 



August 9. 



. $1 00 
1 00 

Society's Silver medal. 

1 00 
1 00 
1 00 

1 00 
1 00 
1 00 
1 00 
1 00 
1 00 
1 00 
1 00 
1 00 
Society's Bronze medal. 



1 00 
1 00 
1 00 
1 00 
1 00 
1 00 

1 00 

2 00 
1 00 
1 00 
1 00 
1 00 
1 00 

1 00 

2 00 
1 00 
1 00 
1 00 
1 00 
1 00 



22 



MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 



August 16. 
James McTear, for cut flowers, 
E. A. Story, do. 

Dennis Murray, for natives, 
Miss S. W. Story, for basket, 

" S. D. Story, do. 

« S. A. Russell, do. 

" A. C. Kenrick, do. 
Spooner & Parkman, for Gladiolus, 

August 23. 
E. A. Story, for display, 
Spooner & Parkman, for display, 
Miss C. Whiting, do. 

Dennis Murray, do. 

Miss S. A. Russell, for basket, 

" A. C. Kenrick, do. 

" S. W. Story, do. 

Hovey & Co., do. 

James McTear, do. 

August 30. 
Miss Sarah W. Story, for basket, 

" Anne C. Kenrick, do. 
Dennis Murray, for display, 
Miss S. A. Russell, for basket, 
Spooner & Parkman, for Cornus variegatus, 

Septemper 6. 
Dennis Murray, for natives, 
E. A. Story, for cut flowers, 
James McTear, do. 
Anne C. Kenrick, for basket, 
Sarah W. Story, do. 

Hovey & Co., do. 

Susie D. Story, do. 

Miss S. A. Russell, do. 
James Nugent, for Double Zinnias, 
T. G. Bruce, do. do. 

Herman Grundel, do. do. 

The following Gratuities were awarded at the Annual Exhibition 

Dennis Murray, for natives, .... 

Mrs. William Kenrick, for wreath, 

Mrs. Charles F. Homer, for pressed flowers, 

Mrs. Abner Pierce, for mosses, .... 



$1 00 

1 00 

1 00 

1 00 

1 00 

1 00 

1 00 

2 00 



00 
00 
00 
00 
00 
00 
00 
1 00 
1 00 



1 00 
1 00 
1 00 
1 00 
1 00 

1 00 
1 00 
1 00 
1 00 
J 00 
1 00 
1 00 
1 00 
1 00 
1 00 
1 00 



$3 00 
2 00 

2 CO 

3 00 



PREMIUMS ON FLOWERS. 



23 



Mrs. Thomas H. Grenville, for pressed leaves, 

A. F. Bosson, for Dahlias, 

Isaac Buchanan, for Seedling Petunias, 

Dennis Zirngible, for native plants, 

Miss S. W. Story, for baskets, &c, 

Mrs. John A. Kenrick, do. 

Mrs. C. F. Baxter, do. 

Miss Carrie Brackett, do. 

Miss Anne C. Kenrick, do. 

Susie D. Story, do. 

Anne E. Holt, do. 

Miss S, A. Russell, do. 

William E. Carter, for bouquets, 

Miss Whiting, do. 

Miss S. A. Russell, do. 

E. Wason, do. ' 

Geo. Chruikshank, do. 

Lizzie F. Baxter, do. 

Charles Powers, for coxcombs, 

J. W. Danforth, for Cissus discolor, 

James Comley, for Wardian Case, 

Miss Lynde, for display, . 

Miss Lizzie F. Baxter, for bouquet, 

Dexter Snow, for Dahlias, 

Edward Flynn, do. 

George W. Pratt, for Stanhopea insignis, Bound copy 

Hovey & Co., for pot plants, 

Washburn & Curtis, for cut flowers, 

Hovey & Co., do. 

Spooner & Parkman, do. 

James Nugent, do. 

Dennis Zirngible, for pot plants, . 

November 1. 

James McTear, for Chrysanthemums, 

The following extra Gratuity has been awarded by 
meritorious displays during the season : — 

To Joseph Breck, for very fine displays, 



of 



. $2 00 

2 00 
Bronze medal. 

3 00 
5 00 
3 00 

1 00 
3 00 
3 00 

2 00 

1 00 

2 00 

3 00 



00 
00 



1 00 

2 00 

3 00 
1 00 

. 3 00 
Silver medal. 
5 00 

1 00 

2 00 

2 00 
Harris on Insects. 

. 15 00 
5 00 
5 00 

3 00 
2 00 

. 10 00 



1 00 

the Committee for 



. $50 00 



24 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

The financial concerns of the Committee are in a prosperous condition. 

The amount appropriated by the Society for Floral Prizes was one thousand 
dollars. In addition to this the Committee of Arrangements for the Annual 
Exhibition appropriated $133 for extra prizes and gratuities, making a total 
of $1133. 

Of this sum the amount awarded in prizes and gratuities during the season, 
and at the Annual Exhibition, was seven hundred and fifty-seven dollars ; in 
extra gratuities for meritorious displays during the season, fifty dollars ; in all, 
eight hundred and seven dollars, leaving a balance to the credit of the Com- 
mittee, of two hundred and twenty-six dollars, which the Committee return to 
the treasury of the Society. 

In resigning the post of Chairman of the Flower Committee, which he has 
held for the past five years, the writer cannot but express his thanks to those 
to whose hearty and cordial cooperation and assistance he owes so much of 
the success which has attended the labors of the Committee, and more 
especially would he remember those members of the Flower Committees for 
•the several years with whom he has been so pleasantly associated. It is a 
pleasure to have been able in any way to have advanced the interests of 
floriculture, and to this end, more especially, will his best efforts and labors be 
devoted in the future, in connection with the welfare and true interests of the 
Massachusetts Horticultural Society. 

All of which is respectfully submitted by 

EDWARD S. RAND, JR., 

Chairman of Flower Committee. 

Approved, 

Geo. W. Pratt, 

W. H. Spoojser, Jr., 

« tt t, t> l Committee on Flowers 

C. H. B. Breck, > fir lg62 

E. W. Buswell, 

.James McTear. 



FRUIT COMMITTEE'S REPORT. 25 

REPORT OF THE COMMITTEE ON FRUITS, 

For the Year 1862. 
BY J. S. CABOT, CHAIKMAK". 

At the close of another year the Standing Committee on Fruits, of the 
Massachusetts Horticultural Society, present a Report of their doings for that 
which has just ended, prefacing, as has been usual, the statement of their 
award of Premiums with such an expression of opinions as may be the result 
of further observations and experience in this branch of Horticulture, and its 
increased development, and with remarks of a more general character bearing 
upon the subject and therefore pertinent to the occasion. The year that has 
now ended may be considered, taking it in all its aspects, as the most propi- 
tious to growers of fruit of any that has occurred within the memory of any 
now actively occupied in that pursuit. A summer not characterized by days 
of extreme heat, or long continued droughts, but for a long continuance of 
warm, genial weather, accompanied with abundant rains, giving to the fields 
and hill sides, often at this season burnt with heat or browned by droughts, the 
vivid green of early spring, and producing in vegetation a constant state of 
growth and activity, was preceded by a favorable spring, a winter free from 
any days of excessive cold or violent winds, and an autumn warm and dry, 
thus adapted, by gradually checking the growth and ripening the wood of fruit 
bearing trees, for best tilting them to pass unharmed the inclement season of 
winter, always trying under its most favorable aspects, so as to be at the open- 
ing year in a condition to produce the remarkable crop that has been witnessed 
as its result. 

The more marked meteorological phenomena of a year so remarkable for its 
fruit crops should be perhaps briefly, but more particularly stated. The fruit 
crop of a succeeding season depends much upon the condition of the trees at 
its commencement, and this condition is sensibly affected, either favorably or 
unfavorably, by their state at the close of the preceding year, for upon this 
very much depends their ability to resist the evil influence of the severe cold 
of winter. A warm autumn, accompanied with much rain, tends to produce a 
late growth of wood up to the time of the occurrence of severe frosts, when 
it can hardly fail that this late growth of immature wood is subjected to severe 
injury from extreme cold, and the sap being in a state of full activity the 
whole tree will most probably be seriously harmed. Hence, the reason for 
stating, as is believed to be the fact, that the character of the closing months 
of the year has a strong influence on the fruit crop of the succeeding. Now 
the autumn months of 1861 were warm, without unnatural heat, and very 
dry, as favorable a combination for fruit trees as could perhaps be desired, and 
the transition from the warm to the cold season was gradual and not sudden* 



26 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

There was no very severe frost until October 25th, and after that, through the 
rest of the year, the weather was cool and pleasant. The winter was free 
from any days of excessive cold, though probably the average amount of cold 
was fully equal to that of most years, but its freedom from an extreme degree 
of cold attended with high wind was the favorable feature. 

Although in some places the thermometer was reported to have fallen to 
2°, yet, taking the whole of the vicinity of Boston, 4° may more truly be stated 
as the lowest degree indicated thereby. Light snow for several days in suc- 
cession fell in January, in the aggregate sufficient to cover the ground to the 
depth of a foot, and as this soon became consolidated by a succeeding rain, 
this covering of ice and snow lasted through the winter. One noticeable 
peculiarity of the winter was the remarkable uniformity in the range of the 
mercury, frequently for many days in succession this range would scarcely 
vary. The months of spring were cool and unusually dry, though in neither 
case sufficiently so to cause injury, but rather on the whole having a favorable 
influence upon the fruit crop. Great heat in early spring, to be followed sub- 
sequently by cold, frequently causes much injury, and fr,om this the last spring 
was free. The summer was peculiarly genial, free from excessive heat, for 
the mercury did not rise above 90, and to that only on one day; but marked 
by a long continuance of clear days and bright sun, with sufficient heat to 
bring to maturity and ripen its various crops, and this accompanied with most 
abundant rains. Over 6 inches of rain fell in June, and more than 7 in July, 
a very unusual quantity for these months. As the winter, so the summer was 
peculiarly free from great and sudden transitions from heat or cold to the 
reverse, but was on the contrary remarkably uniform in temperature. Of the 
character of the autumn it is unnecessary to speak, for this, according to the 
view taken, belongs rather to the succeeding than to the past year. It is not 
perhaps always easy to trace back to causes from effects, but as it is believed 
that many of the inconveniences and losses to which fruit growers are subject 
are the results of climate, of too much or too little heat, of too much or too 
little moisture, or of the sudden and great transitions from one of these condi- 
tions to its opposite, the particular features of each year are worthy of notice 
and of record, that possibly from such observations, and by comparing the 
peculiarities of one year, and the results of that year with those of other years, 
the cause of injury may be educed, and ingenuity may discover some means 
to obviate the effects of such cause. Of the causes of some effects we are 
yet in ignorance and probably may always remain so, or if not, great differ- 
ence of opinion prevails as to what such should be attributed. As for instance, 
the high color that, on some years or in some particular place, fruit attains, 
beyond what it does in other years or in other situations. Bartlett Pears, as 
bright in color as any that was ever seen on a Roi de Wirtemburg, were on 
the tables at the last Annual Exhibition ; to what cause can their bright red be 
attributed? In their replies to this question, cultivators, if they attempted to 



FRUIT COMMITTEE'S REPORT. 27 

suggest any cause, would probably differ, while an acknowledgment of ignor- 
ance in regard to it would perhaps be the wisest and safest course. 

For the great and unusual development, as respects size, to which some speci- 
mens on a tree sometimes attain, while the rest of the crop on the same tree 
are no ways remarkable in this particular, or for the great size of the fruit of 
some one variety, or of all the varieties grown in some particular situation, it 
might not always be easy to give a reason in which all would coincide, or to 
assign a cause that would always be followed by like results. This excess in 
size beyond what is usual, may perhaps be the result of some special mode of 
cultivation, of the application in a greater or less degree of some particular 
fertilizing agent to the soil, to the presence of some particular mineral or 
chemical ingredient therein, to thinning the fruit or other causes, yet it some- 
times occurs when no particular pains have been taken, and fails to take place 
whatever efforts have been made to produce it. When it takes place, it is 
probably because something has occurred, either of a temporary or more per- 
manent character, to stimulate absorption by ihe fruit, and what that is, is not 
always to be ascertained. The moistening of the green fruit, by some chemi- 
cal solution calculated to effect this purpose, has been suggested to bring 
about this result. As to what is the cause of the high color that sometimes 
occurs in fruit, though it contributes to its beauty, is not perhaps a matter of 
so much consequence, and if it could be ascertained would very likely be 
found to be beyond control ; and even to know from what this unusual, some- 
times enormous development in size results, may not be considered of great 
importance; yet there are effects, some of an injurious character often noticed, 
of which it is highly desirable to ascertain with certainty the cause, and so 
haply obtain a remedy therefor. 

Cultivators of fruit in this part of the United States are subject to incon- 
veniences and difficulties, from which growers in Europe seem in a great 
measure exempt; pears being there more uniformly smooth and fair, and not 
liable to crack and blight as some varieties are apt to do in this country. 
The climate of Europe being more equal in temperature, and more uniform in 
respect to moisture than our own — for though subject to sudden alternations 
of temperature yet there the range of the mercury is much less than here — 
and although the rain fall of Europe is much less than in this vicinity, yet the 
fall of rain being more equally distributed there is an exemption alike from 
the severe droughts and rains of almost tropical violence, to which all parts of 
the United States are more or less subject; to this greater uniformity of tem- 
perature and moisture, the freedom from cracking and blight of pears and their 
greater smoothness and fairness have been attributed, especially as the same 
results seem to follow like causes in our own country. Take the past season 
as an instance, when the summer was if not cool yet free from any excessive 
heat of long continuance, and marked by copious rains, much more uniformly 
temperate and moist than usual, and fruit was much more smooth and fair than 
common, and pears very generally exempt from blight or cracking. If the 



28 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

supposition is correct, that the difficulties to the fruit grower, referred to, may 
be imputed to, at times, too much or too little rain, and to too great alterna- 
tions from heat to cold or cold to heat, it behooves cultivators to endeavor by 
some processes of cultivation to remedy the evils growing out of these causes, 
and to try thereby to obviate their effects. And cultivators have this assurance, 
that if a mistake has been committed in imputing certain specified effects to 
certain causes, and the efforts adopted under this erroneous impression 
should fail to obviate the evil, yet the processes that would most probably be 
adopted for .this purpose would have a generally very beneficial effect upon 
their trees, upon their health and vigor, though such might fail in the object 
intended ; underground draining, to carry off superflous water and prevent 
its stagnating about the roots, and at the same time by draining the land ren- 
dering it more permeable and subject to be more thoroughly operated upon by 
atmospheric influences, and in this way tending to correct the evil arising 
from too much or too little rain, is one of the processes that most likely would, 
be recommended and adopted to remedy the evil as above, supposed to grow 
out of some of the peculiarities of our climate. But should it fail in the 
object aimed at, should pears still continue to blight and crack, yet it is not to 
be doubted that the draining of the ground would have a highly beneficial 
effect upon the growth, the vigor, and health of the trees, remunerating the 
outlay by the general amelioration of the soil. Indeed, underground draining, 
one of the processes strongly urged as of great importance in preparing land 
for growing fruit trees, by those who are considered as authority upon the sub- 
ject of their cultivation, is being more and more generally practised, and is 
one of those processes of husbandry that, indispensable under some conditions, 
has been recommended as always exercising a beneficial influence under any 
circumstances. Mulching, or covering the ground where fruit is cultivated 
with litter, straw, or leaves, is another expedient that probably would be 
resorted to, to obviate the inequalities of climate and remedy the evils alluded 
to. And this too, it is believed, though it should fail in the results aimed at, 
would not fail to exercise a beneficial influence. The protecting the roots of 
trees in winter, by even a slight covering, is useful, and in some soils even 
absolutely necessary, not so much to guard against severe cold, though even 
in that respect it probably is of some efficacy, as to prevent, the heaving of the 
trees, by successive thawings and freezings of the ground, and in summer is 
useful to guard against the effects of intense heat or drought. 

The forced cultivation of fruit, in greenhouses or orchard-houses, cannot 
be expected to become very extensively or generally practiced in this vicinity, 
for the reason that it cannot be made to pay ; but must remain confined to 
amateurs in gardening, and to such as wish in this way to obtain a luxury for 
their own enjoyment. Some fine examples of this kind of culture, as applied 
more particularly to grapes and peaches, have been exhibited the past season, 
and the displays of it generally would compare favorably with those of past 
years. Orchard-houses are coming somewhat generally into use in England, 



FRUIT COMMITTEE'S REPORT. 29 

where, as they can be constructed cheaply, and require no fire heat, they may 
perhaps be found remunerative, or at least not involving any very great expen- 
diture of money, and where, too, in order to obtain fine fruit of any kind, some 
artificial means must be resorted to, to overcome the inclemency of the climate 
of most parts of the island ; but in this country, as they would require to be 
more strongly built, and need a heating apparatus, they must be more costly, 
and as in common seasons most of the finer fruits attain perfection without 
any assistance, the necessity for them does not exist. Still, this is a very 
interesting branch of culture ; dwarf trees grown in pots or tubs, filled with 
fine peaches, plums, pears, or other fruits, are beautiful objects, and to those 
who do not mind a moderate outlay to gratify at least a very innocent 
taste, is one that may be recommended, and it is, perhaps, the only mode of 
culture by which peaches can be grown with any certainty of success. 
Some fine specimens of this kind of cultivation were in the hall at the Annual 
Exhibition of the Society. Although a heating apparatus has been applied to 
those orchard-houses of which any accurate knowledge is possessed, yet per- 
haps the necessity for it might be obviated by, in the winter, plunging the 
pots containing the trees into litter, or some other covering, to protect them 
from the severe frosts ; if this should be found effectual it would very much 
diminish the cost of this mode of cultivation. 

The Annual Exhibition was this year held in the Music Hall, and was cer- 
tainly creditable to the Society, and the tables were well filled with the differ- 
ent kinds of fruit of superior quality. On a year so auspicious as the present, 
great expectations had very naturally been formed with respect to this exhibi- 
tion, and though it cannot be said that such were disappointed, yet it should 
be, perhaps, that they were not fully realized ; the deficiency, if any existed, 
was in this, that some kinds of fruit, more particularly apples and grapes, were 
not exhibited in as great variety as was anticipated. Nearly all the specimens 
exhibited were superior, there was none of an ordinary or inferior quality, as 
used formerly to be the case, when the premiums offered were for the greatest 
number of varieties, leading to a competition in presenting the greatest num- 
ber of varieties as well as in those which were best grown. And here, per- 
haps, it is proper to caution competitors for the premiums of the Society, 
against deviating from the conditions specified in the printed schedule thereof, 
and the necessity of strictly and literally adhering thereto, if such would 
avoid a rejection of collections no matter how otherwise meritorious. The 
varieties should be correctly named, each dish should contain the number of 
specimens named in the schedule, no more and no less, and any deviation from 
these or other established rules involves the performance of a disagreeable 
but at the same time necessary duty, by the Committee — the rejection of such 
collections. As on several occasions, during the past year, the performance of 
this duty was imposed on the Committee, it is wished to bring the subject par- 
ticularly to the notice of competitors. 

The Weekly Exhibitions, at the Rooms of the Society, have been continued 



30 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

through the year, and in view of the number of competitors thereat, and the 
quality of the various fiuits exhibited, tend to prove a continued and unabated 
interest by cultivators and amateurs in that branch of horticulture that is 
more particularly under the supervision of the Committee. 

The crop of strawberries was abundant, for a short period, at one time. 
Some fears were entertained that it might be cut short by a continuance of dry 
weather, but these fears were soon dispelled by copious and abundant rains, 
and no check to the growth and product of this fruit was experienced. The 
first display. of strawberries was made on June 15th, by several exhibitors, and 
the last on July 12th, the exhibitions in the interval between these periods 
having been varied in kinds, excellent in quality, and profuse in quantity. The 
deficiency that, for the past few years has seemed to exist in the display of 
this fruit, was this year wholly overcome, without any special means having 
been resorted to for this purpose. Several varieties new, or of recent produc- 
tion, have been exhibited the past season, some of native, others of foreign 
origin; among these may be named Downer's Prolific, Princess Frederick 
William, Triomphe de Gand, Imperatrice Eugenie, La Constant, Admiral 
Dundas, Ambrosia, and Emma. Of some of these, the specimens were of 
great size and beautv. Six berries of the Triomphe de Gand weighed 3 1-20 
ounces; six of the Imperatrice Eugenie, 4£ ounces; six of La Constant, 4 1-16 
ounces ; and six of Admiral Dundas, 4| ounces. With but two exceptions, 
of none of the newer varieties exhibited is any description attempted, neither 
is any expression of opinion with regard to them intended, and this exception 
is made because these two have each had the attention of cultivators specially 
called to them. It is not safe to express any decided opinion for or against a 
new fruit ; a single trial hardly justifies the formation of a deliberate judgment, 
and an expression of an opinion formed from it, might very probably tend to 
mislead. The Triomphe de Gand, though new here, has been cultivated for 
some time and very extensively by the Rev. Mr. Knox, of Pittsburgh, who has 
commended it very highly ; it is a large berry of good flavor, of a light red 
color, variable in form, the largest berries being coxco nb shaped, others con- 
ical, seems to be a strong growing variety, and is said by those who have 
grown it to be productive. La Constant has been grown for some years 
by Messrs. Hovey, who introduced it, and has been before spoken of in previ- 
ous reports ; it is very large, regularly conically shaped, of a bright red 
color, and good flavor, also said to be fertile and hardy. In appearance it is 
certainly most attractive, and a dish of fine berries of this variety, can hardly 
in beauty be surpassed. Both of these varieties come to us from Belgium, 
and although the varieties of Belgian origin seem better adapted to this coun- 
try than those of English parentage, yet it is believed that these, also, when 
subjected to the test of a general cultivation will be found, for the purposes of 
American growers, lar inferior to those of native origin, and that attempts to 
introduce them to general cultivation will, as it has done with the fine varie- 
ties of British origin, terminate in failure. If called upon to express an 



FRUIT COMMITTEE'S REPORT. 31 

opinion what varieties are best for general cultivation, a regard for truth would 
oblige the naming, as has heretofore been done, of those established favorites 
Hovey's Seedling, Jenny Lind, and the Boston and Brighton Pine. 

The crop of currants was most remarkable, and can never have been sur- 
passed, the failure of the past year having been more than compensated by 
the abundance of the present, as if literally two crops had been produced in 
one. There are now many different named varieties of this fruit, but in many 
of these but little difference can be detected, for the currant does not seem to 
sport much in its seedlings. Of the different varieties no observations are 
now felt to be necessary, for most of them have already been spoken of in 
preceding reports, and nothing is possessed to add thereto. 

Upon the exhibitions of the other smaller fruits, raspberries, blackberries, 
&c, no special comments are necessary ; the displays have been as abundant 
in quantity and as satisfactory in quality as usual. Of the Lawton Blackberry, 
some specimens exhibited by Mr. S. S. Lynde, of South Maiden, were of 
enormous size, probably the largest specimens of this fruit ever seen in the 
hall. 

On the 23d of August, Mr. James A. Stetson exhibited a dish of apricots, 
the first time for a long period that any specimens of this fruit have been ex- 
hibited ; it seems to have nearly gone out of cultivation. The display of plums, 
the past season, was much more satisfactory than usual; they were shown by 
several exhibitors in considerable variety, instead of, as for the last few years, 
to a very limited extent by one or two exhibitors only. This improvement is 
probably the result of the favorable circumstances of the past season, and does 
not, it is feared, indicate any permanent revival of this fruit, and of a check 
to the ravages of the disease that has nearly driven it from our gardens. 

In no previous year, since the formation of the Society, has there been a 
greater, if so great a crop of pears, as was produced the present. This abun- 
dance was confined, as it sometimes is, to no class of varieties, and to no 
particular situations or districts, but was universal wherever the pear tree is 
cultivated, and those of every variety have been loaded to breaking with 
fruit. Pears, too, have been not only abundant, but of uncommon size and 
beauty ; there has been little or no blight or cracking of the fruit, as is common 
with the Flemish Beauty, Beurre Diel, and some other kinds, but they have 
been almost universally smooth and f.ir. In some of the earlier varieties, 
those of the summer and early autumn, there seemed to be a deficiency of rich- 
ness and flavor, but this defect, if it existed with them, did not appear to ex- 
tend to those of a later season. There has been abundant displays of this 
fruit through the season, by numerous exhibitors, of fine specimens in great 
variety. There have been many new pears exhibited. Acquisitions by impor- 
tation from Europe are giving specimens of their fruits, and the results of ex- 
periments by native cultivators to produce new varieties from seed are being 
placed before the Society. Among those of foreign origin that have, as is 
supposed, fruited for the first time in this vicinity the past year, may be named, 



32 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

Esther Conte, Leonine Pinchard, Bergamotte Incomparable, Avocat Nelis, 
Alexandrine Douillard, Seraphin Ovyn, Anna Auduson, St. Vincent de Paul, 
Souvenier de Madame Treyvor, Lieutenant Poitevin, President de Page, 
Duchesse Helene de Orleans, and Maria Louise de Ucles. This list might be 
farther extended, but this is not thought necessary, as it would be neither 
safe or judicious to give descriptions or express opinions concerning new varie- 
ties, from having once seen a few specimens ; to do so would be but adding 
names to the list ; and yet it has been felt that the omission, in a report of the 
character of the present, of all mention of these novelties having fruited in 
this vicinity, and of their existence in collections in the neighborhood of 
Boston, was hardly justifiable. This mention of them, at least, serves as 
notice to such as may wish to increase collections by the addition of new 
kinds, that such wants may probably be supplied by our own without a resort 
to foreign nurseries. 

Of pears of native origin, specimens of three new seedling varieties were 
presented to the Committee, by Dr. S. A. Shurtleff, of Brookline, raised by 
him and being each of the first year of bearing. One named Admiral 
Farragut, another John Cotton, and the third unnamed. Admiral Farragut was 
a large pear of obovate form, with a long stem, green in color, flesh fine 
grained, melting, but not very juicy, subacid. The John Cotton was of 
medium size, obovate form, tapering towards the stem, skin of a pale yellow, 
flesh melting, juicy, slightly subacid, and moderately vinous ; season of both, 
middle of September. The unnamed variety was very large, and in shape, 
color, and character of the flesh, seemed almost a reproduction of the Diel ; 
its season, November. As has been said above, no reliable judgment can be 
formed of the value and character of a new fruit from once tasting it, and 
most especially does this apply to a new seedling pear in its first year of bear- 
ing, for pears of the first, and even of the first three or four years of bearing, 
furnish no sure and certain indication of what the variety may eventually 
prove, after it has by age become fixed and determined ; there being frequently 
with age an increase of size and a change in the period of ripening or other 
particulars. All that the Committee then feel justified in saying with respect 
to these seedlings is, that they, especially the two first named, produced a 
favorable impression. At the Annual Exhibition, Mr. Clapp had several of his 
seedlings on the tables, among others was one unnamed, but marked as No. 
21, that seemed to the Committee to be superior in flavor to the Clapp's Favorite, 
though not equal to that variety in size and beauty. 

The winter of 1860-61 was so destructive to the- peach, seriously injuring 
the bearing trees when such were not wholly destroyed, that a full crop of 
peaches for the last season was not to be reasonably expected. Yet, where 
from protection or other favorable circumstances, as was the case in some 
instances, the effects of the severity of that winter was obviated or diminished, 
from trees so favored a satisfactory crop of this fruit was obtained. The 
cherry, too, suffered so much in the winter referred to, that not only the crop 



FRUIT COMMITTEE'S REPORT. 33 

of the succeeding season was destroyed, but also the trees injured, so far as to 
leave but little hope of such a recovery, that a supply of this fruit for the 
present could be counted on. But these evil forebodings were to some extent 
falsified, and although the crop of cherries could not be characterized as 
abundant for the past season, yet it may be stated as having been on an average 
about half the usual product. On several occasions there were fine displays 
of this fruit, in more than one instance of very superior specimens, the varie- 
ties being for the most part Black Tartarian and Black Eagle. 

The cultivation of the grape continues, as it has for some time, to excite a 
great if not absorbing interest with fruit growers, and their efforts in this 
direction have certainly not been without favorable and encouraging indica- 
tions. When it is recollected that efforts, growing out of this interest to 
obtain a grape suited to the table, have succeeded in introducing to general 
notice such a grape as the Delaware, it cannot be said that such have been 
barren of results. And while it is not believed that any glowing anticipations 
are justifiable, that Massachusetts can ever be a vine growing and wine man- 
ufacturing region, yet to think that grapes may be produced, if they do 
not now exist, as it is believed they do, that shall furnish an agreeable fruit 
for the dessert, is not unreasonable. The great obstacle that the vine grower 
has to contend with is the mildew ; were it not for this, it is thought that in 
ordinary seasons grapes might, by properly selecting varieties, as for instance 
the Delaware, be grown and ripened in Massachusetts without difficulty. 
The past season must, on the whole, be considered as favorable for the grape ; 
it is true, that in many instances the mildew has been very destructive, but in 
others and more generally, the vines have escaped its ravages. The assertion 
that the season has been favorable is certainly sustained by the displays made 
the past season of this fruit, for never were finer specimens of the Isabella 
placed upon the tables of the Society than on one occasion, when even Ca- 
tawbas were also exhibited in as perfect state of ripeness and perfection as 
that variety ever attains in our climate. There have been some new or hitherto 
little known varieties of grapes exhibited, of which brief notice may not be 
thought out of place herein. One, which attracted the attention of the Com- 
mittee by its good quality, was called the Crevelin. But a single bunch of it, 
grown in Salern by Mr. Bosson, was exhibited at the Annual Exhibition. It 
was a black, not large berry, sweet and spirited, that made a favorable impres- 
sion on the Committee and all who tasted it ; it is an early grape, ripened the 
past year on a vine trained against a fence, on Sept. 14th. This variety may 
not be new, but it has never, as is believed, been before fruited in this vicinity ; 
it is, us is understood, an accidental seedling, and comes from Mr. Goodwin, of 
Kingston, Pennsylvania. Some specimens of a new seedling grape were pre- 
sented by Mr. Charles J. Power, of South Framingham, represented as a seed- 
ling from the Isabella, now in its third year of bearing, the vine being seven 
years old, and as fully ripe this year on Sept. loth; said to be an abundant 
bearer, the vine perfectly hardy, and that does not drop the berries; the vine 
3 



34 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

having been grown on an open fence without protection from the North. Mr. 
Powers stated that he was unavoidably prevented from showing the fruit in a 
perfect state at its maturity, and when seen at a later period it was not in a con- 
dition to justify the foi mation of an opinion as to its quality. Some specimens 
of new grapes from Mr. Charles Carpenter, of Kelly's Island, Ohio, were pre- 
sented by Mr. William Kenrick, named Lydia, Mary, Mottled, and Ellen. 
The specimens were in very bad condition and it was difficult to form, on that 
account, any opinion of their probable value. The two first named were white 
grapes, the third black, and the fourth of a dark amber color ; they had all 
small berries. So far as they could judge of them, in their then condition, it 
appeared to the Committee that Lydia was rather acid, that Mary was pretty 
good, with a thick skin, that the Mottled was sweet, good, th'ough pulpy, with a 
thick skin, and that the Ellen was rather subacid, with somewhat of a Catawba 
flavor. It may be considered as an established axiom that, though some varie- 
ties of grapes are sufficiently hardy to resist our winters, all are better for 
being laid down and protected. Mr. C. E. Grant, an experienced cultivator, 
attributes the superiority of his Isabella grapes this year, to the fact that his 
vines were laid down. 

To speak of the fruit product of that most valuable and most important of 
New England fruits, the apple, for the past year, is but to repeat what has 
already been said of others, that it was most abundant except in some regions 
where the canker worm prevailed. The area of the ravages of this pest seems 
to be yearly extending, although capable of being controlled or destroyed by the 
careful application to the trees of the proper remedial agents ; when unchecked, 
and left to pursue its work of devastation, it not only destroys the fruit crop of the 
year, but injures the trees and unfits them for bearing on the succeeding. The 
display of apples, at the Exhibitions of the Society, for the past year has been 
satisfactory, for although some little disappointment was felt at the Annual 
Show, that the display was not larger, yet no complaint on this or any other 
account with those of the Weekly Exhibitions are warranted by facts, for 
there has been constantly shown through their season perfect specimens of 
many varieties, by many contributors. 

The interest of a fund, bequeathed to the Society by one of its former asso- 
ciates, the late B. V. French, to encourage the cultivation of the apple, has 
been appropriated to the forming of two special premiums, called the French 
Plate, to be awarded yearly for this fruit. The past was the first year for 
awarding these premiums, that were offered for the best and second best dis- 
play of twenty varieties, to be exhibited on the first Saturday in November. 
There were this year but three competitors for these premiums, to one of 
which the first was awarded, the other two collections were ruled out by the 
Committee as not coming within the condition established by the Society, that 
all varieties offered must be correctly named. 

The contributions of different competitors for the various premiums have 
sometimes the past year been so superior, and at the same time so nearly alike 



FRUIT COMMITTEE'S REPORT. 35 

in quality, that the Committee has sometimes labored under considerable em- 
barrassment in making up their awards, an embarrassment that has been in- 
creased by the fact, that all the contributions for a particular premium are not 
always made on the same day. Under these circumstances, it may have 
happened that the Committee have in some instances failed to do that which 
they desired and intended in every case, equal and exact justice to all. 

An over supply of fruit has produced its natural effect upon the market, and 
caused prices for it to rule very low. This over supply, exceeding the demand, 
is probably to be mainly attributed to the most abundant crop, and cannot be, 
so far as this is the cause, permanent in its effects; but it may be that it arises 
in part from the fact that the great number of trees, especially of pears, and 
in pears was this excess most apparent, set out during the last few years, are 
now coming into bearing, and that it is their product that is creating a supply 
beyond the wants of the public. If this is so, if it should prove to be the 
case that the raising of fruit has been overdone in this vicinity, the natural 
consequence of an excess in production, low prices, must be expected to pre- 
vail, and no great recovery therefrom anticipated until an equality in produc- 
tion and consumption is restored by a diminution of the former or an increaae 
of the latter. 

With these observations, and the announcement of their awards of premi- 
ums that are hereto subjoined, the Committee have, with the termination of the 
period for which they were elected, arrived at the termination of their duties. 

For the Committee, 

JOSEPH S. CABOT, Chairman. 

Boston, December 20, 18G2. 



36 



MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 



PRIZES AWARDED FOR FRUITS DURING THE SEASON. 



For the best and most interesting exhibition of Fruits during the 
season, the Lowell Plate, to Hovey & Co., valued at, 
For the next best, to Henry Vandine, . 
For the next best, to J. W. Foster, 
For the next best, to Bowen Harrington, 
Apples. — For the best twelve Summer Apples, on or before the 
third Saturday in August, to J. A. Stetson, . 
For the next best, to Messrs. Walker &. Co., . 
For the next best, to Henry Vandine, . 
For the best twelve Autumn Apples, on or before the third Saturday 
in November, to James A. Stetson, . 
For the next best, to James Eustis, 
For the next best, to Bowen Harrington, 
For the best twelve Winter Apples, on or before the first Saturday 
in December, to Asa Clemens, 
For the next best, to John A. Kenrick, 
For the next best, to J. W. Foster, 
Special premium for the best twenty varieties of Apples, to be ex- 
hibited on the first Saturday in November, the French Plate, 
to Asa Clemens, valued at, . 
For the next best, the French Plate, not awarded, valued at, 
Apricots. — For the best twelve, on or before the third Saturday 
in August, to J. A. Stetson, ... 

For the next best, not awarded, 
Blackberries. — For the best specimens, not less than two boxes 
to Galen Merriam, ..... 
For the next best, to James Nugent, . 
For the next best, to J. W. Foster, 
For the next best, not awarded, 
Cherries. — For the best specimens, not less than two boxes, to 
Phineas J. Stone, ..... 
For the next best, to William Bacon, . 
For the next best, to Harvey Davis, 
Currants. — For the best specimens, not less than two boxes, to 
William H. Barnes, .... 

For the next best, to J. W. Foster, 
For the next best, to A. D. Williams, . 
Figs. — For the best twelve specimens, to Josiah Nevvhall, . 
For the next best to Abner Peirce, 



$15 CO 

10 00 

7 00 

5 00 

6 00 
4 00 

3 00 

6 00 

4 00 

3 00 

6 00 

4 00 
3 00 



20 00 
10 00 

3 00 

2 00 

5 00 

4 00 

3 00 

2 00 

4 00 

3 00 

2 00 

3 00 

2 00 

1 00 

3 00 

2 00 



FRUIT COMMITTEE'S REPORT. 



37 



Gooseberries. — For the best specimens, not less than two boxes, 
not awarded, ..... 

For the next best, not awarded, 
For the next best, not awarded, 
Grapes. — For the best specimens grown under glass, on or before 
the third Saturday in July, not less than two bunches, to R 
W. Turner, ..... 

For the next best, to Mrs. F. B. Durfee, 
For the next best, to Joseph Breck, 
For the best specimens grown under glass, subsequently to the 
third Saturday in July, to R. W. Turner, 
For the next best, to William H. Barnes, 
. For the next best, to R. S. Rogers, 
For the best specimens of Native Grapes, not less than six bunches 
to C. E. Grant, for Isabella, 
For the next best, to C. E. Grant, for Catawba, 
For the next best, to J. V. Wellington, 
For the next best, to George Davenport, 
For the next best, to Kendall Bailey, . 
Melons. — For the bestMuskmelon grown under glass, on or before 
the third Saturday in July, not awarded, 
For the best Muskrnelon, open culture, on or before the third Sat 

urday in September, to A. D. Webber, 
For the best Watermelon, on or before the third Saturday in Sep 
tember, not awarded, . . 

Nectarines. — For the best twelve specimens, to H. H. Hunne 
well, . . . . 

For the next best, not awarded, 
Peaches. — For the best twelve specimens grown under glass, on 
or before the third Saturday in July, to C. S. Holbrook, 
For the next best, to Oliver Bennet, 
For the next best, to C. W. Power, .. 
For the next best, not awarded, 
For the best collection during the season, not awarded, 
For the best twelve specimens, open culture, to Frederick Clapp, 
For the next best, not awarded, 
For the next best, not awarded, 
For the next best, not awarded, 
Pears. — For the best twelve Summer Pears, on or before the third 
Saturday in August, to William R. Austin, . 
For the next best, to Henry Vandine, . 
For the next best, to Messrs. Hovey & Co., 
For the best twelve Autumn Pears, on or before the third Saturday 
in November, to John R. Poor, . 



8 00 



38 



MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 



For the next best, to John R. Poor, 
For the next best, to Harvey Davis, . . . 

For the next best, to Henry Vandine, . 
For the best twelve Winter Pears, on or before the first Saturday in 
December, to John R. Poor, 
For the next best, to A. J. Dean, 
For the next best, to William Bacon, . 
For the next best, to Henry Vandine, . 
Plums. — For the best twelve specimens, to A. J. Dean, 
For the next best, to William Bacon, . 
For the next best, to Francis Dana, 
Quinces. — For the best twelve specimens, not awarded, . 
For the next best, not awarded, . . . . 

Raspberries. — For the best specimens, not less than three boxes 
to J. W. Foster, ..... 

For the next best, to William H. Barnes, 

For the next best, not awarded, 

For the next best, not awarded, 

Strawberries. — For the best display during the season, to Messrs 

Hovey &. Co., ...... 

For the best collection shown at one time, not less than four varie 

ties, to Messrs. Hovey & Co., 
For the best specimens, not less than two boxes, to Messrs. Hovey 

&L Co., . . 

For the next best, to J. W. Foster, 
For the next best, to W. C. Strong, 
For the next best, to J. W. Foster, 



$6 00 


4 00 


3 00 


8 00 


6 00 


5 00 


4 00 


4 00 


3 00 


2 00 


3 00 


2 00 


4 00 


3 00 


2 00 


1 00 



10 00 

6 00 

5 00 
4 00 
3 00 
2 00 



GRATUITIES FOR EXHIBITIONS DURING THE SEASON. 



To John F. Allen, 












$10 00 


" William Kenrick, 












. 10 00 


" Walker & Co., 












5 00 


" James Eustis, . 












5 00 


" J. B. Loomis, . 












3 00 


" W. B. Butterfield, 












3 00 


" R. W. Ames, . 












4 00 


" W. C. Strong, 












3 00 


" Francis Dana, . 












4 00 


" A. W. Spencer, 












2 00 


" G. Chilson, 












2 00 


" P. J. Stone, . 












2 00 


" Charles Burchard, 












2 00 


" F. Winship, . 












2 00 



FRUIT COMMITTEE S REPORT. 



39 



PRIZES FOR FRUITS AWARDED AT THE ANNUAL 

EXHIBITION. 



Apples. — For the best twenty varieties, of twelve specimens each, 

the Lyman Plate, to Asa Clemens, valued at, 

For the next best, to A. D. Williams, . 

For the next best, to Frederick Clapp, 

For the best fifteen varieties, of twelve specimens each, to Josiah 

Newhall, 

For the next best, to Benjamin Bruce, 

For the next best, to John Gilbert, 

For the best ten varieties, of twelve specimens each, to J. W 

Foster, 

For the next best, to Bowen Harrington, 

For the next best, to Hovey & Co., 

For the best five varieties, of twelve specimens 

Birnes, .... 

For the next best, to W. W. Wheildon, 

For the next best, to J. W. Manning, . 

For the best dish, twelve specimens of one variety 

For the next best, to James N. Stetson, 

For the next best, to Elijah H. Luke, . 

For the next best, to James Nugent, . 

Pears. — For the best twenty varieties, of twelve 

to Harvey Davis, 

For the next best, to John Gordon, 

For the next best, to William R. Austin, 

For the best fifteen varieties, of twelve specimens each, to Josiah 

Stickney, .... 

For the next best, to John R. Poor, 

For the next best, to W. A Crafts, 

For the best ten varieties, of twelve specimens each, to Augustus 

Parker, .... 

For the next best, to Azel Bowditch, . 

For the next best, to Jacob Eaton, 

For the best five varieties, of twelve specimens 

Nudd, .... 

For the next best, to George A. Mudge, 

For the next best, to R. B. Leuchars, . 



each, to W. H 



, to James" Eustis 



specimens each 



each, to Jacob 



$20 00 

15 00 
12 00 

12 00 

10 00 
8 00 

8 00 
6 00 

5 00 

6 00 
5 00 

4 00 

5 00 

4 00 

3 00 
2 00 

25 00 
20 00 

16 00 

15 00 
12 00 

10 00 

10 00 
8 00 
G 00 

G 00 

5 00 

4 00 



40 



MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 



an four varieties 



four varieties, to 



For the best dish of pears, twelve specimens of one variety, to 

Josiah Stickney, 

For the next best, to William R. Austin, 

For the next best, to Jacob Eaton, 

For the next best, to J. W. Hollis, 

Peaches. — For the best collection of not more th 

to Asa Clemens, 

For the next best, to Frederick Clapp, 

For the ne^t best, to Francis Dana, 

For the next best, to R. W. Ames, 

Plums. — For the best collection, not more than 

Henry Vandine, 

For the next best, to Thomas Hastings, 

For the next best, not awarded, 

For the next best, not awarded, 

Grapes, Foreign. — For the best five varieties, two bunches each 

to R. W. Turner, . 

For the next best, to R. S. Rogers, 

For the next best, not awarded, 

For the next best, not awarded, 

For the bett two varieties, two bunches each, to 

For the next best, to C. E. Grant, 

For the next best, not awarded, 

For the next best, not awarded, 

/For the best collection, not less than six varieties, to Mrs. F. B 

Durfee, .... 

For the next best, to Oliver Bennet, . 

For the next best, to Joseph Breck, 

JPoi the next best, not awarded, 

Grapes, Native. — For the best specimens, to W 

For the next best, to C. E. Grant, 

For the next best, to C. J. Power, . . 

For the next best, to J. V. Wellington, 

For the next best, to Asa Clemens, 



W. H. Barnes, 



. C. Strong, 



#5 00 

4 00 

3 00 

2 00 

5 00 

4 00 

3 00 

2 00 

5 00 

4 00 

3 00 

2 00 

10 00 
8 00 

6 00 

4 00 

5 00 
4 00 

3 00 

2 00 

10 00 
8 00 

6 00 

4 00 
6 00 

5 00 
4 00 

3 00 
2 00 



GRATUITIES 


AWARDED AT THE ANNUAL EXHIBITION. 


To A. D. Williams 


, for 


apples, . . . . 3 00 


" Annie. Jenkins, 


< 


do., . , . 3 00 


*« J. B. Judkins, 




do., . . . . 3 00 


" R. W. Turner, 




do., . . , . 2 00 


" Nahum Smith, 




do., . . , . 2 00 


" S. A. Bemis, 




do., . . , . 2 00 



FRUIT COMMITTEE'S REPORT. 



41 



\) John A- Kenrick, 


fo 


r apples, 




" S. W. Fowle, 




do., 




M Walker & Co., 




do., 




" John Holden, 




do., 




" Parker Barnes, 




do., 




" Dr. J. Underbill, 


for 


grapes, . 




'• Newell Harding', 




do., 




" John Reed, 




do., 




" R. B. Davis, 


for 


aeaches, 




" M. H. Simpson, 




do., 




" II. H. Hunnewell, 


for 


peach tre 


3 from an orcharc 


" James M. Codman, 


do. 


do. 


" Hovey & Co., 


for pears, 




" M. P. Wilder, 




do., 




" Walker & Co., 




do., 




" H. Vandine, 




do., 




" R. S. Rogers, 




do., 




" N. R. Child 




do., 




" Joseph Breck, 




do., 




" Samuel Sweetser, 




do., 




" E. C. Stevens, 




do., 




" Spooner & Parkman, 


do., 




" C. N. Bracket, 




do., 




" M. C. Warren, 




do., 




" John Savage, Jr., 




do., 




" Abner Peirce, 




do., 




" R. W. Ames, 




do., 




" W. C. Storey, 




do., 




" G. W. Ireland, 




do., 




" John Parker, 




do., 




" E. A. Storey, 




do., 




" A. D. Williams. 




do., 




" John A. Kenrick, 




do., 




" J. B. Judkins, 




do., 




" S. Oakman, 




do., 




" R. W. Eldridge, 




do., 




" R. S. Frost, 




do., 




" Elbridge Wason, 




do., 




" John L. DeWolf, 




do., 




" F. H. Corey, 




do., 




" D. A. Marret, 




do., 




« Henry Y. Hill, 




do., 




" J. E. M. Gilley, 




do , 




** Mrs. J. B. Fobes, 


for Figs, 





do., 



$1 00 


1 00 


1 00 


1 00 


] 00 


2 00 


2 00 


2 00 


2 00 


2 00 


2 00 


2 00 


12 00 


8 00 


8 00 


8 00 


6 00 


6 00 


5 CO 


5 00 


5 00 


5 00 


4 00 


3 00 


3 00 


3 00 


2 00 


2 00 


2 00 


2 00 


2 00 


2 00 


2 00 


2 00 


1 00 


1 00 


1 00 


1 00 


1 00 


1 00 


1 00 


1 00 


1 00 


1 00 



42 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

Amount appropriated for Weekly Exhibitions, 
Amount appropriated for Annual Exhibitions. 
Amount appropriated for Gratuities, 

Total, . . . 

Amount awarded at Weekly Exhibitions, .. 
Amount awarded at Annual Exhibition, 
Amount awarded in Gratuities, 

Amount of appropriation unexpended, . . . . $110 00 



. 


$380 00 


. 


394 00 


• 


226 00 


# 


1,000 00 


322 00 




370 00 




198 00 






890 00 



VEGETABLE COMMITTEE'S REPORT. 43 

REPORT OF THE COMMITTEE ON VEGETABLES. 

For the Year 1862. 
BY DANIEL T. CUTLTI3, CHAIRMAN. 

In fulfilling their duties to the Society for another year, your Committee are 
not unmindful of the importance of the subject committed to their charge, or 
the impossibility of doing full justice to it in the limits allotted to their official 
record. In submitting this, their report, therefore, they propose to note promi- 
nent facts which have fallen under their observation, while they must neces- 
sarily pass over many minor details which are of interest, chiefly to the scien- 
tific horticulturist. Though there is little scope perhaps, for the indulgence of 
taste and fancy, in the culture of vegetables designed simply for food, yet they 
are happy to state that the tables allotted to this department of the Society's 
Exhibitions, during the past season, have presented substantial attractions to 
the practical public mind, as indicating the steady progress of utilitarian ideas, 
and the interest which is taken in th'»se agricultural improvements which 
minister to the comfort and welfare of the masses. They are gratified to note 
also, that while these exhibitions have developed marked improvement in pro- 
duction and quality of culinary vegetables, they have also led to a more ex- 
tended competition for the Society's premiums, which is worthy of all praise, 
and promises the most favorable results in eliciting a wider range of experi- 
ment, scientific investigation, and a comparison of the varied experience 
incident to peculiarities of soil and modes of cultivation. Though many on 
our current list of exhibitors are amateurs in this branch of horticulture, and 
have entered this field of competition for the first time, during the past season, 
they have been most cordially welcomed by the Committee, and however some 
of them may lack the extended facilities and years of experience, which 
favor the operations of older contributors, their enterprising and remarkably 
successful efforts have been none the less valuable or worthy of attention. 
All who have contributed to the stock of interest and information in this 
department are entitled to the thanks of the Society and the public. 

While the past season rns not been noted by the introduction of any new 
varieties of standard vegetables, it has been one of very successful and exten- 
sive production, and crops of all kinds have been satisfactory and remunera- 
tive. The specimens submitted to this Board have been uniformly, as well as 
in the average, fine, healthy, and well developed, such as which, with nature 
and art comDined, seldom fail to reward the industrious tiller of the soil. 

Those of our gardeners who have made it a specialty have brought the 
tomato to a high degree of perfection, and most of its numerous varieties have 
been cultivated during the past year with great success. In their last Annual 
Report your Committee alluded to the introduction of the new French Tree 
Tomato, and its claims. These have been extensively and thoroughly tested 
in this vicinity, since that time, and though its fruit is large, finely colored, 



44 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

and of superior flavor, in other respects it has hardly come up to general ex- 
pectation as a profitable variety for market culture. But whether this failure 
is to be attributed to a want of experience and skill in managing the plants in 
their early stages, or to the circumstance that our New England summer is too 
brief to bring it to maturity, it is certain that among us it has not equalled in 
productiveness the older and established varieties. 

The new Scarlet Egg Plant was shown by several contributors and has been 
much admired. Its brilliant color alone must render it valuable as a garden 
ornament, arid for garnishing purposes there can be nothing in the whole 
range of vegetable products more showy and beautiful. 

The specimens of early cabbage exhibited in the beginning of the season 
were of remarkable excellence, and have seldom, if ever, been excelled in 
weight, solidity, and perfection of growth. 

The frosts of May and June, in some of the suburban towns, did consider- 
able injury to the early succulent plants, and so much retarded their growth, 
that not being sufficiently matured to meet the requirements of the schedule, 
they were not offered for the Society's premiums. This was particularly the 
case with beans, peas, and cauliflowers, the last of which have produced but 
indifferent crops as compared to those of former seasons. 

Favored by the abundant moisture prevailing throughout the season the root 
crops have been generally above the average standard both as to quantity and 
quality ; the samples of all kinds contributed to the Society's Exhibitions, as 
well as the general stocks in the market, being of handsome proportions, fair 
surface and sound texture. 

During the last few years a great improvement has been noted in the carrot 
crop, which is, perhaps, in a great measure attributable to the recent introduc- 
tion of new varieties from France and England. Much more attention is now 
given to the culture of this vegetable than heretofore, as it enters largely into 
general consumption, both for stock raising and culinary purposes. We know 
of no class of domestic animals that is not vastly and rapidly improved in 
being fed on this crop, and it is understood that eminent French physicians 
commend it highly, and prescribe it with the most beneficial results, as a 
medicinal diet for billious and intestinal diseases. 

Our Annual Exhibition was as satisfactory as could have been expected 
under the circumstances, considering that the chief interest of the occa- 
sion, as governed by the specialty of the season, centred in the fruit depart- 
ment. Indeed, so overburdened were the hands of the principal contributors 
with their fruit specimens, that they generally found it impossible to bestow 
even a small share of their time and attention upon the vegetable department, 
which was consequently dependent in a great measure, for its interest, upon 
the efforts of new and chance exhibitors. Nevertheless, the display in this 
latter department was far from being meagre or unattractive, and was highly 
creditable to the agricultural skill and enterprise of this section of the country. 
But your Committee may be allowed to hint in passing, that the space in 



VEGETABLE COMMITTEE'S REPORT. 45 

Music Hall, allotted to their peculiar province, is not so light and cheerful as 
it ought to be, and that in its obscurity many of the dark colored vegetables, 
which are absorbent of light, do not show to the best possible advantage. 

The display of squashes this season was very fine, and with their rich color- 
ing and rotund forms these favorite vegetables must always constitute a promi- 
nent feature of our exhibitions. By way of digression, it may not be inappro- 
priate to observe in this connection, that at the late Novel Exhibition held at 
the office of the American Agriculturist, in New York City, the " Hubbard 
Squash," grown by M. C. Day, of North Leominster, Mass., received the first 
prize of $10 as the best cooking variety. This is, indeed, a most satisfactory 
endorsement of the opinions of this Society, as previously expressed in its 
awards for the introduction of this squash, and reccmmendations for general 
cultivation. 

The display of Egg Plants exhibited a marked improvement over former 
specimens, and the Committee are confident, when this vegetable becomes 
better known, and its delicacy and richness of flavor are fairly tested, by being 
placed on our tables properly cooked, that it will be nearly, if not quite as 
popular as the tomato. 

The fine heads of cauliflower, which usually grace our Annual Exhibition, 
were greatly missed on the last occasion — the most assiduous cultivators, in 
many instances, having failed to obtain a single fair specimen of this vegetable 
during the season. What may have been the cause of this general failure 
your Committee are at a loss to conjecture, as the ordinary cabbage crop was 
never finer, and larger, and more solid specimens have rarely been produced, 
or shown in any previous year. 

Of turnips, J. B. Moore, of Concord, Mass., presented thirty-three named 
varieties, produced from such seed as is generally obtained from our horticul- 
tural warehouses. They were of exceedingly various form and texture, and 
to the curious and comparative observer added much to the interest of the 
exhibition. 

The fine tobacco plants shown constituted a novel feature in this department. 
They were the contributions of several amvteur cultivators, and judging from 
their perfect and luxuriant growth, there would seem to be no difficulty in 
securing a remunerative crop in this section in ordinary seasons. There were 
also upon the tables the leaves of these plants, which had partially or wholly 
undergone the process of curing, and the Committee were informed that in 
Cambridgeport, where some of them grew, three tons of cured tobacco could 
be easily produced to the acre. Indeed, after seeing the mammoth pears 
grown in the same locality, the Committee are by no means inclined to ques- 
tion the accuracy of this statement, however extravagent it may appear. 

They would close this, perhaps too lengthy report, by remarking that their 
labors and observations during the past year have been full of encouragement 
for the future, and abundantly attest the increasing utility and general interest 
manifested in the operations of this Society. 



46 



MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 



PREMIUMS AWARDED AT THE WEEKLY EXHIBITIONS. 



Asparagus. — For the best, to J. B. Moore, . . . ' . $ 

For the next best, to Walter Russell, .... 

For the next best, to Anthony Hatch, .... 
Beets. — For tho best, to Walter Russell, for Turnip Rooted, 

For the next best, to Josiah Crosby, do., 

For the next best, to Bowen Harrington, do., 
Beans. — For the best, to Bowen Harrington, for Early Shelled, 
For the best, to John Ruggles, for Large Lima, 

For the next best, to Samuel Sweetser, do., 
Cabbages. — For the best, to Josinh Crosby, for Early Ox Heart, 

For the next best, to Walter Russell, for Early Wakefield, 
Carrots. — For the best, to Josiah Crosby, for Early Short Scarlet, . 
Cauliflowers. — For the best Early, to Elbridge Wason, for Early Paris, 

For the best Late, to G. W. Pierce, for Lenormand's, 
Celery. — For the best, to Josiah Crosby, for Crosby's Boston 
Market, . . . . . . . 

For the next best, to Bowen Harrington, for Cole's Dwarf, 
Corn. — For the best, to Josiah Crosby, for Sweet Corn, 

For the next best, to Jonas Gammell, for Sweet Corn, . 
CucuMBEhS. — For the best, under glass, to R. W. Turner, for Ken- 
yon's Improved Sion House, ..... 

For the next best, under glass, to C. S. Holbrook, for Irishman, 
For the best, open culture, to Bowen Harrington, for White Spine, 

For the next best, to G. W. Pierce, for do., 

Egg Plants. — For the best, to C. N. Bracket, for Large Purple, 

For the next best, to Elbridge Wason, for Long Purple, 
Lettuce. — For the best, to T. Smallwood, for Cabbage, 

For the next best, to B. Harrington, for Boston Market Curled, 

For the next best, to G. A. Mudge, for Cabbage, 
Onions. — For the best, to Josiah Crosby, 

For the next best, to G. W. Pierce, 
Potatoes. — For the best, to Josiah Crosby, for Nichols' Early, 

For the next best, to Augustus Parker, for Dikeman, 
Peas.- For the best Early, to James Nugent, for Dan. O'Rourke, 
weight, 1 peck, 9 lbs., ..... 

For the best Late, to Bowen Harrington, for Victoria Marrow, 
Rhubarb. — For the best, to Barnes & Washburn, for Prince Im- 
perial, ....... 

For the next best, to A. D. Webber, for Victoria, 

For the next best, to W. J. Buckminster, for Linnceus, . 



;4 00 

3 00 

2 CO 

4 00 

3 00 

2 00 

3 00 
3 00 

2 00 

3 00 

2 00 

3 CO 

4 00 
4 00 

3 00 

3 00 

4 00 

3 00 

4 00 
3 00 
3 00 

2 00 

3 00 



00 
00 
00 



2 00 

3 00 
2 00 



4 00 


3 00 


4 00 


3 00 


4 00 


3 00 


2 00 



VEGETABLE COMMITTEE S REPORT. 



47 



Squashes. — For the best, to Josiah Crosby, for Early Bush, 
For the best Late, to Bowen Harrington, for Canada, 

Tomatoes. — For the best, to J. B. Moore, for Mexican, 
For the next best, to C. N. Bracket, for Smooth Red, 
For the next best, to C. J. Power, for Apple, 

Tdrnips. — For the best, to Jonas Gamrnell, for White Flat, 



. #4 00 


3 00 


4 00 


3 00 


2 00 


3 00 



GRATUITIES PREVIOUS TO THE OPENING OF THE HALL. 

To F. Trabaunt, for Curled Endive, &c, . . . . $3 00 

•« T. Small wood, for Lettuce, . . . . .100 

" R W. Turner, for Early Frame Cucumbers, Kenyon's Improved 

Sion House, . . . . . . 3 00 



GRATUITIES FOR THE WEEKLY EXHIBITIONS 

To G. W. Pierce, for Radishes, 
" S. Oliver, Jr., for Tomatoes, 
" J. Nugent, for new Early Peas, 
" W. C. Strong, for varieties of Tomatoes, . 
" F. T. Bush, for Lettuce, Imperial Coss, 
" F. Trabaunt, for Kohl Rabbi, or Turnip Rooted Cabbage 
" S. A. Merrill, for Cabbages, • . 

" Samuel Sweetser, for Stringless Beans, . 
" C. N. Bracket, for Tree and other varieties of Tomatoes 
44 C. N. Bracket, for Cucumbers, 
" J. B. Moore, for Turnips, varieties, 
" F. T. Bush, for Field Corn, 
" Bowen Harrington, for Exhibition during the Season, 





$2 00 




3 00 




,1 00 




3 00 




1 00 


1 


1 00 




1 CO 




2 00 


, 


2 00 




1 00 




3 00 




1 00 




7 00 



PREMIUMS AWARDED AT THE ANNUAL EXHIBITION. 

Beets. — For the best, to G. W. Pierce, for Turnip Rooted, 

For the next best, to Josiah Crosby, 

For the next best, to D. & G. F. Stone, . 
For the best, to Josiah Crosby, for Long Blood, 

For the next best, to G. W. Pierce, 

For the next best, to S. A. Merrill, . 
Carrots. — For the best, to G. W. Pierce, for Early Short Scarlet, 

For the next best, to D. & G. F. Stone, do., 

For the next best, to Josiah Crosby, do., 

For the best, to G. W. Pierce, for Long Orange, . 

For the next best, to Josiah Crosby, do., 

For the next best, to Walter Russell, do., 



. $4 00 


3 00 


2 00 


4 00 


3 00 


2 00 


4 00 


3 00 


2 00 


4 00 


3 00 


2 00 



4S 



MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOC/ETY. 



00 
00 
00 

00 



Corn. — For the best, to Augustus Parker, for Sweet Corn, Burr's 

Improved, . . . . . . $4 00 

For the next best, to Bowen Harrington, do., . 3 00 

For the next best, to S. A. Merrill, do., . 2 00 

For the best, to F. T. Bush, for Yellow or Field, . . 3 00 

For the next best, to Augustus Parker, do., . . 2 00 

Cabbages. — For the best, to S. A. Merrill, for Drumhead, . 4 00 

For the next best, to S. W. Hathaway, . . . 3 00 

For the best " Single Specimen." to S. A. Merrill, 51 lbs., . 2 00 

Melons. — For the best, to J. F. C. Hyde, for Green Flesh, . 4 00 

For the next best, to S. S. Bncklin, do., . . 3 00 

For the next best, to G. VV. Pierce, do., . . 2 00 

For the best, to S. S. Bucklin, for Watermelon, Mountain Sweet, 3 

Parsnips. — For the best, to Geo. W. Harding, for Turnip Rooted, . 4 

For the best, to Augustus Parker, for Long Dutch, . 4 

For the next best, to D. & G. F. Stone, do., . . .3 

For the next best, to J. B. Moore, do., . . 2 00 

Squashes. — For the best, to J. J. H. Gregory, for Marrow, . 4 00 

For the next best, to Augustus Parker, do., . 3 00 

For the next best, to Bowen Harrington, do., . . 2 00 

For the best, to Seth W. Hathaway, for Hubbard, . 4 00 

For the next best, to J. J. H. Gregory, do., . . 3 00 

For the next best, to Augustus Parker, do., . . 2 00 

For the best, to Walter Russell, for Canada, . 4 00 

For the next best, to Bowen Harrington, do., . . 3 00 

For the next best, to Augustus Parker, do., . . . 2 00 

For the best, to H. H. Hunnewell, for Mammoth, weight 158 

pounds, ..... Society's Silver Medal. 

For the next best, to Josiah Newhall, weight 153 pounds, . 3 

Turnips. — For the best, to S. A. Merrill, for Purple Top, . . 4 

For the next best, to John B. Moore, for White Flat, . . 3 

For the next best, to James Nugent, for Purple Top, . 2 00 

Tomatoes. — For the best, to S. A. Merrill, . . . 4 00 

For the next best, to Hovey & Co., . . . 3 00 

For the next best, to C. N. Bracket, . . . 2 00 

Egg Plants. — For the best, to Geo. W. Harding, for Large Purple, 4 00 

For the next best, to S. A. Merrill, do., . 3 00 

For the next best, to C. N. Bracket, do., . 2 00 



00 
00 
00 



GRATUITIES AWARDED AT THE ANNUAL EXHIBITION. 

. $2 00 



To W. C. Harding, for Mangels and Carrots, 

" John Wright, for collection, Squashes, &c, grown on Warren 

Bridge, ........ 

" Augustus Parker, for collection, . 



3 00 
2 00 



VEGETABLE COMMITTEE 3 REPORT. 



40 



To Elbridge Wason, for collection, 
" Warren Heustis, for squashes, 
" G. W. Pierce, for martynia and melons 
" Seth W. Hathaway, for onions, 
" Henry Y. Hill, for collection, 
" Josiah Crosby, for celery, . 

" Joseph Breck, for collection of ornamental gourds 
" C. Kirmes, for Mammoth squash, . 
" Messrs. Burr, Puritan squashes, 
" John Ruggles, for Lima beans, 
" E. A. Storey, for pumpkins, 
" E. C. Stevens, for Yellow pumpkins, 
" J. B. Judkins, for tomatoes, 
" C. N. Bracket, for Mammoth squashes, 
" Daniel Murray, for Mammoth tomatoes, 
" Bowen Harrington, for Mammoth squashes 
" Bowen Harrington, for tobacco plants, 
" George W. Harding, for tobacco plant, cotton plant, and 

bles, .... 

" J. B. Moore, for turnips, . 
" S. A. Merrill, for potatoes, 
" S. A. Merrill, for collection, 
" S. A. Merrill, for Mammoth squashes, 
" Bowen Harrington, for collection, . 
" D. & G. F. Stone, for collection, . 
" James McTear, for collection, 
" Elbridge Wason, for Qgg plants, . 
" James Mitchell, for beets and carrots, 
" Hovey & Co., for collection, 
" Walter Russell, for collection, 
" Samuel Sweetser, for beans, 
" Dr. S. A. Bemis, for Canada corn, 
" Nelson L. Perkins, for Mammoth squash, 



vegeta 



#2 00 


1 00 


2 00 


1 00 


3 00 


2 00 


5 00 


2 00 


2 00 


1 00 


1 00 


2 00 


2 00 


2 00 


1 00 


2 00 


3 00 


4 00 


3 00 


5 00 


3 00 


2 00 


3 00 


3 00 


1 00 


1 00 


1 00 


2 00 


3 00 


1 00 


1 00 


1 00 



50 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

REPORT OF THE COMMITTEE ON THE LIBRARY. 

For the Year 1862. 
BY THE CHAIRMAN. 

During the past year the Library Committee have continued to direct their 
efforts to the improvement of the class of books in the Library. 

It has been, their aim to purchase only such books as would come into con- 
stant service, rejecting those which, although of great value, were of less use 
to the practical gardener, or only remarkable for the beauty of execution or 
elegance of illustration. These latter works, though of much value and 
greatly needed in our Library, must be the acquisitions of future years, when 
our funds are more ample and larger appropriations can be made. 

The sum appropriated for the expenses and increase of the Library during 
the year 1862 was mostly expended in the purchase of valuable standard 
works, and the partial completion of imperfect sets, of which our Library con- 
tained many. It is a cause for great congratulation, that the Committee have 
been able during the past two years to procure so many of the missing num- 
bers ; the completion of Curtis's Botanical Magazine, of which mention was 
made in the last report, was a piece of singular good fortune, as unexpected 
as it was remarkable, — for this we are indebted to the exertions of a member 
of the Committee. 

A large part of the appropriation for the present year was required to meet 
this call, and the expenses of periodicals and binding being also large, the 
fund for new purchases was greatly reduced. 

The Committee can note with pleasure, the gradual but steady improvement 
of the Library, both in quality and quantity of books. The additions of the 
past few years have supplied wants in many departments, and with only equal 
additions, our Library will, in the course of a few years, be one of which we 
may well be proud. The Library of a Society like our own, is one of its most 
potent means of success and usefulness ; it is an aid to, and contributes to the 
efficiency of all the other departments, and we trust the time will soon come, 
when the appropriation for its support and increase, will be at least equal to 
that given to any other department. The money spent in prizes and gratuities 
for fruits, flowers, and vegetables, is doubtless productive of much good, but 
its permanent benefit, both to individual members and to the Society, is but 
small compared with that derived from a well stocked and carefully selected 
library ; from that the benefit is permanent and continually increasing, reach- 
ing all and ever growing in value. It is a well known fact, that no better 
investment, pecuniarily considered, can be found, than a Library of choice 
standard works ; in this connection it is well to consider, that botanical works 
are of a class which soon grow out of print and become scarce, gaining new 
value with every year. Although the event of a sale of the Society's Library 



LIBRARY COMMITTEE'S REPORT. 51 

is a remotest contingency, yet this view of the Library appropriation may be 
influential with some, to whom a mere collection of books would be of little 
value for reading. 

The Committee would also recommend that the Library be insured for its 
full value ; our building is not fire proof; the destruction of our Library would 
be an irreparable loss, as we have many books which no money could replace, 
but we have also very many of great value, which in event of their destruc- 
tion could be repurchased, and it therefore becomes a duty to provide the means 
of replacing them should any loss occur. 

The Reading: Room has become an established institution, and has been a 
source of great pleasure and advantage to many of our members. 

It has been constantly supplied with all the best periodicals, both foreign 
and domestic. 

The number of books taken from the Library during the past year shows a 
gratifying interest, and we cannot but feel that the Library has been a great 
source of usefulness. 

The regular meetings of the Committee have been for many reasons inter- 
rupted, but have been held except during the months of June, July, and 
August. The business transacted has been chiefly for the better regulation of 
the Library, and is of little public interest. 

During the month of August, Mr. Lathrop, who had most acceptably filled 
the office of Secretary of the Committee, resigned his position on the Library 
Committee, having accepted a Captaincy in the 38th Massachusetts Regiment. 
It was not deemed advisable to fill the vacancy on the Committee, thus occa- 
sioned, as the year was so near its close, and as no important business was 
likely to come before the Committee; the post of Secretary has since been 
filled by Mr. Spooner, as Secretary pro tern. 

A large expenditure has been made for binding during the past year; it has 
been the aim to present the books in strong serviceable dress ; in some few 
cases it has been deemed advisable to procure more elegant binding, the value 
of the work meriting it. 

Some rare and valuable books have been added to the "List of Books not 
to be taken from the Library Room," and all rare books as procured are so 
added — the wisdom of this is evident. These books are, however, always 
accessible to any member for examination or reference, on application to the 
Librarian ; the only rule in relation to them is that prohibiting their being 
taken from the Library Room. 

The following are the books now on the list : — 

Thornton's Sexual System. 

Burnett's Encyclopaedia of Useful and Ornamental Plants. 

Iconographie du Camellia. 

Hooker's Flora Boreali Americana. 

Fruits of America. 

Histoire du Culture de Mais, very rare, 



52 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

Michaux and Nuttall's Sylva. 

Nature Printed British Ferns. 

Nature Printed British Sea Weeds. 

Audubon's Birds. 

Hooker's Himalayan Plants. 

Transactions of the Massachusetts Horticultural Society, from 1829 to 1842. 

Duhamel Fruits. 

Hooker's Himalayan Rhododendrons. 

Allen's Victoria Regia. 

Pavilion de Brighton. 

Dana's Zoophytes and Crustacea. 

Agassiz's Contributions to Natural History. 

Loudon's Laying out of Farms. 

Album of Pomology. 

Transactions of Linnsean Society. 

Jardin Frutier. 

Transactions of London Horticultural Society. 

Lambert's Genus Pinus. 

Curtis's Botanical Magazine, before vol. 80. 

Illustrated Bouquet. 

Pescatore Orchidaceous Plants. 

One copy of Harris on Insects, 

Gray's Botany of U. S. Exploring Expedition. 

The following is the list of Foreign Periodicals which have been received 
during the past year : — 
Revue Horticole. 
L'lllustration Horticole. 
Curtis's Botanical Magazine. 
The Florist. 

The Floricultural Cabinet. 
The Gardeners' Chronicle. 
The Farmers' Magazine. 
The Phytologist. 

The Journal of the Royal Agricultural Society of England. 
Transactions of the Highland Agricultural Society of Scotland. 
Journal of the Bath and West of England Agricultural Society. 
Floral Magazine. 
Cottage Gardener. 
The Illustrated Bouquet. 
Decaisne's Jardin Frutier. 
Hortus Lindenianus. 

The following Domestic Periodicals have been taken : — 

The Maine Farmer. 

The New Hampshire Journal of Agriculture. 



LIBRARY COMMITTEE'S REPORT. 53 

The New England Farmer. 

Hovey's Magazine of Horticulture. 

The Genesee Farmer. 

The American Agriculturalist. 

The Horticulturist. 

The Working Farmer. 

The Country Gentleman. 

The American Stock Journal. 

The Gardeners' Monthly. 

The American Farmer. 

The Ohio Cultivator. 

The Ohio Farmer. 

The Ohio Valley Farmer. 

The Michigan Farmer. 

The California Culturist. 

The Rural Register. 

The Illinois Farmer. 

The Farmer and Gardener. 

Silliman's Journal. 

Daily Evening Transcript. 

At the Annual Examination of the Library everything was found in a satis- 
factory condition. 

There have been no books lost or defaced during the past year, the new sys- 
tem of causing each person taking a book to receipt therefor, contributing 
greatly to the security of the Library. 

The following works have been added to the Library during the past year, 
by purchase or presentation : — 

Anniversary Sermon at Church of Advent, Boston ; presented. 

Maddox Florist Dictionary. 

Lindley's Monographa Rosarum. 

The Phytologist, from the beginning, in 90 numbers. 

Insects Injurious to Vegetation, by T. W. Harris; new edition, with plates, 

3 copies. 
Synopsis of the Neuroptera of North America, with a list of the South 

American species, by Herman Hagen. 
The Wild Flowers of Great Britain. 
Transactions of the Norfolk Agricultural Society, for 1861 ; presented by 

Sanford Howard. 
Agriculture of Massachusetts, for 1861. 
Classification of the Coleoptera of North America, being the completion of 

part 1, by John L. LeConte. 
Proceedings of the American Antiquarian Society, April, 1862. 
Contributions to the Natural History of the United States, by L. Agassiz; 

vol. IV. ; presented by George W. Pratt, Esq. 



4 
54 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

Revue des Nouveautes Horticoles et Agricoles ou Annuaire des Essais de 
Vilmorin Andrieux et cie 18G1. 
Bound volumes of the following Periodicals for the year 1861 : 

Revue Horticole. 

Illustration Horticole. 

Curtis's Botanical Magazine. 

The Florist. 

The Floricultural Cabinet. 

The Gardeners' Chronicle. 

The Farmers' Magazine. 

The Journal of the Royal Agricultural Society of England. 

Transactions of the Highland Agricultural Society of Scotland. 

Journal of the Bath and West of England Agricultural Society. 

Floral Magazine, vol. I. 

Cottage Gardener, 2 vols. 

Hovey's Magazine. 

The Horticulturist. 

The Gardeners' Monthly. 

New American Cyclopaedia, vols. 13 and 14. 
Also, 

Gray's Botany of the U. S. Exploring Expedition, large folio of plates; very 
raTe and valuable. 

Pritzel Iconum Botanicarum Index ; very useful. 

Flowering Plants and Ferns of Great Britain. 

Supplement to Gordon's Pinetum. 

Correspondence of Linnaeus, 2 vols. 

Dresser's Rudiments of Botany. 

Gisborne on Agriculture. 

Wild Flowers, How to See and Gather Them. 

British Fungi. 

Raspail, cours Elementaire d'Agriculture. 

Johnson's Science and Practice of Gardening. 

Patent Office Report, Agriculture, 1861. 

Plants of New Zealand, fine plates. 

Thompson's Wild Flowers. 

In conclusion, the Committee must congratulate the Society on the present, 
prosperous condition of the Library, its promise of future usefulness, and the 
interest manifested in it by the members of the Society. 

All of which is respectfully presented. 

Edward S. Rand, Jr., C/iairman. 
Wm. H. Spooner, Jr., 
George W. Pratt, 
John Lothrop, 
R. M. Copeland. 



FINANCE COMMITTEE'S REPORT. 



55 



REPORT OF THE FINANCE COMMITTEE. 

The undersigned beg leave to present the accompanying abstract from the 
Treasurer's books, and to report that they have examined the same and find 
them correct and properly vouched ; that there has been added to the invest- 
ments one thousand dollars in a bond of the United States ; that the cash bal- 
ance in the treasury is $2561.41; that the Society has added to its property 
the past year the sum of $2724.66, and has on hand, available for the erection 
of a building, property valued on the books at $87,625.91, and worth at the 
market value this day, $92,299.41 ; and finally, that the manner of keeping 
the accounts and books of the present Treasurer is entitled to the especial 
commendation of the Society. 

All of which is respectfully submitted, by 

Josiah Stickney, ^ 

Marshall P. Wilder, £ Finance Committee. 

C. O. Whitmore, ' 



ABSTRACT FROM THE TREASURER'S BOOKS. 

Receipts for 1862. 

By cash in the treasury, December 31, 1861, 
Dividends from stocks, 
Assessments collected, 
Receipts from Mount Auburn, 
Rents collected, 

Receipts from Annual Exhibition, 
Interest from Parker's note, 
Miscellaneous, 



Payments for 1862. 

To cash paid in premiums and gratuities, 

Salaries $650, committees $200, 
Rev. Mr. Farnham $200, Dr. Wight $200, 
Rents, .... 

Expenses Annual Exhibition, . 
Library, .... 

Printing and advertising, 
Mechanics, and miscellaneous, 
New Investment. — U. S. Bond, 7 3-10 interest, . 
Cash in the treasury, December 31, 1862, 



. $836 75 


. 1,534 15 


670 00 


. 3,661 35 


230 83 


673 50 


. 3,600 00 


79 90 


$11,286 48 


. 2,144 00 


850 00 


400 00 


. 1,550 00 


. 1,344 89 


410 26 


528 44 


497 48 


. 1,000 00 


. 2,561 41 


$11,286 48 



56 



MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 



Property of the Society. 

t,000 00 in Massachusetts Hospital Life Insurance Company : 

Donations from Josiah Bradlee, . . 1,000 00 

Theodore Lyman, . . 1,000 00 

Samuel Appleton, . . 1,000 00 

John A. Lowell, . . 1,000 00 



Legacy from the. late B. V. French, $500 ; invested in 5 shares 

Western Railroad, cost, . . 

Legacy from the* late Hon. Theodore Lyman, 

Invested as follows : 

Bonds of Connecticut and Passumpsic R. R., 4,500 00 

6 shares Boston and Maine R. R., . . 500 00 

53 shares Boston and Worcester R. R., . 5,000 00 

Society's investments : 

20 shares Portsmouth and Saco Railroad, at 6 per cent., 

10 shares Boston and Maine Railroad, ? 

65 shares Fitchburg Railroad, S 

H. D. Parker's note, ...... 

New investment. — U. S. Bond, 7 3-10, wilh coupons, . 

Library, $2500 ; furniture and glass, $2500, 
Cash on hand, December 31, 1862, . 



4,000 00 

564 50 

10,000 00 



2,000 00 

7,500 00 

60,000 00 
1,000 00 
5,000 00 
2,561 41 



Boston, December 31, 1862. 



$92,625 91 



E. E. 

W. R. AUSTIN, Treasurer. 



mr. breck's address. 57 



ORGANIZATION OF THE GOVERNMENT. 

For the Year 1863. 

The regular period for the induction of the annually elected officers of the 
Society, occurred Saturday, January 3, 1863 ; on which occasion the following 
addresses were delivered by the retiring President, Joseph Breck, and his. 
successor in office, Charles M. Hovey. 

VALEDICTORY ADDRESS OF PRESIDENT BRECK. 

Gentlemen : For the fifth time I present myself before you, to offer my 
salutations and good wishes at the commencement of a new year; and the last 
time I shall address you from the honorable position in which you have been 
pleased to elect me for four successive years. 

Nothing of special interest has transpired in the transactions of the Society 
for the past year. 

The Committee on the Publication of the History and Transactions of the 
Society have made progress in the work, and nearly completed the manuscripts. 
It will require careful revision, with some alterations and additions. The sub- 
ject should be referred to the same, or another Committee, for critical examina- 
tion. The delay of its publication will not be prejudicial to the interests of the 
Society, on account of the high price of paper ; and what is of more import- 
ance, that the work may be as perfect as possible before it goes to press. 

A Committee, consisting of the Executive and Finance Committees, were 
authorized by the Society to select and purchase any estate within certain 
prescribed limits, suitable for a site on which to erect a hall for the Society. 
One of the most desirable situations for convenience and central position, to 
be found in the city, was ascertained to be for sale. Negotiations with the 
proprietors have been in progress, but up to the present time no purchase has 
been made. There are some difficulties in the way, which may prevent the 
purchase ; should these difficulties be removed, the Committee will find it 
necessary to ask for further instructions before any bargain can be made. 

I am happy to state that the finances of the Society are in a flourishing con- 
dition. The Treasurer has invested $1,000, and there remains a balance in 
the treasury of nearly $2,000 more than was on hand at the commencement 
of last year. If there are no extraordinary expenditures, and if we continue on 
in the same economical course of the past year, we shall be enabled to invest 
annually, the amount we receive from Mount Auburn. The amount to be re- 
ceived from this source from the sales of the last year is not precisely known, 
but estimated to be about $3,600; perhaps it may be more. This is about the 
amount received in the year 1861, which, in consequence of the war or some 



58 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

other cause, was much less than the amount received the four previous years, 
which averaged $5,690 per year. 

The income from the Society's funds should be sufficient to meet the ordin- 
ary expenses of the Society ; and the income from Mount Auburn should be 
sacredly set apart, to increase capital, against the time when we shall be pre- 
pared and ready to erect a hall or establish an experimental garden. 

Every year we have some extraordinary expenses that cannot always be 
foreseen. We are liable to be called upon for our proportional part of any 
expenditures that may be made by the corporation of Mount Auburn, in any 
improvements in which we are hereafter to receive a benefit ; such as the com- 
pletion of the Columbaria or Catacombs, or any work of like kind. 

Our Annual Exhibitions have been rather expensive of late years. The one 
of the past year was most successful, so far as regards quantity, beauty, 
variety, and excellence of the fruits, and display of plants, flowers, and vege- 
tables, but the receipts fell short of the expenditures in the sum of $700. 
Our Annual Exhibitions are a necessary and most important item in the opera- 
tions of the Society, and have been the means of disseminating a vast amount 
of horticultural knowledge, and must be continued, although it may be neces- 
sary, occasionally, to draw upon the treasury to make up deficiencies. This 
draft has been too heavy of late years, and some measures should be devised 
to lessen the evil. 

In looking over the records of the past, I find that the exhibitions of the 
years 1850-1-2-3, including one in the Public Garden, and two on the Com- 
mon, which were certainly most successful exhibitions in all respects, and which 
were attended with as much labor and expenditure of money, as any exhibitions 
since, brought the Society into debt in the small sum of $24 only. One of 
these exhibitions on the Common, brought the Society into debt in the sum of 
$450, but the other exhibition put nearly as much into the treasury. I have 
not had an opportunity to examine the records of the years 1854-5-6, but find 
that in the last six years, the sum of $3,141 27, has been drawn from the 
treasury to make up the deficiencies of these six Annual Exhibitions. The 
exhibitions on the Common were of the most interesting character, and 
attracted crowds of visitors. The expenses were necessarily large, but not 
much larger than they have been on some occasions at the Music Hall. 
Perhaps the repetition of a tent exhibition, would be so much a novelty as to 
attract a greater number of visitors, and thus reduce the expenses. 

There have been admitted to the Society the past year, 8 life and 20 sub- 
scription members. Three life and 9 subscription members have died, and 13 
have discontinued ; making a gain of only 3 members. The present number 
of life members is 247 ; subscription members 318 ; total 565. 

The past year has been a remarkable one, particularly in the unprecedented 
crop of apples, pears, and gapes, and most of the smaller fruits. The year 
will be noted as one of wonderful plenty, dull sales, and low prices for fruit ; 
a state of things wc, as a Society, have been laboring for years to bring about, 



mr. breck's address. 59 

that the poor, as well as the rich, might enjoy an abundance of the luxuries of 
the orchard and garden. The crop of currants was so profuse, that in many 
instances it would not pay the expense of gathering, and in some places could 
not even be given away. Consequently large quantities of the fruit decayed 
on the bushes. 

Early apples and pears were also a drug. We have the statement, that a 
farmer brought into the city, a quantity of Bartlett pears, and not being able to 
sell except at very low prices, took his load into State street, and notified the 
newsboys that they were free, and invited them to help themselves. The load 
was soon disposed of, and no doubt the farmer felt himself abundantly rewarded 
in the happiness he had thus dispensed. Early apples hardly paid for the ex- 
pense of barrelling and transportation to market. One reason for the extreme 
dulness of the sale of early fruit, was that the markets in Maine and the 
Provinces were cut off, in consequence of the withdrawal, for Government pur- 
poses, of most of the steamers which had in previous years taken large quanti- 
ties to those markets. Another reason, may be the absence of so many con- 
sumers at the seat of war. And in addition to these reasons, the Southern 
market was entirely cut off. 

I regret to state that the plague of the Western pear blight has made its 
appearance in this State in several places. I have lost a number of valuable 
trees in my own garden ; some of them six inches in diameter. The varieties 
most affected were the Glout Morceau, Napoleon, Belle Lucrative, Marie 
Louise, MacLaughlin, and Flemish beauty. Of these I have lost one or more 
of each, all large trees. Some of the same varieties have not been injured in 
the same kind of soil and same locality. Others have been slightly diseased 
in one or more of the branches. My garden is well sheltered ; the soil rather 
heavy and moist, a portion of it not well drained. I cannot perceive that it 
made any difference whether the trees were on quince or pear stocks, or 
whether they were in soil perfectly or imperfectly drained. 

The disease first appeared about the middle of June, after a number of warm 
rainy days. As soon as I saw the Wack foliage, I cut off the diseased branches 
down to sound, healthy wood. There would be no further appearance of the 
disease, until another spell of warm rain or foggy weather occurred. Then 
another edition of the disease would appear, and again I had recourse to the 
knife. Thus it continued until September, breaking out afresh after the recur- 
rence of warm, wet, dog-day weather. On some trees I used the knife until 
but little of the tree remained. 

The disease is a mystery, and I know of no remedy better than to cut off 
and burn the branches as fast as the symptoms appear; but I am not sure that 
this course has any effect in checking it. The disease commences on the ex- 
tremity of the fruit spurs in the rupture of the sap vessels, and begins in the 
middle of a branch extending to the wood in the branch, which in a few days 
turns black, shrivelled, and dry; then extending upwards and downwards until 
the whole branch is dry and dead, the foliage becoming black as ink. 



60 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

It is sad and disheartening to have new diseases appear, so discouraging to 
the labors and hopes of the horticulturist, when we have already such numer- 
ous hordes of insects, and so many diseases to thwart our efforts and disap- 
point our expectations. 

It will be thirty-four years on the 29th day of June next, since my name 
was registered as a member, and which was also the date of the Act of Incor- 
poration of our Society. During this time it has been one great source of 
happiness to be engaged in the active pursuits of horticulture, either with my 
hands, my pen, or in performance of the various duties which have fallen to 
my lot in the Society. It has been a great privilege to be associated with so 
many kindred spirits, whose aim, with my own, has been to contribute to the 
happiness of the community in which we live, as well as to extend to our 
whole country a taste for the refining and elevating science of Horticulture. 

The review of the past third of a century, in relation to the rapid progress 
of the art we so much love, is indeed most cheering and pleasing to contem- 
plate. From the day of small things and humble beginnings, we have grown 
to a large and richly-endowed Society. To have some conception of the in- 
fluence of our Society upon the country, we have only to spend a few days in 
journeying through our suburban cities and towns ; enter some of the number- 
less gardens, and take note of the rich varieties of fruits and flowers to be 
found in every quarter ; to witness the wonderful profusion of everything 
grateful to the palate, or pleasing to the eye, — fruits and flowers unknown 
among us until introduced by the members of this Society ; — then we may 
begin to realize what has been accomplished within the last thirty years. Mul- 
tiply these improvements five hundred or a thousand times, which we find in 
our immediate neighborhood, and we may have some conception of the influ- 
ence this Society has exerted over our whole country. With this view we 
may all be justly proud in being associated together as members and 
co-workers in a Society, whose objects are so elevating, refining, and useful 
to mankind. 

Most of the gentlemen who had the honoy of laying the foundation for the 
present flourishing condition of the Society, have passed away. All honor to 
the eminent men who early associated themselves together, and who with so 
much energy, zeal, and enthusiasm, accomplished so much for future genera- 
tions ! The names of Dearborn, Cook, Vose, French, Manning, Downing, 
Walker, Winship, and many others, now sleeping in the dust, will be held in 
grateful remembrance by generations to come, and ever be esteemed as bene- 
factors of mankind. Let those now upon the stage of action, build wisely 
upon the solid foundations which have been laid with so much wisdom and 
forethought by the fathers, that the next generation may rise up and call them 
blessed also. 

My duties while in office have not been oppressive, yet it is with feelings of 
relief that I am now about to relinquish the honors and cares of the office to 
my successor, and return again to the peaceful and quiet position of private 



MR. hovey's address. 61 

member. It has been my pleasure to be present and preside at all the meet- 
ings of the Society during my Presidency, except on a few occasions when 
detained by sickness. 

I caunot vacate the chair without first expressing my thanks to the members 
of the Society, for their continued kindness, patience, and support, which I 
have invariably received, notwithstanding my many imperfections as a presid- 
ing officer. 

And now, gentlemen, it becomes my duty to resign the chair to the one you 
have delegated to receive it ; a gentleman well qualified to occupy this import- 
ant post — whose attainments and experience in all the departments of horticul- 
tural knowledge, are equal, if not superior, to any other member of the Society ; 
who, I trust, will so discharge the duties and responsibilities he is now about 
to assume, as to redound to his own honor, and to the advancement of the 
interests and prosperity of the Society, 

With these remarks, I bid you farewell. 



The newly-elected President, Charles M. Hovey, on taking the chair, 
addressed the Society as follows : — 

INAUGURAL ADDRESS OF PRESIDENT HOVEY. 

Gentlemen of the Massachusetts Horticultural Society: — In 
taking the chair to preside over your deliberations, I do so with a full sense of 
the duties and responsibilities of the office, filled as it has been by so many 
eminent men, and especially by the excellent and worthy President who now 
retires from the position he has occupied so honorably for four years. I had 
felt that the honor you had conferred upon me in electing me your President, 
was in a great part due to my long and active connection with the Society — 
extending back to the period of its organization in 1829, and the deep interest 
I had taken in its proceedings, rather than to any especial merits of my own, 
and therefore, calculated upon your indulgence in the discharge of my official 
duties. But your kind President has passed such an eulogium on my humble 
labors, that I fear you will expect more than I am able to perform, and that I 
may fail to meet your anticipations. Permit me to say, however, that if a life- 
long interest in the science of Horticulture, — an enthusiastic devotion to its 
study and practice, and an abiding faith in ihe mission of the Society, are any 
of the qualities which fit me for the office, I shall endeavor to deserve, as I 
hope to secure your cordial approbation and support. 

I deem the custom, now become so well established, of opening the year 
with a brief address from your President, a most happy one. It brings him in 
closer communication with the members — allows him to foreshadow his views, 
and gives him the opportunity to offer suggestions that may appear to him best 
calculated to extend its influence. To me it is a pleasure to perform this duty, 



62 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

and I trust it may enable us to ar,t in greater concert, that the present useful- 
ness and future welfare of the Society may be promoted. 

But I am fearful what I may'now say will lose much of its interest, after the 
excellent address of your retiring President, who has brought to the work, the 
same thoroughness which he brings to everything that comes from his head or 
hands. He has recounted the doings, not only during his own term of office, 
so prosperous and useful, but he has gone further and recalled to our minds 
much that transpired before. Fortunate for me, is it, that what he has said has 
been mainly retrospective rather than prospective, and referring you to his 
remarks for that which is past in our history, I shall speak of that which is 
before us. 

First then, gentlemen, let me speak of what I consider the great and para- 
mount work of the Society. The original Act of Incorporation was for the 
" purpose of encouraging and improving the science and practice of horticul- 
ture, and promoting the amelioration of the various species of trees, plants, 
fruits, and vegetables." These are the very words of the act. Thus it will 
be seen we have a distinct work to do. There may be different views as to 
the mode of accomplishing all this, but the act is explicit. This, indeed, has 
been our object, and I only allude to it that we may keep in view the great 
purpose, which sometimes I have thought was nearly overlooked. 

It appears to me, that in no way can so much be achieved as by judicious 
and liberal premiums, to be awarded for meritorious objects. A record of 
the amount the Society has distributed in prizes would be interesting ; without 
going back too far, it may be set down at about two thousand dollars a year 
for the last ten years, amounting in the aggregate to twenty thousand dollars. 
This is a liberal sum, and no one, I think, can doubt the immense advantages 
that have resulted from the outlay. 

To what do we owe the present condition of horticulture more than to the 
system of the distribution of prizes ? In fact, if we study the matter, we shall 
find that the high state of plant culture and fruit growing, and the introduction 
of new varieties, are all due to the laudable desire to excel — to possess some- 
thing superior to others — certainly an honorable object. Skill in cultivation 
being attainable by all, superiority comes from a new development of the cul- 
tivator's skill. Hence we owe everything to the system which has brought out 
so much beauty and so much excellence ; and this brings me to the first sug- 
gestion I wish to make, viz : that the premiums for new seedling flowers 
plants, and fruits, which were struck from the list a few years since, should be 
restored. But for the offer of these prizes, the Jenny Lind strawberry, Dana's, 
Hovey, and Clapp's Favorite pears, the Concord grape, and other fruits, as well 
as many superb flowers, might never have enriched our gardens. We have 
beautiful medals to offer, and I know of no way in which we can so well per- 
petuate the memory of those who so liberally endowed us, as in the distribu- 
tion of the medals that bear their names. 



MR. 



hovey's address. 63 



In the progress of a Society like ours, it seems to me alterations should, 
from time to time be made, in our list of premiums. I have made some sug- 
gestions to the fruit committee, which I am happy to say, have had the hearty 
approbation of the excellent chairman, who has so long, laboriously, and hon- 
orably served you in that capacity, and whose annual reports are an honor, 
equally to himself and the Society. I hope similar alterations may be made in 
the other Committees, in order to bring them up to our condition and present 
wants. 

One subject, I think, has escaped the attention of our Society. I refer to 
trees and shrubs, which not being especial objects of exhibition, like flowers, 
have not been sufficiently encouraged. As these, however, enter extensively 
into the arrangement of our gardens and grounds, it is very important they 
should receive more attention ; especially should the introduction of seedlings 
or new varieties be rewarded by gratuities or premiums. The Azalea and 
Rhododendron, two of our most magnificent hardy shrubs, have no more 
encouragement than the humblest garden flower. I hope another year, at 
least, that this subject will not be overlocked. 

The Garden Committee does not seem to have accomplished much the last 
few years, and it has been suggested whether the appropriation might not be 
discontinued for a time. This cannot be done without an alteration of the 
By-laws, and I do not recommend such a movement. I merely mention it that 
measures may be taken to make it more effective. 

The President, in his address, has shown you that our Annual Exhibitions 
have sometimes resulted in considerable loss. This we know has been the 
case, and we have tried to obviate it by holding our exhibitions, in our own 
rooms. It appears, however, that the result has been nearly the sume. Our 
expenses were small — our receipts much smaller — and we have not felt satis- 
fied that either of the exhibitions reflected much credit upon the Society. 
It appears, to me, far preferable to make an exhibition honorable alike to our- 
selves and the state of public taste, even if it results in some loss ; for the 
time will come when our exhibitions will be appreciated and sustained. The 
Royal Horticultural Society of London depends upon its resources from its 
exhibitions to defray many of its expenses ; yet at one period, not long ago, it 
lost money as we have done. 

The President has relieved me of the necessity of saying much in reference 
to the financial condition of the Society. Its flourishing state must be gratify- 
ing to all of us. The Report of the Finance Committee will acquaint you 
with the details. 

And now, gentlemen, 1 come to a subject of more than ordinary interest, 
one which has long occupied my attention, and I doubt not that of other mem- 
bers. This is the possession of a Home, — of a building we can call our own. 
Until that takes place I cannot believe a deep and permanent interest will be 
felt in our behalf. " Horticultural Hall " in former years was a household 
word. We were then an institution ; now only a Society. The taste and 
fashion of the city flocked to see us, and our exhibitions were attended by 



64 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

thousands of admiring visitors. So long as we continue as we now are we 
shall fail to secure the sympathies of the people. 

Your President has alluded to the labors of the Committee appointed to pur- 
chase a site for a new building, who have selected a most central one, possess- 
ing in an eminent degree all the conveniences we could require, and as a 
report will come before you for your consideration, I shall not occupy your 
time in reference thereto ; but I wish to record my sincere hope that such a 
favorable opportunity may not be allowed to pass, and that the exertions now 
making will succeed. Your Committee contains among its members, gentle- 
men of great financial abilities, who seek nothing but the permanent interests 
of the Society — gentlemen, too, who foresee its future greatness and rank. I 
trust their good judgment will meet your approbation, and that they will be 
supported in their endeavors to place the Society in the position its condition, 
its wants, ahd its resources demand. 

To accomplish this, however, I must urge you to make no needless expendi- 
tures, but to husband all our means beyond our actual wants. Our premiums 
— the life of the Society — should be liberal, but other expenditures guarded. 
The Library, already large, should have every popular work added to it; but 
beyond that we should not go. We do not wish to bury beneath its shelves 
the ponderous tomes and elaborate works valuable only to the student. 

We meet together under more cheering auspices than at the incoming of the 
past year. Yet we cannot but deplore the cruel warfare that still goes on, 
saddening many homes and devastating lands; causing thousands of sorrowing 
hearts and tasking the energies and resources of the country. May the reward 
be equal to the sacrifice, and its end be a peace which shall bring renewed 
energy to every branch of industry, and fill our land with homes where flowers 
shall bloom, and trees shall be laden with delicious fruits. 

In conclusion, let me hope that harmonious action will 'be the guiding prin- 
ciple in all our duties. Let honorable competition cement, rather than weaken 
our ties. We come together weekly or monthly to exhibit our beautiful flow- 
ers and handsome fruits — to show to each other the results of our skill and 
care. May all these meetings be characterized by such unity of feeling and 
good will, that our declining years may be solaced by the happy recollections 
of the past. 



MEMBERS FOR LIFE. 



65 



MEMBERS 



OF THE 



MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 



DENOTES THE MEMBER AS DECEASED. 



MEMBERS FOB LIFE. 



* Adams, Daniel, Newbury. 

Adams, George E., Medford. 

Allen, John Fisk, Salem. 

Amory, Charles, Boston. 

Amory, James S , " 

Andrews, .Frank W., " 

Andrews, W. T., " 

Andros, Milton, Brookline. 
*Appleton, Nathan, Boston. 
*Armstrong, Samuel T., " 

Aspinwall, Augustus, Brookline. 

Austin, William R., Dorchester. 

*Babbitt, Isaac, Boston. 

Bailey, Edwin C, " 

Bailey, John P., " 

Barnard, James M., " 

Barnard, Rev. C. F., " 

Barnes, William II., Roxbury. 
*Bartlett, E., Newburyport. 

Barrows, Thomas, Dedham. 

Bates, John D., Boston. 

Bemis, Amory, Cambridge. 

Billings, Joseph H., West Roxbury. 

Blagg, Samuel, Waltham. 

Blake, George B., Brookline. 

Blaney, Henry, 
*Blodgett, J. W., Boston. 

Bond, George W., Roxbury. 

Bouve, Th. T., Boston. 

Bowditch, A. C, " 



Bowditch, J. Ingersoll, Roxbury. 

Brackett, C. N., Newton. 

Bradford, Samuel D., W. Roxbury. 

Bradlee, J. B., Boston, 
# Bradlee, Joseph P., " 
# Bradlee, Josiah, " 

Breed, Andrew, Lynn. 

Breed, Henry A., " 
# Brewer, Eliab Stone, Roxbury. 

Brewer, Gardner, Boston. 

Brewer, John Reed, " 

Brewer, Otis, Roxbury. 
*Brewer, Thomas, Boston. 

Bright, Jona. B., Waltham. 

Brown, Ebenezer, Lynn. 

Brooks, J. W., Milton. 

Burr, Fearing, Jr., Hingham. 

Burr, M. H., " 

Butterfield, William P., Cambridge. 

. Cadness, John, New York. 

Carruth, Ch., Boston. 

Carruth, Nathan, Dorchester. 

Chandler, J. G., Roxbwy. 
# Chapman, Jona., Boston. 

Chase, Hezekiah, Lynn. 

Chase, Hezekiah, South Boston. 

Chase, Wm. M., Worcester. 

Childs, N. R., Dorchester. 

Chruickshank, James, Maiden. 
*Clapp, Thaddeus, Dorchester. 



66 



MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 



Clark, W. L., Neponset. 

Clapp, Frederick, Dorchester. 

Clement, Asa, Dracut. 

Cleveland, Ira, Dedham. 
*Codman, John, Dorchester. 

Coffin, G. Winthrop, West Roxbury. 

Collamore, G. W., Boston. 

Comer, G. N., Newton. 

Comerais, Henry, Dedham. 

Copeland, R. M'Cleary, Boston. 

Copeland, R. Morris, Lexington. 

Courtis, William, Marblehead. 

Crafts, Ebenezer, Roxbury. 

Crocker, Uriel, Boston. 
*Crowninshield, George C, Boston. 

Cummings, John, Jr , " 

Cushing, Thomas T., " 

Daggett, H. L., Boston. 
Dana, Ch. B., Brookline. 
Dana, Nathaniel, " 
*Decker, Louis, Boston. 
Dennie, Daniel, Dorchester. 

* Denny, George, Wtstborough. 
Denny, R. S., Dorchester. 
Dexter, G. M., Boston. 
Dickinson, Alexander, Cambridgeport 
Downer, Samuel, Dorchester. 
Duncklee, John, Brighton. 

Durfee, Mrs. F. B., Fall River. 
*Durfee, Geo. B., 
Durfee, Nathan, " 

* Fid wards, Elisha, Springfield. 
Eldridge, E. II., Boston. 

*Eliot, Samuel A., 
Ellicott, J. P-., Jamaica Plain. 
Everett, Otis, Boston. 

*Fairbanks, H. P., Charleslown. 

Fairbanks, Stephen, Boston. 

Fearing, Albert, " 

*Fenno, John, Chelsea. 

Fisher, Daniel Simmons, Roxbury. 

Fisher, Warren, " 



# Fiske, Oliver, Worcester. 

Foster, John H., Boston. 

Foster, J. W., Dorchester. 
*French, Benj. V., " 

French, Jonathan, Roxbwy. 

FVothingham, S. C, Boston. 

Fuller, Henry Weld, Roxbury. 

*Gaffield, James, Gloucester. 

Gage, Addison, West Cambridge. 

Gardner, W. F., Salem. 
# Gibson, Kimball, Boston. 
*Gilmore, Addison, ; ' 

Gilley, J. E. M., Chelsea. 

Greig, George, Newton. 

Grinnell, Joseph, New Bedford. 

Groom, Thomas, Dorchester. 

Grundell, H., 

*Hall, Adin, Boston. 

Harding, C. S., Cambridge. 

Harding, G. W., Dorchester. 

Harding, W. C, Roxbury. 
*Harris, William T., Cambridge. 
# Hastings, Edmund T., Boston. 

Hayden, A. W., Portsmouth. 
*He<*ge, Isaac L., Plymouth. 

Hazeltine, H., Boston. 

Holbrook, C. S., E. Randolph. 

Hollis, J. W., Brighton. 

Hooper, John Jr., Marblehead. 

Hooper, Robert C, Boston. 

Hovey, C. M., Cambridge. 

Hovey, P. B , Cambridgeport. 

Howe, George, Roxbury. 
# Howe, Hall J., South Boston. 

Howe, Jabez C, " 

Howe, John, Brookline 

Howland, Henry, Maiden. 

Howland, John, Jr., New Bedford. 

Hubbard, G. G., Cambridge. 

Hubbard, W. J., Boston. 

Huckins, James W., Roxbury. 

Humphrey, F. J., Dorchester. 

Hunnewell, H. H., West Needham. 

Hutch, Anthony, Saugus. 



MEMBERS FOR LIFE. 



67 



*Jones, C. F., Roxhury. 
*Jones, Thomas, Boston. 
Johnson, Otis, Lynn. 

Kendal], D. S., Boston. 
Kenney, John M.. Wareham. 
Kimball, A. P., Boston. 
King, Edward, Dorchester. 
King-, Franklin, " 
King, William S.,. Roxbury. 
Kingman, A. A., South Boston. 
Kingsbury, Win. B., Roxbury. 
Kinsley, Lyman, Cambridgcport. 
Kittredge, E A., Boston. 

Lamb, Thomas, Boston. 

Lawrence, James, " 

Lawson, Peter, Lowell. 

Leavens, S. Davis, Boston. 

Lee, George, Watertown. 

Leland, George, Waltham. 

Leuchars, R. B., Quincy. 

Lewis, A. S., Framingham. 

Lewis, Wm. G., " 

Lincoln, Levi, Worcester. 
*Lincoln, William, " 

Lincoln, D. Waldo, " 
# Lloyd, James, Boston. 

Lodge, Giles H., " 
*Lombard, I., " 

Loomis, J. B., Chelsea. 

Lothrop, Ed. W., Chelsea. 

Lovett, G. A., Beverly. 

Lowder, John, Watertown. 

Lnke, Elijah H., Cambridgeport. 

Lyon, Henry, Charlestown. 

Mann, Jonathan, Cambridge. 
Manning, Joseph, Medford. 
Manning, Robert, Salem. 
Mansfield, H. S., Blackslone. 
Marland, A., Andover. 
* Marsh, Andrew S., Roxbury. 
Marsh, Francis, Dedham. 



Martin, J. S., Boston. 
*Martin, Richard T., " 

May, Samuel, " 

Merriam, Charles, West Newton. 

Merrifield, W. T., Worcester. 

Mills, Charles H., Boston. 

Milton, W. H., Roxbury. 

Minott, Charles, Somervitle. 

Mixter, Charles, Boston. 

Morse, S. B., " 

*Morse, Samuel F., ' ; 

Motley, Thomas, Jr., W. Roxbury. 

Mudge, George A., Boston. 

Mudge, E. R., Lynn. 

Mudge, Geo. W., " 

Newhall, Cheever, Dorchester. 
Newhall, George, " 

Newhall, John M., " 

Newhall, Josiah, Lynnfield. 

*Newman, Henry, Roxbury. 
Nourse, B. F., Boston. 

# Nuttall, Thomas, of England. 

Page, Thomas, Cambridge. 

Paige, James W., Boston. 

Paine, Robert T., " 

Palmer, J. P., " 

Parker, Augustus, Roxbury. 
# Parker, Daniel P., Boston. 

Parker, James, " 

Parker, William A., " 

# Parkman, Rev. Francis, " 

Parkman, Francis, Roxbury. 
# Parsons, Gorham, Brighton. 
# Parsons, William, Boston. 

Partridge, Henry, " 

Peirce, S. B., Dorchester. 

Penniman, A. P., Waltham. 

Perkins, Ed. N., Brookline. 

Perkins, Wm. P., " 
* Perry, John, Sherborn. 

Pierce, George W., Maiden. 

Poole ; Benjamin C, Chelsea. 



68 



MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 



Poor, John R., Somerville. 
Pope, Alexander, Dorchester. 
Pratt, George W., Boston. 
Prescott, C. H., Cornwallis, N. S. 
Preston, John, Dorchester. 

Rand, E. S., Dedham. 
Rand, E. S., Jr., " 
Reed, George W., Kingston. 
Reynoso, Bernard de, S. Boston. 
Richards, Edward M., Dedham. 
Richards, William B., Boston. 
Robinson, J. H., Dorchester. 
Rogers, R. S., Salem. 
*Rotch, William, New Bedford. 
Russell, George R., Roxbury. 
Russell, John Lewis, Salem. 
Russell, Walter, West Cambridge. 
Runey, John, Somerville. 

Sampson, G. R., Brookline. 

Sanford, O. S., Cordaville. 

Sargent, Ignatius, Brookline. 
*Seaver, Nathaniel, Roxbury. 

Sever, J. W., Dorchester. 
*Shaw, Robert G., Boston. 

Sheafe, Ch. C, Newtonville. 

Shimmin, Charles P., Boston. 
*Silsby, Enoch, Bradford. 

Smith, Ch. A., Boston. 
*Smith, Stephen H., Providence. 

Sparhawk, Edward C, Brighton. 

Springer, John, Sterling. 

Stetson, Nahum, Bridgewater. 

Stevens, Paran, Boston. 

Stickney, Josiah, Watertown. 

Stickney, Rufus B., Somerville. 

Stimpson, George, Charlestown. 

Stimpson, H. H., Cambridge. 

Stone, G. F., Newton. 
• Stone, Phineas J., Charlestown. 

Stone, James W., Dorchester. 

Story, E. A., Brighton. 

Story, F. H., Salem. 
*Story, Joseph, Cambridge. 

Sturgis, William, Woburn. 



Swain, Ch. D., Roxbury. 

Tappan, Charles, Boston. 

Taylor, Horace B., " 
*Teschemacher, J. E., " 

Thacher, Alfred C, Dorchester. 

Thaxter, A. W., Jr., Boston. 
# Thayer, J. E., 
*Thorndike, Israel, '- 

Thorndike, John H., " 
*Towle, Lyman, " 

# Tremlett, Thomas, Dorchester. 

Turner, J. M. 

Turner, R. W., Jr., Randolph. 

Upton, George B., Boston. 

Wainwright, Peter, Boston. 

Wain wright, William L., Braintree. 

Wakefield, E. H , Chelsea. 

# Waldo, Daniel, Worcester. 
Walker, Edward C. R., Roxbury. 

* Walker, Samuel, " 
Walker, Samuel A., Brookline. 
Walker, T. W., Waltham. 
Warren, G. W., Boston. 
Wason, E., Brookline. 
Webber, A. D., W. Ntedham. 
Webster, Joshua, Lynn. 
Webster, Nathan, Haverhill. 
Weld, Richard H., Roxbury. 
Welsh, J. H., Dorchester. 

*West, Thomas, Haverhill. 

Whitcomb, Levi, Boston. 

White, B. C, 

Whitmore, C. O., " 

Whiting, Nathaniel, Brookline. 

Whytal, Thomas G., W Roxbury. 

Wight, Eben., Dedham. 

Wilder, Marshall P., Dorchester. 

Williams, Aaron D., Rorbury. 

Williams, Aaron D., Jr., " 

Williams, Moses B., Brookline. 

Winship, Franklin, Brighton. 

Winship, F. Lyman., " 

Wolcott, Edward, Pawtucket. 
*Worthington, William, Dorchester. 



ANNUAL MEMBERS. 



69 



ANNUAL MEMBERS. 



# Adams, Benjamin, Boston. 

Adams, Charles F., Quincy. 
*Adams, Ch. Fred., Boston. 
*Adams, Joseph H., " 

Adams, Isaac, South Boston. 
# Adams, Z. B., Boston. 

Albree, John, " 

Allen, Calvin, Roxbury. 

Ames, R. W., " 
*Andrew, John H., Salem. 

Andrews, Alfred A., Boston. 
* Andrews, Ebenezer T., " 
# Andrews, Ferdinand, " 

Andrews, James, Waltham. 
# Andrews, Robert, Boston. 

Apple, Antone, Cambridge. 
# Appleton, Samuel A., Boston. 
*Arnold, John, Dorchester. 

Atkinson, Charles M., Watertown. 

Bachelder, Samuel, Cambridge. 
*Bachi, I. C, Dorchester. 

Bacon, William, Roxbury. 

Bailey, Dudley H., Boston. 

Bailey, Kendall, Charlestown. 
# Baker, Walter, Dorchester. 

Baker, W. P., Quincy. 
*Balch, Joseph, Roxbury. 

Barnes, Parker, Dorchester. 
# Barrett, George C, Boston. 

Bartlett, Levi, " 

Bean, James, Medford. 
*Belknap, A. E., Boston. 

Bennett, Oliver, Framingham. 

Benton, Reuben P., Somerville. 

Binney, Amos, Boston. 

Blake, G. T., « 

Bliss, B. K., Springfield. 

Boott, William, Boston. 

Bowditch, Azell, Roxbury. 

Bowditch, W. I., Brookline. 



Boyd, Francis, Boston. 

Brackett, E. A., Winchester. 
*Bradbury, Charles, Boston. 

Bradford, Charles F., Roxbury. 

Bradlee, John D., Milton. 
*Bradlee, Joseph, Boston. 

Bradlee, J. T., " 

*Bradlee, Benjamin, " 

Bradstreet, Samuel, Dorchester. 

Breck, C, H. B., Brighton. 

Breck, Joseph, " 

* Bridge, Nathan, Charlesioivn. 
Briggs, Richard, Brookline. 

* Brimmer, Martin, Boston. 
Britton, S. A., Roxbury. 
Brown, Frederick, Boston. 

* Brown, James, Cambridge. 
Brown, Joseph T., Boston. 
Brown, Simon, Concord. 
Brown, Jonathan, Somerville. 
Bruce, Benjamin, Brookline. 
Bruce, T. G., Cambridge. 
Bryant, G. F. J., Boston. 
Bucklin, S. S., Jamaica Plain. 
Buckman, Bowen, Woburn. 
Buckminster, W. J., Maiden. 
Bull, E. W., Concord. 
Bullard, Calvin, Boston. 
Bullard, Lewis, Dedham. 
Burley, Edward, Salem. 
Burnett, Joseph, Southborough. 
Burr, Charles C, Newton. 
Bush, F. T., Weston. 
Buswell, E. W., Maiden. 

Cabot, Edward C , Brookline. 
Cabot, Joseph S., Salem. 
Caines, William, South Boston. 
Carey, Isaac, Boston. 
Carter, William E., Cambridge. 
Chadwick, Joseph H., Roxbury. 



70 



MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 



Chaffin, John C, Newton. 

Chenery, Winthrop W"., Belmont. 

Chenpy, Arthur, Bos/ on. 

Chickering, Horatio, Dedham. 
♦Chickering, Jonas, Boston. 

Chilson, G., 

Clark, B. C, Jr., " 

♦Clark, E. D., * " 

Clark, John J., Roxbury. 

Clark, Joseph W., Dedham. 

Clark, Randolph M., " 

Cobb, Edward W., Boston. 

Cobb, Jonathan H., Dedham. 
♦Cole, S. W., Boston. 

Collamore, John, Jr., " 

Comins, Linus B., Roxbury. 

Comley, James, Worcester. 

Converse, Joshua P., Wohurn. 

Copeland, Charles, Wyoming. 

Cord well, G. B., Ruxbnry. 

Crafts, Ws A., 

Crooker, Ralph, Roxbury. 

Crosby, Josiah, West Cambridge. 
♦Crowninshield, Benjamin W., Boston. 
*Crowninshield, George C, " 

Cruickshank, J. T., Roxbury. 

Cummings, Amos, Jr., Reading. 

Curtiss, Charles F., West Roxbury. 

Curtis, D. T., Boston. 

Curtis, Samuel VV., Dorchester. 

Culter, George B., Weston. 

Dana, Francis, Roxbury. 

Dana, Thomas, Cambridge. 
# Dane John, Boston. 

Daniel, Ellery C, Dedham. 
♦Daniel, Josiah, " 

Davenport, Edward, Dorchester. 

Davenport, George, Dedham. 

Davenport, J., Brookline. 

Davis, Barnabas, Boston. 

Davis, Benjamin B., Roxbury. 

Davis, Harvey, Cambridgeport. 
* Davis, Isaac P., Boston. 



Davis, Seth, West Newton. 

Davis, W. H., Milton. 

Dean, A. J., Roxbury. 
♦Dearborn, Henry A. S., Roxbury. 

Dennison, J. N., Boston. 
♦Derby, John, Salem. 

Dexter, Anson, Roxbury. 

Dillaway, Charles K., " 
♦Dimmock, J. L., Boston. 

Dixwell, J. J., West Roxbury. 

Downe, Sumner, Maiden. 
♦Downer, Samuel, Dorchester. 
♦Dowse, Thomas, Cambridgeport . 
♦Dudley, David, Roxbury. 

Dutton, Henry W., Boston. 

Eastburn, John H., Boston. 

Eaton, Jacob, Cambridgeport. 

Edmonds, J. W., Boston. 
♦Eldridge, Chas. H., " 

Emerson, Benjamin D., Roxbury. 

Emerson, E. C, Boston. 

Eustis, James, South Reading. 
♦Eveleth, Joseph, Boston. 

Everett, George, Concord. 

Evers, Gustave, Brighton. 

Falconer, James, Roxbury. 
♦Faxon, Nathaniel, Boston. 

Fay, Isaac, Cambridge. 
♦Fessenden, Thomas G., Boston. 

Fisk, Robert T. P., Hingham. 
* Fitch, Jeremiah, Boston. 

Flynn, Edward, Lawrence. 
# Fontarive, J. J., Boston. 

Forbush, Jonathan, Bolton. 

Ford, Elisha B., Boston. 

Fowle, Seth W., Brookline. 
♦Francis, David, Boston. 

French, Asa, Braintree. 

Frost, Rufus S., Chelsea. 

Frothingham, Samuel, Boston. 



ANNUAL MEMBERS. 



71 



Galvin, John, Somerville. 

Gammell, Jonas, Lexington. 

Gardner, John, Dedhani. 

Gibbens, Samuel H., Boston. 

Gilbert, John, " 

Gilbert, Samuel, Jr., " 

Gilchrist, D. S., " 

Goddard, Thomas, " 

Goodrich, Daniel O., " 

Gordon, John, Brighton. 

Gould, Augustus A., Boston. 

Grant, Charles E., Roxbury. 

Grant, E. B., Watertown. 

Gray, James, JYeedham. 
*Gray, John, Boston. 

Gray, John C, " 

Gray, William, Jr., Dorchester. 

Greenough, D. S., West Roxbury. 
*Greenough, David S., " 

Gregory, James J. H., Marblehead. 

Grew, Henry, Dorchester. 

Griggs, Charles, Boston. 
*Grosvenor, L. P., Pomfret, Ct. 
*Guild, Benjamin, Boston. 

Guild, Chester, Somerville. 



Heustis, Warren, Belmont. 
# Hewens, Whiting, Roxbury. 

Hewins, Charles A., " 
*Higginson, Henry, Boston. 

Hill, Henry Y., Belmont. 
# Hill, Jeremiah, Boston. 

Hogan, John, Belmont. 
# Holbrook, Amos, Milton. 

Horton, Henry K., Boston. 
# Hovey, John, Roxbury. 

Hovey, J. C, Cambridgeport. 
^Howard, John C, Brookline. 

Howe, Estes, Cambridge. 

Howe, Joseph N., East Cambridge. 

Howe, Rufus, Marlborough. 

Howe, S. G , South Boston. 

Hunneman, J. J., Roxbury. 

Hyde, J. F. C, JYewton. 
*Hysop, David, Brookline. 

Jenks, J. H., Eoston. 
# Johnson, Samuel R., Charlestown. 
* Johnston, William, South Boston. 

Jones, James L., CJielsea. 
*Joy, Joseph G., Boston. 



Haggerston, David, Roxbury. 
*Hall, C. J., Medford. 

Hall, Dudley, " 
# Hall, Jesse, East Cambridge. 
*Hallett, George, Boston. 

Haley, Jesse, Cambridgeport. 
*Harding, Newell, Boston. 

Harrington, Bowen, Lexington. 

Harrington, William K., Salem. 

Harris, Miss Ellen M., Jamaica Plain. 
*Harris, Richard D., Boston. 

Hastings, Thomas, Lechmere Point. 

Hatch, Samuel, Boston. 

Hathaway, Seth W., Marblehead. 
* Hay den, John, Brookline. 

Hazelton, H. L., JYewton. 

Healey, Mark, Lynn. 
*Heard, John, Boston. 



Keith, W. W., Boston. 
Kelley, E. G., JYewburyport. 
Kelly, John, Watertown. 
Kennard, M. P., Brookline. 
Kenrick, John A., JYewton. 
Kenrick, William, " 
Kirmes, C, Melrose. 
Kittredge, Alvah, Roxbury. 

# Lamb, John A. W., Boston. 

Ijamson, Rufus, Cambridgeport. 

Lathrop, John, Dedham. 
*Lawrence, Abbott, Boston. 
*Lawrence, Amos, " 

Lee, Francis H., Brookline. 

Lee, Francis H., Salem. 

Lee, Thomas, Brookline. 

Leeds, Samuel, S. Boston. 



72 



MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 



*Lemist, John, Roxbury. 

Leonard, Joseph, Boston. 

Lerned, T. P., Cambridgeport. 

Lincoln, Calvin A., Hingham. 

Lincoln, F. W., Canton. 

Lincoln, F. W., Jr., Boston. 

Little, C. C, 

Livermore, Isaac, Cambridgeport. 

Lockwood, R. G., Charlestown. 
*Loring, Benjamin, Boston. 

Loring, C. G., " 

# Loring, Wm. J., " 

# Lovett, Josiah, Beverly. 

Low, Ariel, Roxbury. 

Low, John J., " 
*Lowell, John, " 
# Lowell, William B., Newton. 

Lynde, Stephen H., Winchester. 

*Mackay, John, Boston. 
Manning, J. W., Reading. 

* Manning, Robert, Salem. 
Martin, Jeremiah, Melrose. 

*Mayhew, A. C, Boston. 

McDermott, Andrew, Roxbury. 

McDonald, Alexander, Hingham. 
# McIntire, Daniel, Framingham. 

McLellan, Alexander, Watertown. 

McTear, James, Roxbury. 
*Mellar, William, " 

Merriam. Galen, West Newton. 

Merrill, S. A., Salem. 

Merrill, J. Warren, Cambridgeport. 

Millar, John L., Boston. 

Miller, David, South " 

* Miller, Edward, ". 
Mills, John F., " 

*Minns, Thomas, " 

Minot, G. R., Roxbury. 
*Morgan, Thomas, Boston. 

Moore, J. B., Concord. 

Morse, O. S., Andover. 
*Munroe, James, Jr., Cambridge. 

Murray, Daniel, Walertown. 

Murray, Denis, Roxbury. 



Murray, James, Roxbury. 

# Newell, Joseph W., Charlestown. 

Nichols, W. S., Roxbury. 
^Nicholson, Com., (U. S. N.) 

Nudd, Jacob, Cambridgeport. 

Nugent, James, Roxbury. 

Oliver, Stephen, Lynn. 
*01iver, William, Dorchester. 
# Otis, Harrison Gray, Boston. 

Owen, John, Cambridge. 

Oldreive, Richard, Newton. 

Page, Edward, Boston. 

Page, J. H. W., Dorchester. 

Parker, Harvey D., Boston. 
# Parker, Isaac, " 

Parker, M. S., " 

Parker, Theodore D., Brighton. 
# Parris, Alexander, Pembroke. 

Parsons, Theophilus, Cambridge. 

Payson, Samuel R., Roxbury. 

Pearman, W. R., Chelsea. 
# Penniman, Elisha, Brookline. 
*Perkins, Thomas H., Boston. 
*Pettee, Otis, Newton. 

Phillips, Nathaniel, Dorchester. 

Phipps, Samuel, " 

Pierce, Abner, West Cambridge. 
# Pond, Samuel, Cambridgeport. 
# Pope, Rev. A. R., Somerville* 
> Porter, Andrew, South Danvers. 

Porter, Z. B., Cambridge. 

Potter, John C, Newton. 

Power, Charles J., South Framingham. 
*Pratt, William, Jr., Watertown. 

Prescott, Eben. C, Boston. 
# Prescott, William, " 
# Priest, John F., " 

Prince, F. O., Winchester. 
*Prince, John, Roxbury. 

Rand, Edward S., Newburyport. 
Rand, I. P., Boston. 



ANNUAL MEMBERS. 



73 



Rice, Edward E., Dorchester. 

Rice, George W., Roxbury. 

Rice, Henry, Boston. 

Rice, Thomas, Jr., Newton, L. F. 

Richardson, Horace, Framingham. 
*Richardson, Josiah, Cambridge. 
*Robbins, Charles, South Boston, 
*Robbins, Edward H., Boston. 

Roberts, Edward, Roxbury. 

Robinson, S., Brookline. 
*Rollins, Ebenezer, Boston. 
*Rowe, Joseph, Milton. 

Ruggles, John, Brighton. 

Sanborn, John, Charlestown. 

Sargent, Epes, Roxbwy. 

Savage, John, Jr., Somerville. 
*Savage, William, Boston. 
# Sawyer, M. P., " 

Sawyer, Nathl. C, " 

Sawyer, Timothy T., Charlestown. 
*Schimming, H., Watertown. 

Schlegel, Adam, Boston. 

Scott, J. C, Brighton. 
# Seaver, Benjamin, Boston. 

Shaw, Charles B., Dedham. 

Shaw, Christopher C, Boston. 
*Shaw, Lemuel, " 

*Simmons, D. A., Roxbury. 

Simpson, Michael H., Saxonville. 
*Skinner, John, Charlestoicn. 

Sleeper, J. S., Roxbury. 

Smallwood, Thomas, Newton. 

Smith, Amos, Cambridgeport. 

Smith, Edmund, Brighton. 

Smith, J. M., Boston. 

Southack, George, Roxbury. 

Southmayd, John K., Boston 

Spooner, Wm. H., Jr., West Roxbury. 

Sprague, Charles J., Boston. 

Stanwood, H. B., " 

Stearns, George L., Medford. 

Stetson, James A., Quincy. 
* Stevens, Isaac, Boston. 
6 



Stone, Eliphalet, Dedham. 

Stone, Leonard, Watertown. 

Stone, P. R. L., Cambridge. 

Strong, W. C, Brighton. 
*Sturtevant, Noah, Boston. 
# Sumner, William R., Dedham. 

Swan, Daniel, Medford. 

Sweetser, Samuel, Cambridge. 

Taft, John B., Boston. 
*Taylor, Charles, Dorchester. 

Thatcher, Thomas, Jr., Roxbury. 
# Thaxter, Levi, Watertown. 

Ticknor, W. D., Roxbury. 
*Tidd, Marshall, Woburn. 

Tolman, James, Boston. 
*Towne, Orr N., " 

Trautman, Martin, Roxbury. 

Tucker, James, Jr., Dorchester. 

Tudor, Frederic, Boston. 

Turner, N. W., Newton. 

Turner, R. W., South Maiden. 

Tuttle, Hugh H., Boston. 
# Tyler, John, " 

Underwood, William, Boston. 
Underwood, Wm. J., Belmont. 

Vandine, Henry, Cambridgeport. 
Vila, James, Boston. 
*Vose, Elijah, Dorchester. 

*Waldron, R. R., (U. S. N.) 

Wales, Williams, Dorchester. 

Walker, Joseph T., Roxbury. 

Walsh, George, Charlestown. 

Walsh, James, Cambridge. 

Walsh, Thomas, Brighton. 

Ward, Edward A., Cambridge. 
*Ward, Richard, Roxbury. 
*Ward, Samuel, " 

Warren, Ira., Boston. 
*Warren, J. C, " 

Warren, Samuel D., Waltham. 



74 



MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 



Washburn, Alexander C, Boston. 

Washburn, Allen J., Dorchester. 
*Washburn, John, Plymouth. 

Weightman, W. S., Boston. 

Weld, Aaron D., West Roxbury. 

Weld, Stephen M., " " 

Wellington, 'Joseph V., Cambridge. 

Wells, Benjamin T., Boston. 
*Wentworth, James, " 

Wetherell, John G., Dorchester. 

Wetherell, Leander, Boston. 
*Wheelwright, Wm. W., " 

Wheildon, Wm. W. Concord. 
*White, Ferdinand E., Boston. 

White, Nathaniel, Quincy. 

White, Nathan H., " 
*White, Stephen, Boston. 

Whiting, William, Dedham. 



Whitney, Joel, Winchester. 

Whitney, William F., Boston. 
*Williams, Francis L., Roxbury. 

Williams, J. Otis, Winchester. 

Williams, Stephen, Roxbury. 

Wilson, George W., Maiden. 
*Winchester, William P., Boston, 
*Winship, Jonathan, Brighton. 
# Winslow, Reuben, Roxbury. 

Wolcott, J. W., " 

Worcester, Joseph E., Cambridge. 

Wood, Edmund W., Boston. 
*Wyatt, Robert, " 

Young, William, Fall River. 

Zirngible, D., Cambridge. 



OFFICERS AND STANDING COMMITTEES 5I 



-OF THE- 



FOR 1863. 



atut^f 



President : 

.CHARLES M. HOVEY of Cambridge. 

Vice Presidents : 
J. F. C. HYDE of Newton, W. C. STRONG of Brighton, 

C. O. WHITMORE of Boston, GEO. W. PRATT of Boston. 

Treasurer : 
WILLIAM R. AUSTIN of Dorchester. 

Corresponding Secretary : 
EBEN WIGHT of Dedham. 

Recording Secretary : 
F. LYMAN WINSHIP of Brighton. 

Professor of Botany and Vegetable Physiology z 
" JOHN L. RUSSELL of Salem. 

Professor of Zoology : 
J. W. P. JENKS of Middleboro'. 

Professor of Horticultural Chemistry, : 
A. A. HAYES of Boston. 



D 



g 



j- 



STAIDI!VG fOMMITTKKS, 

Executive Committee : 
The President, Chairman ; The Treasurer, J. S. Cabot, M. P. Wilder, Joseph Breck. 

For Establishing Premiums : 
Chairman of Committee on Fruits, Chairman ; Chairmen of Committees on Flow- 
ers, Vegetables, and Gardens, and Parker Barnes. 

On Finance: 
Josiah Stickney, Chairman ; Marshall P. Wilder, C. O. Whitmore. 

On the Library : 
Francis Parkman, Chairman ; W. H. Spooner, jr., G. W. Pratt, Leander Wetherell, 

R. McCleary Copeland. 

On Ornamental Gardening : 

W. R. Austin, Chairman; W7 C. Strong; Chairmen of Committees on Fruits, 

Flowers, and Vegetables; H. Weld Fuller, E. A., Story. 

On Fruits : 
J. S. Cabot, Chairman ; W. C. Strong, J. F. C. Hyde, P. B. Hovey, Fearing Burr, 

A. C. Bowditch, Eliphalet Stone. 

On Flowers: 
E. A. Story, < lhairman ; J. C. Hovev, J. McTear, C. H. B. Breck, A. Apple, 

E. W. Buswell, S. H. Gibbens. 

On Vegetables: r\ 

1). T. Curtis, Chairman; Franklin Winship, James Nugent, Azell Bowditch, vl? 

Abncr Pierce, B. Harrington, L. Whitcomb. 

On Synonymes of Fruit : 

Marshall P. Wilder, Chairman ; Josiah Stickney, C. M. Hovey, J. S. Cabot, 

Chairman of the Committee on Fruits. 

On Publication : 
Corresponding Secretary, Chairman ; Recording Secretary, E. W. Buswell, Chair- 
men of Committees on Flowers, Fruits, Vegetables, and Gardens. 

On Arrangements for the Annual Exhibition : 
P. B. Hovey, J. S. Cabot, J. F. C. Hyde, E. A. Storv, D. T. Cuitis, E. S. Hand, Jr., (* 
\V. C. Strong, W. J. Underwood, A. C. Bowditch, C. II. B. Breck, P. Barnes, 
F. L. Winship, and R. McCleary Copeland. 

CCp" The Annual Exhibition will be held SEPTEMBER 22, 23, 24 and 25.